9/24/2009
1
Bringing Software
Requirements to Life
David Walker
Product Owner
david.walker@microfocus.com
+1 401 267 8874
9/24/2009
2
bringing software requirements to life
means animating requirements to
animate people
• gain a real understand...
9/24/2009
3
requirements problems are a
subset of the systemic human
condition of poor
communication
http://www.flickr.com...
9/24/2009
4
http://fc07.deviantart.com/fs45/f/2009/112/c/7/Yggrasil__the_world_tree_by_AlphonseCapone.jpg
http://static.pa...
9/24/2009
5
http://www.greatlakesdigitalsalon.org/entries/CO/534-CO-1.jpg
9/24/2009
6
Babelcorp Inc.
PublicDomain
9/24/2009
7
“[project success rates] are a low
point in the last five study
periods. This year‟s results
represent the hig...
9/24/2009
8
ConfidentialCopyright © 2007 Borland Software Corporation. 15
The Source of Software Defects
Requirements
41%
...
9/24/2009
9
ConfidentialCopyright © 2007 Borland Software Corporation. 17
Relative Cost of Fixing a Defect
0
10
20
30
40
5...
9/24/2009
10
McKinsey & Co says…
“If a company is later to market
with a new product by only six
months, 33 percent of the...
9/24/2009
11
“Improving time to market by one
month improves profits by 12
percent”
Standish says…
9/24/2009
12
• “If a company is later to market with a
new product by only six months, 33
percent of the gross profit pote...
9/24/2009
13
http://www.getacoach.co.nz/images/Oct4/wealth1.jpg
9/24/2009
14
Blame Chain SME #1
Blame Chain SME #2 Blame Chain SME #6
Blame Chain SME #5
Blame Chain SME #3
Blame Chain SM...
9/24/2009
15
this is not easy…
and…it seems to be getting
harder…
9/24/2009
16
(but it doesn‟t have to be “no fun”)
bringing software requirements to life
must be fun
9/24/2009
17
http://ciocollaborative.org/wp-content/uploads/Complexity650-300.jpg
9/24/2009
18
http://www.idiagram.com/CP/cpprocess.html
http://www.globizer.net/service/dat/maps/default/0/0.jpg
9/24/2009
19
technical complexity & software
complexity
http://www.flickr.com/photos/nifmus/2385966735/sizes/o/
9/24/2009
20
http://www.flickr.com/photos/steevil/2755466776/sizes/o/
• Fatigue adj. (weariness, tiredness): temporary los...
9/24/2009
21
bringing software requirements to life
must be engaging
• Fatigue adj. (weariness, tiredness): temporary loss...
9/24/2009
22
Reflex: It hurts when I do this…
http://www.freewebs.com/nervous-system/doityourself.htm
http://www.tkk.fi/Yk...
9/24/2009
23
45
PublicDomain
9/24/2009
24
http://messingaboutinboats.typepad.com/sailing/images/2008/01/07/ugly_fish.jpg
What would you fix?
9/24/2009
25
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2139/2276620170_f1f717a84f.jpg
http://www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/help...
9/24/2009
26
9/24/2009
27
noise
ambiguity
un-reconciled viewpoints
assumptions
ikiwisi
bringing software requirements to life
drives cl...
9/24/2009
28
http://www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/help-with-english/NIS/interpreter_symbol_text.jpg
http://www.annik...
9/24/2009
29
"Teach me my most difficult concepts in my preferred style.
Let me explore easy concepts in a different style...
9/24/2009
30
vakt
Net Geners Learn Differently
– 10,000 hours playing
video games
– 20,000 hours on e-mail –
chat – blog
–...
9/24/2009
31
“Approximately 20 to 30 percent of the
school-aged population remembers
what is heard; 40 percent recalls wel...
9/24/2009
32
Adult Learners
According to Malcolm Knowles, adult learners have other learning characteristics, including:
•...
9/24/2009
33
bringing software requirements to life
must present the illusion of realism
bringing software requirements to...
9/24/2009
34
You‟re learners too – how do YOU
learn effectively ?
9/24/2009
35
If the only tool you have is a
hammer, you tend to see every
problem as a nail.
- Abraham Maslow
http://www.f...
9/24/2009
36
nullum gratuitum prandium
http://www.ethicurean.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/free-lunch.jpg
9/24/2009
37
Requirements Definition
9/24/2009
38
requirements <> definition
Requirements <> Definition
change the name - change the game
• be open to other al...
9/24/2009
39
jad
http://www.boxesandarrows.com/files/banda/card_sorting_a_definitive_guide/sampleSort.jpg
9/24/2009
40
http://www.sapdesignguild.org/resources/glossary_web/IMAGES/SV1.JPG
if you had to bet $1000 of your
own money…
9/24/2009
41
http://mickmcquaid.com/paper-proto.jpg
9/24/2009
42
what is simulation?
9/24/2009
43
proven in other industries
secures executive attention
9/24/2009
44
prototypes ask questions before they answer
them
9/24/2009
45
checklist
– don't take them too far
– need to be „real time‟ for collaboration
– need to get in front of as m...
9/24/2009
46
http://www.flickr.com/photos/defwheezer/18789500/sizes/o/
hello, world!
http://www.flickr.com/photos/slworkin...
9/24/2009
47
http://www.leadershipnow.com/leadingblog/images/process-explained.gif
Breaking the Fourth Wall
http://www.san...
9/24/2009
48
What needs to change
• roundtrip the conversation
• get through - not just give out
• repair relationships
• ...
9/24/2009
49
Be a Trim Tab
With respects to Buckminster Fuller:
“Something hit me very hard once, thinking
about what one ...
9/24/2009
50
Visual Language
http://www.flickr.com/photos/visualthinkmap/2533934877/sizes/l/
9/24/2009
51
visual language
this poses an ethical question
can we ethically continue to create our
content, in the same “...
9/24/2009
52
can we ethically not use interactive
approaches when defining
applications?
can we ethically not bring softwa...
9/24/2009
53
Bringing Software
Requirements to Life
David Walker
Product Owner
david.walker@microfocus.com
+1 401 267 8874
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Bringing Software Requirements to Life by David Walker (Micro Focus) - Sep 2009

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Tired of numbing statistics that continue to cite requirements as the root of all software project failure? Despite the proliferation of requirements management technologies, requirements problems persist. And, as application development processes increase in complexity, the requirements problem continues to grow - it costs software delivery organizations more than ever before in terms of budget, time-to-market, business value and customer goodwill. You may think you're managing your requirements, but the burning question is: What if you're managing the wrong requirements?

Requirements definition goes to the very core of application development - it is the underlying key to project success or failure, yet it is the single most neglected discipline within software development.

What are the hidden costs associated with poor requirements? It's much worse than you think.

Why traditional approaches to defining applications fail and will always fail.

How simulation and prototyping are different from what you do now and why it's worth trying.

Defining software requirements is a source of pain for most organizations - but for smart teams, it can be the area of greatest opportunity. Come on out and learn more!

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Bringing Software Requirements to Life by David Walker (Micro Focus) - Sep 2009

  1. 1. 9/24/2009 1 Bringing Software Requirements to Life David Walker Product Owner david.walker@microfocus.com +1 401 267 8874
  2. 2. 9/24/2009 2 bringing software requirements to life means animating requirements to animate people • gain a real understanding of the problem • see why traditional approaches don‟t work • become your inner educator • break down the 4th wall • tgim
  3. 3. 9/24/2009 3 requirements problems are a subset of the systemic human condition of poor communication http://www.flickr.com/photos/nelsonlai/1258727102/
  4. 4. 9/24/2009 4 http://fc07.deviantart.com/fs45/f/2009/112/c/7/Yggrasil__the_world_tree_by_AlphonseCapone.jpg http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/3272326.jpg
  5. 5. 9/24/2009 5 http://www.greatlakesdigitalsalon.org/entries/CO/534-CO-1.jpg
  6. 6. 9/24/2009 6 Babelcorp Inc. PublicDomain
  7. 7. 9/24/2009 7 “[project success rates] are a low point in the last five study periods. This year‟s results represent the highest failure rate in over a decade” -Standish Group (5/09) rework
  8. 8. 9/24/2009 8 ConfidentialCopyright © 2007 Borland Software Corporation. 15 The Source of Software Defects Requirements 41% Others 7% Data 6% Interface 6% Logic Design 28% Environment 5% Human 5% Documentation 2% Source: U.S. Air Force Project, F. Sheldon, 1992 “Reliability Measurement from Theory to Practice” ConfidentialCopyright © 2007 Borland Software Corporation. 16 Source: Dean Leffingwell, James Martin Rework typically accounts for 40% of total project cost Original Project Cost 60% Rework Cost 40% Cost of Rework Why Manage Requirements? Code 1% Other 4% Design 13%Requirements 82% Rework Efforts Requirements efforts account for over 80% of rework effort Size of Team Cost of Team Spending on Rework Potential RM Impact 100 $10,000,000 $4,000,000 $3,200,000
  9. 9. 9/24/2009 9 ConfidentialCopyright © 2007 Borland Software Corporation. 17 Relative Cost of Fixing a Defect 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Requirements Design Code Development Testing Acceptance Testing Operation RelativeCosttoCorrectaDefect Source: Barry W. Boehm, Software Engineering Economics http://www.flickr.com/photos/mzahra1/sets/72157606850556504/show/
  10. 10. 9/24/2009 10 McKinsey & Co says… “If a company is later to market with a new product by only six months, 33 percent of the gross profit potential is lost”
  11. 11. 9/24/2009 11 “Improving time to market by one month improves profits by 12 percent” Standish says…
  12. 12. 9/24/2009 12 • “If a company is later to market with a new product by only six months, 33 percent of the gross profit potential is lost” http://devcentral.f5.com/weblogs/images/devcentral_f5_com/weblogs/Joe/WindowsLiveWriter/PowerShellABCsQisforQueues_919A/queue_2.jpg
  13. 13. 9/24/2009 13 http://www.getacoach.co.nz/images/Oct4/wealth1.jpg
  14. 14. 9/24/2009 14 Blame Chain SME #1 Blame Chain SME #2 Blame Chain SME #6 Blame Chain SME #5 Blame Chain SME #3 Blame Chain SME #4 Blame Chain SME #7 Everyone knows requirements must be serious and difficult and you must remain seated at all times. No fun allowed.
  15. 15. 9/24/2009 15 this is not easy… and…it seems to be getting harder…
  16. 16. 9/24/2009 16 (but it doesn‟t have to be “no fun”) bringing software requirements to life must be fun
  17. 17. 9/24/2009 17 http://ciocollaborative.org/wp-content/uploads/Complexity650-300.jpg
  18. 18. 9/24/2009 18 http://www.idiagram.com/CP/cpprocess.html http://www.globizer.net/service/dat/maps/default/0/0.jpg
  19. 19. 9/24/2009 19 technical complexity & software complexity http://www.flickr.com/photos/nifmus/2385966735/sizes/o/
  20. 20. 9/24/2009 20 http://www.flickr.com/photos/steevil/2755466776/sizes/o/ • Fatigue adj. (weariness, tiredness): temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work • How many interesting excuses have you heard? Are they even making excuses any more? • Maybe we‟ll do better if we DON‟T participate…could it be worse? http://www.flickr.com/photos/1suisse/3476366880/sizes/l/
  21. 21. 9/24/2009 21 bringing software requirements to life must be engaging • Fatigue adj. (weariness, tiredness): temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work • How many interesting excuses have you heard? Are they even making excuses any more? • Maybe we‟ll do better if we DON‟T participate…could it be worse? • What prevents active engagement? Reflex and Momentum http://www.flickr.com/photos/1suisse/3476366880/sizes/l/
  22. 22. 9/24/2009 22 Reflex: It hurts when I do this… http://www.freewebs.com/nervous-system/doityourself.htm http://www.tkk.fi/Yksikot/Laiva/Kuvat/jahrevik.jpg
  23. 23. 9/24/2009 23 45 PublicDomain
  24. 24. 9/24/2009 24 http://messingaboutinboats.typepad.com/sailing/images/2008/01/07/ugly_fish.jpg What would you fix?
  25. 25. 9/24/2009 25 http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2139/2276620170_f1f717a84f.jpg http://www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/help-with-english/NIS/interpreter_symbol_text.jpg
  26. 26. 9/24/2009 26
  27. 27. 9/24/2009 27 noise ambiguity un-reconciled viewpoints assumptions ikiwisi bringing software requirements to life drives clearer communication
  28. 28. 9/24/2009 28 http://www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/help-with-english/NIS/interpreter_symbol_text.jpg http://www.annikeris.com/images/teacher_board.jpg
  29. 29. 9/24/2009 29 "Teach me my most difficult concepts in my preferred style. Let me explore easy concepts in a different style. Just don't teach me all the time in your preferred style and think I'm not capable of learning." A comment from Virleen M. Carlson, Center for Learning and Teaching, Cornell University http://www.bruceeisner.com/myers_briggs_types.gif
  30. 30. 9/24/2009 30 vakt Net Geners Learn Differently – 10,000 hours playing video games – 20,000 hours on e-mail – chat – blog – 20,000 hours watching TV – 10,000 hours on cell phones, and – under 5,000 hours reading – fast paced, highly stimulating presentations – increased interactivity with content & each other – information that relates to the learner‟s world – multiple options for obtaining knowledge. Susan El-Shamy. Training for the new and emerging generations. Quoted in http://scope.lidc.sfu.ca/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=521 By 21 years of age, They need:
  31. 31. 9/24/2009 31 “Approximately 20 to 30 percent of the school-aged population remembers what is heard; 40 percent recalls well visually the things that are seen or read; many must write or use their fingers in some manipulative way to help them remember basic facts; other people cannot internalize information or skills unless they use them in real-life activities…” (Teaching Students to Read Through Their Individual Learning Styles, Marie Carbo, Rita Dunn, and Kenneth Dunn; Prentice-Hall, 1986, p.13.) • lecture 5% • reading 10% • audio-visual 20% • demonstration 30% • discussion group 50% • practice by doing 75% • teaching others / immediate usage 90% comprehension: average retention rate after 24 hours http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/adapthandbook/learner/images/pyramid.gif
  32. 32. 9/24/2009 32 Adult Learners According to Malcolm Knowles, adult learners have other learning characteristics, including: • a requirement to know how the knowledge is of direct benefit, • a need to apply the knowledge through actual experience, • ability to learn quickly when the training content is considered to be of use, • a tendency to learn best when a problem-based approach is used, • a need for independence, but not enough to cause discomfort (e.g., some trainees are uncomfortable with role playing). bringing software requirements to life must be interactive
  33. 33. 9/24/2009 33 bringing software requirements to life must present the illusion of realism bringing software requirements to life must be in tune with the way they learn
  34. 34. 9/24/2009 34 You‟re learners too – how do YOU learn effectively ?
  35. 35. 9/24/2009 35 If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail. - Abraham Maslow http://www.flickr.com/photos/deadeyebart/sets/72057594122748485/show/
  36. 36. 9/24/2009 36 nullum gratuitum prandium http://www.ethicurean.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/free-lunch.jpg
  37. 37. 9/24/2009 37 Requirements Definition
  38. 38. 9/24/2009 38 requirements <> definition Requirements <> Definition change the name - change the game • be open to other alternatives – interviewing – JAD – card sorting – Ethnographic study – survey – prototyping / simulation 76
  39. 39. 9/24/2009 39 jad http://www.boxesandarrows.com/files/banda/card_sorting_a_definitive_guide/sampleSort.jpg
  40. 40. 9/24/2009 40 http://www.sapdesignguild.org/resources/glossary_web/IMAGES/SV1.JPG if you had to bet $1000 of your own money…
  41. 41. 9/24/2009 41 http://mickmcquaid.com/paper-proto.jpg
  42. 42. 9/24/2009 42 what is simulation?
  43. 43. 9/24/2009 43 proven in other industries secures executive attention
  44. 44. 9/24/2009 44 prototypes ask questions before they answer them
  45. 45. 9/24/2009 45 checklist – don't take them too far – need to be „real time‟ for collaboration – need to get in front of as many eyes as possible – needs to assist with management of feedback – need to easily communicate downstream – needs to integrate seamlessly into RDM – needs to support non-software processes as well – can't break the bank 89 http://www.flickr.com/photos/bart_/295339365/sizes/l/
  46. 46. 9/24/2009 46 http://www.flickr.com/photos/defwheezer/18789500/sizes/o/ hello, world! http://www.flickr.com/photos/slworking/3612764200/sizes/o/
  47. 47. 9/24/2009 47 http://www.leadershipnow.com/leadingblog/images/process-explained.gif Breaking the Fourth Wall http://www.sanantonio.gov/convfac/images/highrezpics/lilastage.JPG
  48. 48. 9/24/2009 48 What needs to change • roundtrip the conversation • get through - not just give out • repair relationships • be relevant – “own the problem” • define the systems that people want to use • Change is hard… 95 http://www.stevenmsmith.com/my-articles/article/the-satir-change-model.html
  49. 49. 9/24/2009 49 Be a Trim Tab With respects to Buckminster Fuller: “Something hit me very hard once, thinking about what one little man could do. Think of the Queen Mary -- the whole ship goes by and then comes the rudder. And there's a tiny thing at the edge of the rudder called a trim tab. It's a miniature rudder. Just moving the little trim tab builds a low pressure that pulls the rudder around. Takes almost no effort at all. So I said that the little individual can be a trim tab…” “So I said, call me Trim Tab.” http://cruiselinehistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/moittelcollectionmuseum001.jpg
  50. 50. 9/24/2009 50 Visual Language http://www.flickr.com/photos/visualthinkmap/2533934877/sizes/l/
  51. 51. 9/24/2009 51 visual language this poses an ethical question can we ethically continue to create our content, in the same “old prose” way, creating 23 to 89% more difficulty for readers, and hence, creating that much more suffering for them? can we ethically not use visual language? Robert E. Horn (paraphrased)
  52. 52. 9/24/2009 52 can we ethically not use interactive approaches when defining applications? can we ethically not bring software requirements to life?
  53. 53. 9/24/2009 53 Bringing Software Requirements to Life David Walker Product Owner david.walker@microfocus.com +1 401 267 8874

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