Jefferson’s Party, the Democrat-Republicans were now known simply as Republicans. (Not related to the present day Republican party)
His election was seen as something like a “revolution”, an indication that the people wanted change.
His inauguration proved to the world that the young nation could make political change without violence- something very unusual at the time.
Jefferson was the first President to take the oath of office in the new capital of Washington, D.C.
He was sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall.
Jefferson wanted to make government more democratic, providing all people with equal rights.
Jefferson wants to cut the federal budget.
Wants to lower taxes.
He appoints Albert Gallatin as Secretary of the Treasury.
Lowering the National Debt
Gallatin and Jefferson cut the military spending
The army was cut from 4,000 to 2,500 men.
Similar cuts were made to the navy.
The US naval fleet was reduced from 25 to 7 ships.
They also cut the staff of the executive branch to reduce government spending.
These measures helped cut the national debt from $83 million to $45 million.
No Internal taxes
The unpopular excise taxes on whiskey and other products was repealed.
All internal taxes were ended.
The only source of money would be from tariffs on imports and revenue from the sale of Western lands.
He allowed the Alien and Sedition Acts to expire in 1801 without renewing them.
Conflict with the Judicial Branch
The Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801.
Many “midnight judges” were impeached.
Impeachment means bringing charges against a public official.
Marbury vs Madison
One of the midnight judges William Marbury was not allowed to take his position as justice of the peace in the District of Columbia (D.C.)
Jefferson had instructed new Secretary of State James Madison not send Marbury the necessary paper work.
Marbury asked the Supreme Court to order Madison to carry out his duties.
The Supreme Court ruled that Marbury had the right to his position.
But the court would not force Madison to hand it over to him.
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.
More power for the Supreme Court
This was the first time the Supreme Court ruled a law passed by Congress was unconstitutional.
This power is called judicial review .
The Supreme Court ruling on Marbury v. Madison set a precedent , a model that later lawyers and judges would follow.
From then on the Supreme Court could use the power of judicial review as a check against the other branches of government.
The Louisiana Purchase 11-2
In 1800 the western border of the US was the Mississippi River.
Spain still controlled the lower Mississippi and the port of New Orleans.
Americans who depended on the port of New Orleans to ship products downriver for export were often harassed by Spanish officials.
Shipping on the Mississippi River
Spain had ceded , or granted the land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains to France in a secret treaty in 1800
When Jefferson learned of the treaty he saw that it held possible dangers for the United States.
Napoleon Bonaparte , the French dictator, had plans to conquer Europe and Jefferson thought he may also want to build an empire in North America.
Jefferson sent an ambassador, Robert Livingston, to France to make an offer to buy New Orleans and Florida.
He sent James Monroe to make the purchase, with an offer up to $10 million.
Napoleon was in over his head in European battles.
He abandoned his idea of a North American empire.
He would rather sell the Louisiana Territory to the US than see it fall into the hands of Great Britain .
Now Livingston and Monroe had the authority to buy just New Orleans and Florida for $10 million.
But the French government offered them the entire Louisiana Territory, from the Mississippi to the Rockies.
In May of 1803 the United States and France signed a treaty giving the US the Louisiana Territory for $15 million.
The addition of the Louisiana Territory doubled the size of the United States.
Lp video here
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were sent into the Louisiana Territory to lead an expedition to explore the vast new American land .
Jefferson instructed Lewis and Clark to :
Find the source of the Missouri river.
Find a usable route across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
Observe the customs of the Native Americans they met.
Document the features of the land, the weather, the plants and animals they saw.
Lewis and Clark timeline
Spring 1804-the expedition leaves St. Louis, Missouri.
Winter 1804- They expedition camps at Fort Mandan, near North Dakota.
Spring 1805-they meet Sacajawea who would guide them through the Rocky Mountains.
Fall 1805- the expedition reaches the Pacific Ocean.
Spring 1806- the expedition prepares to go home.
Fall 1806- the expedition reaches St. Louis.
L and C video here
Significance of the expedition
The Lewis and Clark expedition travelled 8,000 miles and took two years and four months to complete.
It fully satisfied all Jefferson’s hopes.
They brought back a wealth of information about wildlife, resources, and Native Americans in the Louisiana territory.
It strengthened the United States claim to the Oregon Country.
Zebulon Pike led a similar expedition to the upper Mississippi River and Colorado. He discovered the tall mountain in Colorado now known as Pike’s Peak in 1806.
Troubles with France and Britain 11-3
In 1801 the leader (pasha) of Tripoli increased the amount of tribute he wanted from the US to keep the Barbary Coast pirates away from American ships.
Jefferson refused, and ordered a blockade of the port of Tripoli.
An American ship, the Philadelphia ran aground off Tripoli and pirates captured the ship’s crew.
To prevent the pasha from using the ship, American Commodore Edward Preble orders the ship destroyed.
Stephen Decatur led a raiding party into the harbor of Tripoli at night and set it on fire.
The war with Tripoli ended in 1805 when the pasha signed a peace treaty ending the payment of tribute.
The US had to pay a ransom of $60,ooo for the return of its captured sailors.
Barbary War video here
Neutrality Challenged Again
In 1803 Great Britain and France were at war again.
This conflict affected American trade.
Jefferson declared the US neutral during the Napoleonic Wars.
But both France and Britain would stop any American ship going to the other’s ports.
The British continued its practice of impressing American sailors.
The British navy claimed that some American sailors were actually deserters who were still subjects of the king.
A deserter is a sailor who left a British warship to sail on American ships.
Although some American sailors were British deserters, many others were American citizens.
Despite American protest, the British continued the practice of impressment
The US warship Chesapeake was stopped by the British Leopard to be searched for British deserters.
When the commander of the Chesapeake refused, the Leopard opened fire.
Three Americans were killed and others wounded.
The British took four suspected deserters, three of whom were Americans.
The Chesapeake limped back to its home port as Americans were outraged.
Many called on Jefferson to go to war with Britain.
A Ban on Foreign Trade
Jefferson believed the US was still not strong enough to go to war against the strongest navy in the world.
He ordered an embargo , an official government ban, on trade with Great Britain and France.
He hoped it would hurt their war efforts enough to stop seizing American sailors.
Congress passed the Embargo Act in December 1807.
All American ships and their cargo were prohibited from leaving the US for foreign ports.
It was a disaster for American trade and for Jefferson's popularity.
American harbors became crowded with ships and cargo with no place to go.
50,000 sailors were out of work.
100,000 other workers lost their jobs.
Businesses failed and many people were imprisoned for debt.
Even the government lost millions of dollars on lost tariffs.
Election of 1808
Jefferson chose not to run for a third term.
James Madison , a republican becomes President.
A few days before he left office Congress repealed the Embargo Act.
It was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act , which allowed American trade with any nation except France and Great Britain.
Non Intercourse Act video here
The Non-Intercourse Act was replaced in 1810 by Macon’s Bill No. 2, which stated that if either France or Great Britain agreed to respect neutral rights, the United States would cut off trade with the other.
The War Hawks 11-4
The Non –Intercourse Act helped improve the economy.
But it did little to force France and Britain to respect US neutral rights.
France decided to lift its restrictions on American trade in 1810.
So President Madison cut off trade with Great Britain.
Native American Resistance
As more Americans moved west of the Appalachians, they displaced the Native Americans living there.
The British in Canada supplied the Native Americans with guns and ammunition.
In 1808, A Shawnee chief named Tecumseh began to form a confederation of all Native Americans east of the Mississippi River.
Tecumseh’s brother, Tenskwata, was a shaman , or religious leader. He was known as “The Prophet”.
They founded a settlement on the Tippecanoe River called Prophetstown.
The Prophet called on his people to retain their own ways and reject those of white settlers. Tecumseh stressed to the native American nations that there was strength in unity,. William Henry Harrison, the governor and military commander in the Indian Territory met with Tecumseh in 1810. When Harrison refused to give up some land taken from the Native Americans, Tecumseh threatened war.
In the fall of 1810 Tecumseh leaves Prophetstown to seek alliances with the Creek Nation and others in the Southeast.
Harrison feared the growing strength of the confederation.
While Tecumseh was away, Harrison decided to attack Prophetstown.
Battle of Tippecanoe
When Harrison and 1,000 soldiers arrive at Prophetstown, the Prophet panicked and led his warriors into what is known as the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Many soldiers and warriors died, and Prophetstown was burned.
This would become the first battle in a long, deadly war between Native Americans and white settlers on the frontier.
A Call for War
Americans now had two reasons to be angry at Britain.
1. The continuing trouble at sea insulted American pride and hurt trade.
2. The conflicts on the frontier, with British support, hurt westward expansion.
The War Hawks
People who urged war with Britain were known as war hawks .
As trouble on the sea and the frontier continued, the number of war hawks increased.
The harsh winter of 1811-1812, along with the American embargo, caused great hardship for the British.
The British , desperate for help, repealed the orders for interference in American shipping.
But before President Madison learned the Britain had changed its policy, he asked Congress to declare war against Great Britain on June 18, 1812
In 1812 the United States was not prepared for war.
The army had a small force of soldiers led by inexperienced officers.
The navy had fewer than 20 ocean-going ships.
The US paid privateers, or armed ships owned by citizens, to fight.
The Campaign for Canada
Britain's last holding in North America was Canada.
The US planned a three-way invasion of Canada from Detroit, from Fort Niagara on Lake Ontario, and from Lake Champlain in New York .
All three campaigns failed. Detroit was surrendered to the British, who held it for more than a year.
More US defeats came in the west. In the Northwest Territory, British and native American forces captured Fort Michilimackinac in Michigan and Fort Dearborn (Chicago).
At sea, the little US navy had no chance against the British fleet.
The US frigate Constitution won a decisive battle against
the British ship Guerriere.
The Constitution’s crew, proud that the ship’s oak hull resisted British guns, called it
More American victories occurred in 1813.
In April American forces captured the city of York (Toronto) the capital of Upper Canada. The city was burned by the Americans.
On Lake Erie, Oliver Hazard Perry assembled a fleet of small ships and attacked British warships.
It got the British out of Detroit and increased confidence.
In October 1813, General William Henry Harrison defeated 600 British and 1000 Native Americans led by Tecumseh in the Battle of the Thames River .
Tecumseh was killed in the battle.
The British Invasion
In 1814 a new British army arrives in the Chesapeake Bay, near Jamestown, Virginia.
On August 24, 1814, Americans were shocked when British troops captured Washington, D.C. The Americans were outnumbered 1000 to 6000.
President Madison and his cabinet fled the city to avoid capture.
The British burned the capital city for revenge for the burning of the Canadian capital of York.
The White House and many other buildings were destroyed.
Confident that the British had won the war with the burning of Washington, D.C., they moved on to attack the harbor at Baltimore, Maryland in September.
For 25 hours the British bombarded Fort McHenry.
And the bombs bursting in air…
The troops at Fort McHenry finally forced the British army to retreat.
Francis Scott Key, watching the bombardment of the fort, wrote the words to the Star Spangled Banner.
1812 video here
The Star Spangled Banner
Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? On the shore dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream: 'T is the star-spangled banner: O, long may it wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
The Battle of New Orleans
Late in 1814 British forces planned to invade the United States from the south, at new Orleans.
General Andrew Jackson, Old Hickory , hid sharpshooters behind bales of cotton who fired at 8,000 British soldiers sent to capture the city.
In the Battle of New Orleans more than 2,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded.
The United States lost only about 20 soldiers.
What neither side knew was that the Battle of New Orleans was needless. Because communications were slow, neither side knew that more than two weeks earlier, the United States and Britain had signed a peace treaty in Ghent, Belgium.
Treaty of Ghent
Signed on Christmas Eve 1814, the Treaty of Ghent ended the war but settled nothing.
It did not deal with the rights of American ships or the impressment of American sailors.
Neither side gained or lost territory.
Most Americans felt proud and self-confident at the end of the War of 1812.
The young nation had gained new respect from other nations in the world.
Americans felt a new sense of patriotism and a strong national identity.