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Prostate cancer cause defined symptom risk factors
 

Prostate cancer cause defined symptom risk factors

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    Prostate cancer cause defined symptom risk factors Prostate cancer cause defined symptom risk factors Presentation Transcript

    • PROSTATE CANCER DEFINITION THE PROSTATE IS THE WALNUT –SHAPED GLAND PRODUCING THE SEMINAL FLUID, THEAT NOURISHES AND TRANSPORTS SPERM PROATATE CANCER IS A VERY PREVELANT FORM OF CANCER PROSTATE CANCER IS SLOW FORMING USUALLY REMAINS CONFINED INSIDE THE PROSTATE GLAND WITH EARLY DISCOVERY-YOUR TREATMENT HAS A BETTER SUCCESS RATE
    • Symptoms of Prostate Cancer  In the early stages, men may have no symptoms. Later, symptoms can include:  Frequent urination, especially at night  Difficulty starting or stopping urination  Weak or interrupted urinary stream  Painful or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation  Blood in urine or semen  Pelvic discomfort  Pain in bones
    • SOME OF THE FACTORS THAT INCREASE YOUR RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER INCLUDE :  AGE-PROSTATE CANCER’S RISK INCREASES WITH AGE. ITS MORE COMMON AMONG PEOPLE AGE 65+.  AFRO-AMERICANS-BLACK MEN ARE AT GREATER RISK. THEIR CANCER IS MORE LIKELY TO BE AGGRESSIVE.  FAMILY HISTORY-WHEN FAMILY MEMBERS HAVE HAD IT YOUR RISK FACTOR INCREASES  OBESITY-OBESE MEN ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE ADVANCED DISEASE & ARE MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TO TREAT RISK FACTORS
    • Questions to Ask Your Doctor  How aggressive is my cancer? What is the Gleason score of my prostate tumor? What are the results of my PSA and other tests?  How much time do I have to decide on an option?  Do my other health problems make any one option better for me?  Who else should I talk to about watchful waiting? Prostate surgery? Radiation? Hormone treatment?  What are my risks with this option?  What is the chance that my cancer will come back after treatment?  Which option will give me the least problems with erections? Leaking urine? Bowel urgency?  What is the chance I will be able to have a sex life after treatment?  How many treatments do you do a year?  Is there help for any side effects I might have?  What kind of follow-up care will I get
    • Enlarged Prostate or Prostate Cancer? The prostate can grow larger as men age, sometimes pressing on the bladder or urethra and causing symptoms similar to prostate cancer. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It's not cancer and can be treated if symptoms become bothersome. A third problem that can cause urinary symptoms is prostatitis. This inflammation or infection may also cause a fever and in many cases is treated with medicine.
    • What is screening? Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the things around us to see if they cause cancer. This information helps doctors recommend who should be screened for cancer, which screening tests should be used, and how often the tests should be done. It is important to remember that your doctor does not necessarily think you have cancer if he or she suggests a screening test. Screening tests are given when you have no cancer symptoms. Screening tests may be repeated on a regular basis. If a screening test result is abnormal, you may need to have more tests done to find out if you have cancer. These are called diagnostic tests.
    • The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against PSA screening in healthy men finding that the potential risks outweigh the potential benefits. Guidelines from the American Urological Association, and the American Cancer Society recommend that men be informed of the risks and benefits of screening. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends screening be discouraged in those who are expected to live less than ten years, while in those with a life expectancy of greater than ten years a decision should be made by the person in question based on the potential risks and benefits. In general, they conclude that based on recent research, "it is uncertain whether the benefits associated with PSA testing for prostate cancer screening are worth the harms associated with screening and subsequent unnecessary treatment." There is no standard or routine screening test for prostate cancer.
    • What Is Prostate Cancer? Prostate cancer develops in a man's prostate, the walnut-sized gland just below the bladder that produces some of the fluid in semen. It's the most common cancer in men after skin cancer. Prostate cancer often grows very slowly and may not cause significant harm. But some types are more aggressive and can spread quickly without treatment.
    • STAGES OF PROSTATE CANCER THE CAUSE OF PROSTATE CANCER ISN’T CLEAR TO PHYSICIANS WHEN THE PROCESS HAPPENS IT FORMS IN STAGES  STAGE I THIS IS WHEN THE CELLS IN THE PROSTATE BECOME ABNORMAL  STAGE II THE ABNORMAL CELLS & MUTATED DNA CAUSE THE CELL TO GROW RAPIDLY  STAGE III THE CELL SURVIVE & A TUMOR IS FORMED THAT INVADE NEARBY TISSUE  STAGE IV WHEN SOME OF THE ABNORMAL CELLS MIGHT METASTISIZE (MOVE TO OTHER BODY PARTS)
    • Prostate-specific antigen test  A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a test that measures the level of PSA in the blood.  PSA is a substance made mostly by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.  The level of PSA may also be high in men who have an infection or inflammation of the prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; an enlarged, but noncancerous, prostate).  If a man has a high PSA level and a biopsy of the prostate does not show cancer, a prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) test may be done.  This test measures the amount of PCA3 in the urine. If the PCA3 level is high, another biopsy may help diagnose prostate cancer.  Scientists are studying the combination of PSA testing and digital rectal exam as a way to get more accurate results from the screening tests.
    • Digital rectal exam  Digital rectal exam (DRE) is an exam of the rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the lower part of the rectum to feel the prostate for lumps or anything else that seems unusual.  Digital rectal exam (DRE). The doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate to check for anything abnormal.
    • Types of standard treatment are used:  Watchful waiting or active surveillance  Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change.  Active surveillance is closely following a patient's condition without giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results.  It is used to find early signs that the condition is getting worse. In active surveillance, patients are given certain exams and tests, including biopsies, on a regular schedule.
    • What Are the Advantages of Laparoscopy?  As is the case with other minimally invasive procedures, laparoscopic prostate removal has significant advantages over traditional surgery:  Laparoscopy can shorten your hospital stay to one or two days. About 50% of men are discharged one day after surgery. (The length of stay depends on how quickly you recover and the extent of the surgery).  There is much less bleeding during the operation.  You are less likely to need prescription painkillers after you leave the hospital. Patients often need nothing more than Tylenol.  At your follow-up appointment one week after surgery, the tube, or catheter, draining your bladder will be removed if there are no signs of other problems. Occasionally, the catheter remains in place for another week, as with conventional surgery.  About 90% of patients can return to work or resume full activity in only two to three weeks.
    • Radiation Radiation kills the cancer cells. The goal is to target the cancer and avoid hurting normal parts of the body. Radiation can be given in two ways—external beam radiation or brachytherapy. Sometimes the two kinds of radiation are used together. External beam radiation uses radiation from a machine to target the prostate gland. This kind of radiation takes place in a hospital or clinic. The radiation is given a few minutes a day for about 6 to 8 weeks. Brachytherapy (also called radiation “seeding”) uses a needle to put small seeds of radiation into the cancer inside the prostate gland. This usually requires a trip to the hospital or clinic. The seeds inside the prostate gland slowly release radiation over time.
    • Hormone Treatment  Testosterone is a hormone made by the body. It causes prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone treatment lowers or blocks the body’s testosterone. This helps to slow or stop the growth of cancer cells.  What do we know about hormone treatments? Hormone treatments come in shots or pills. Most of the research about hormone medicines is on these drugs—leuprolide (Lupron®, Viadur®, Eligard®), goserelin (Zoladex®), flutamide (Eulexin®), and bicalutamide (Casodex®).  Hormone medicines are often combined with prostate surgery or radiation. Hormone treatment can also be used by itself.  Most of the research is about combining hormone medicines with other types of prostate cancer treatments.  There is less research about using hormone medicines on their own.  Bicalutamide (Casodex®) is a pill that does not work for localized prostate cancer.  This is true whether it is used by itself, with prostate surgery, or with external beam radiation.  Research can’t tell us if using other hormone treatments on their own can stop localized prostate cancer from spreading.
    • LATEST CLINICAL TRIALS TREATMENTS  NEW NON-INVASIVE ALTERNATE TREATMENT WITH ALBATHERIN HIFU CURRENTELY AT THE CLEVELAND CLINIC IN CANADA,IT IS SAID TO HAVE FEWER SIDE EFFECTS. DRUGS  A CHOLESTEROL DRUG SLASHES PROSTATE CANCER DEATHS,ITS CALLED STATINS . USED AT THE PROSTATE CANCER RESEARCH PROGRAM IN THE FRED HUTCHINSON CANCER RESEARCH CENTER OF SEATTLE.
    • Side Effects of Treatment  All prostate cancer treatments can cause side effects. The most common side effects are sexual, urinary, and bowel problems. Some of these problems happen soon after treatment and others develop over time. Talk to your doctor or nurse if you have any of these side effects. There may be a way to help.  Erectile dysfunction (ED) means not being able to keep an erection for intercourse. ED is the most common long-lasting side effect. It can happen with any treatment.  Urinary problems are another long-lasting side effect. This can mean leaking or dribbling urine. It can also mean sometimes not being able to hold your urine at all. Urinary problems are more common after surgery than with other treatments.  Bowel problems can also be a long-lasting side effect. This can mean sometimes having "bowel urgency" (needing to have a bowel movement right away and not being able to wait). Long-lasting bowel problems are more common after external beam radiation or hormone treatment than after prostate surgery or with watchful waiting.  Hormone treatments can have other side effects. They can cause hot flashes, breast swelling, and loss of sex drive. They can also cause tiredness, depression, and memory problems. Hormone treatments can weaken bones and raise the chance they will break.  57 out of 100 men who take hormone medicines have hot flashes (sudden feeling of warmth and sweating).  25 out of 100 men who take hormone medicines have breast swelling.
    • COUNSELING AND THERAPY TO NAME A FEW METHODS OF PROSTATE CANCER COUNSELING & SUPPORT GROUPS:  INDIVIDUAL FAMILY COUNSELING THERE ARE MIND & BODY THERAPIES AVAILABLE AT THE CANCER TREATMENT CENTERS OF AMERICA (CTCA).THIS PREPARES A PATIENT OF ALL OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO THEM & THEIR FAMILIES  LAUGHTER THERAPY LAUGHTER TENDS TO REDUCE STRESS, IMPROVE PAIN, & BALANCE B/P  GUIDED IMAGERY THIS SORT OF THERAPY IS A RELAXATION TECHNIQUE. IT TEACHES PATIENTS TO USE POSITIVE MENTAL IMAGES TO HELP MANAGE STRESS, PHYSICAL DISCOMFORT, PAIN NAUSEA, & ANXIETY.
    • Where can I get more information? Where can I get a copy of this guide?  For more information about prostate cancer treatment, research, and support, visit the Medline Plus Web site: www.nlm.nih.gov/Medline plus/prostatecancer.html  For more information about screening for prostate cancer, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: www.cdc.gov/cancer/prostate/publications/decision guide  For more information about prostate cancer treatment and research, visit the National Cancer Institute Web site: www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/prostate  For an electronic copy of this guide and materials about choosing treatments and medicines for other medical conditions, visit this Web site: www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov  For a free print copy call: The AHRQ Publications Clearinghouse (800)358-9295 Ask for AHRQ Publication Number 08-EHC010-2A