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Chordates

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    • 1. The Chordates
    • 2. Class Osteichthyes * fish with bony skeletons * most breathe exclusively through gills * most are ectothermic, but some (swordfish and tuna, for example) have a primitive capability of internally regulating body temperature * usually externally fertilized eggs, but some fertilize internally * some species are hermaphrodites * sometimes reproduce by parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction in which organism develops from an unfertilized egg)
    • 3. Example -Amphiprion akindynos The Barrier Reef Anemonefish cc licensed flickr photo by richard ling: http://flickr.com/photos/rling/4004358946/
    • 4. Class Amphibia * metamorphose from aquatic juvenile form to air breathing adult form * 4 legs * lay eggs in water (a few exhibit complete internal development even passing through juvenile form internally) * bare skin * adults have primitive lungs but most also breathe through their skin * 3 chambered heart
    • 5. Example - Spea hammondii Western Spadefoot Toad cc licensed flickr photo by squamatologist: http://flickr.com/photos/squamatologist/2243856850/
    • 6. Class Reptilia * air-breathing * cold-blooded * most reproduce sexually, parthenogenesis is also known * lay tough shelled eggs, some carry eggs internally so the young hatch internally * skin is covered by scales * heart consists of 3 chambers * 2 atria bring blood into the heart * 1 ventricle sends blood out from heart which can be partially divided * most are carnivores with short guts * digestion occurs slowly due to low metabolism
    • 7. Example - Varanus komodoensis Komodo Dragon cc licensed flickr photo by Ken Lund: http://flickr.com/photos/kenlund/3712780657/
    • 8. Class Aves * 4 limbs - 2 wings and 2 legs * Bipedal - walk upright on hind limbs (legs) * warm-blooded * lay hard-shelled eggs * body covered with feathers * mouth includes a beak with no teeth * high metabolic rate with a 4 chambered heart to rapidly and effeciently carry oxygen to body cells * lightweight skeleton * most can fly - some have wings adapted for other functions * Large brain, relative to size. Visual and flight control areas are most developed.
    • 9. Example - Aptenodytes forsteri Emperor Penguin cc licensed flickr photo by elisfanclub: http://flickr.com/photos/elisfanclub/4270190237/
    • 10. Class Mammalia * 4 limbs * some forms are bipedal * some have front limbs adapted for aquatic habitats * air-breathing * endothermic - internally regulate body temperature * high metabolism with 4 chambered heart * body covered with fur or hair * internal fertilization, most have internal development of embryo/fetus leading to live birth * females nurse young * sweat glands (including mammary glands to produce milk)
    • 11. Example - Balaenoptera musculus Blue Whale cc licensed flickr photo by flickkerphotos: http://flickr.com/photos/38504374@N02/3600141170/
    • 12. What about us?
    • 13. Domain: Eukarya • Large brains Kingdom: Animalia • Highly developed visual cortex Phylum: Chordates Class: Mammalia • Vision is stereoscopic and detects 3 Order: Primates colours • 5 digits on limbs with opposable thumbs; well developed tactile sense on ends of digits • Wide range of movement in shoulder joint • reduced number of teeth compared to other mammals
    • 14. Domain: Eukarya • Relatively large Kingdom: Animalia • No tail Phylum: Chordates Class: Mammalia • Use hands for gathering food, tool Order: Primates use Family: Hominidae • Exhibit some degree of bipedalism (knuckle walking in most) • Omnivorous with fruit being preferred food (except in humans)
    • 15. Domain: Eukarya • Includes humans and closely Kingdom: Animalia related species Phylum: Chordates Class: Mammalia • All extinct except modern humans Order: Primates • Homo neanderthalis died out Family: Hominidae 24000 years ago Genus: Homo • Homo floresiensis died out 12000 years ago (controversial) • Large brain with highly developed cerebrum • Tool use • Sparse hair covering body
    • 16. Domain: Eukarya • Modern humans Kingdom: Animalia • Highly developed brain, capable of Phylum: Chordates language, reasoning and problem- Class: Mammalia solving Order: Primates Family: Hominidae • Upright body Genus: Homo • Childbirth is relatively dangerous Species: Homo sapiens due to large cranial size of young and relatively narrow pelvis (needed for fully upright posture) • Omnivorous with a wide variety of diets (from vegan to mostly carnivore) • Use fire to cook food