OPTIMUM DESIGNS FOR SOLAR WATER HEATING EQUIPMENT FOR THE SINGLE FAMILY HOME by Francis de Winter (fdw@ecotopia.com) at th...
Los Angeles circa 1900 <ul><li>Climax Solar Heaters </li></ul><ul><li>The skies were still clear </li></ul>
Los Angeles circa 1907 <ul><li>6 Climax Solar Heaters </li></ul>
Pomona 1911 <ul><li>Day and Night Solar Water Heater </li></ul>
Horseless Carriage Circa 1900 <ul><li>When the age of car started, many local blacksmiths, who had been building horse-pow...
Horseless Carriage Circa 1900 <ul><li>An even better horseless carriage. </li></ul>
A Solar DHW Equivalent of the Horseless Carriage (1890-2010) <ul><li>The One-Tank Solar Water Heating “System.” </li></ul>
Another Solar DHW Equivalent of the Horseless Carriage (1890-2010) <ul><li>The Two-Tank Solar Water Heating “System.” </li...
The Two-Tank Solar Water Heating System in Practice <ul><li>A Two-Tank “System” with a really pathetic backup heater: a Ce...
Actual DHW Consumption Behavior <ul><li>This is the weekly DHW consumption behavior of a family with a “reasonably stable ...
Actual DHW Consumption Behavior <ul><li>Two typical months. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that during the vacations there is no D...
Actual DHW Consumption Behavior <ul><li>Another two typical months. </li></ul>
A “Piggyback” One-Tank Design <ul><li>This stacked one-tank design could incorporate a stratification baffle to preserve t...
Test Setup for the Development of the Two-Tank Stacked Tank Design <ul><li>The bottom (solar) tank was heated electrically...
Tank Coupling Experiment <ul><li>Tank coupling with an empty neck. </li></ul>
Tank Coupling Experiment <ul><li>Tank coupling with a double-chimney thermal diode. </li></ul><ul><li>The neck thermal tra...
A Reasonable System Design for the Single Family Home <ul><li>The collector loop involves a drain-back annulus </li></ul><...
Actual Hardware <ul><li>Solar DHW unit with gas-fired backup heating developed and built for GRI. </li></ul>
Inter-Tank Diode Chimney <ul><li>The double chimney simply involves a split plastic tube. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the un...
Inter-Tank Diode Chimney <ul><li>Another view of the chimney. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the unit built for GRI. </li></ul>
GRI Prototype <ul><li>Two heaters like this were built for GRI. </li></ul><ul><li>This one was on life-test in Hawaii for ...
Two Phase ThermoSyphon (TPTS) Backup Heating Device US Patent 4,393,663 (now expired) <ul><li>Two Phase ThermoSyphon (TPTS...
Large TPTS Gas-Fired Water Heater <ul><li>This has a tank of 450 liters, and a gas firing rate of 59 kW thermal. </li></ul...
Current TPTS Design <ul><li>The current TPTS design features a helical condenser inserted through the bottom of the tank. ...
Solar Water Heater Sales Potential <ul><li>This table shows the water heater sales history. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the ...
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OPTIMUM DESIGNS FOR SOLAR WATER HEATING EQUIPMENT FOR THE SINGLE FAMILY HOME

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OPTIMUM DESIGNS FOR SOLAR WATER HEATING EQUIPMENT FOR THE SINGLE FAMILY HOME
Francis de Winter
XVII Simposio Peruano de Energía Solar - IV ISES-CLA
Blog Soluciones solares (solucionessolares.blogspot.com)

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OPTIMUM DESIGNS FOR SOLAR WATER HEATING EQUIPMENT FOR THE SINGLE FAMILY HOME

  1. 1. OPTIMUM DESIGNS FOR SOLAR WATER HEATING EQUIPMENT FOR THE SINGLE FAMILY HOME by Francis de Winter (fdw@ecotopia.com) at the IV Latin American Solar Energy Conference of ISES Cusco, Peru, November 1-5, 2010
  2. 2. Los Angeles circa 1900 <ul><li>Climax Solar Heaters </li></ul><ul><li>The skies were still clear </li></ul>
  3. 3. Los Angeles circa 1907 <ul><li>6 Climax Solar Heaters </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pomona 1911 <ul><li>Day and Night Solar Water Heater </li></ul>
  5. 5. Horseless Carriage Circa 1900 <ul><li>When the age of car started, many local blacksmiths, who had been building horse-powered carriages for decades, felt they had all the skills that were needed. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Horseless Carriage Circa 1900 <ul><li>An even better horseless carriage. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Solar DHW Equivalent of the Horseless Carriage (1890-2010) <ul><li>The One-Tank Solar Water Heating “System.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Another Solar DHW Equivalent of the Horseless Carriage (1890-2010) <ul><li>The Two-Tank Solar Water Heating “System.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Two-Tank Solar Water Heating System in Practice <ul><li>A Two-Tank “System” with a really pathetic backup heater: a Central-Flue gas-fired water heater. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Actual DHW Consumption Behavior <ul><li>This is the weekly DHW consumption behavior of a family with a “reasonably stable water use pattern.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Actual DHW Consumption Behavior <ul><li>Two typical months. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that during the vacations there is no DHW consumption. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Actual DHW Consumption Behavior <ul><li>Another two typical months. </li></ul>
  13. 13. A “Piggyback” One-Tank Design <ul><li>This stacked one-tank design could incorporate a stratification baffle to preserve thermal stratification </li></ul>
  14. 14. Test Setup for the Development of the Two-Tank Stacked Tank Design <ul><li>The bottom (solar) tank was heated electrically to develop the inter-tank neck design that would provide the best coupling of the tanks. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tank Coupling Experiment <ul><li>Tank coupling with an empty neck. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tank Coupling Experiment <ul><li>Tank coupling with a double-chimney thermal diode. </li></ul><ul><li>The neck thermal transfer is equal to seven times its conductivity in copper. </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Reasonable System Design for the Single Family Home <ul><li>The collector loop involves a drain-back annulus </li></ul><ul><li>A thermal diode is used to couple the tanks </li></ul><ul><li>A thermal diode provides backup heating </li></ul>
  18. 18. Actual Hardware <ul><li>Solar DHW unit with gas-fired backup heating developed and built for GRI. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Inter-Tank Diode Chimney <ul><li>The double chimney simply involves a split plastic tube. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the unit developed and built for DOE. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Inter-Tank Diode Chimney <ul><li>Another view of the chimney. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the unit built for GRI. </li></ul>
  21. 21. GRI Prototype <ul><li>Two heaters like this were built for GRI. </li></ul><ul><li>This one was on life-test in Hawaii for 9 years. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Two Phase ThermoSyphon (TPTS) Backup Heating Device US Patent 4,393,663 (now expired) <ul><li>Two Phase ThermoSyphon (TPTS) Backup Heating Device. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the original patent embodiment. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Large TPTS Gas-Fired Water Heater <ul><li>This has a tank of 450 liters, and a gas firing rate of 59 kW thermal. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be a gas-fired backup heater for a large solar DHW system. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Current TPTS Design <ul><li>The current TPTS design features a helical condenser inserted through the bottom of the tank. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Solar Water Heater Sales Potential <ul><li>This table shows the water heater sales history. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the sales are to replace leaking heaters. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are for single family homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar DHW sales may be even larger. </li></ul><ul><li>Many heaters may be replaced before they start leaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Government incentives may help. </li></ul>

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