The Restoration and Glorious Revolution
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The Restoration and Glorious Revolution

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The Restoration and Glorious Revolution The Restoration and Glorious Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • England after the Cromwells
  • After 10 years of strict Cromwellian rule, the English people were ready for a change
  • After being recalled in 1659, Parliament voted to bring back a Stuart to become England’s next king
  • Charles II becomes king
    • English people were thrilled when Charles II took the throne in 1660
    • His reign (1660-1885) is known as the Restoration because the monarchy was restored after the Cromwells were in power
  • Charles II lets the good times roll
    • Charles II was known as “the merry monarch” because he restored:
    • *theatre
    • *sporting events
    • *dancing
  • The arts flourished under Charles II
    • Comedies were very popular, and women appeared on stage for the first time
  • Charles II was no fool
    • Charles learned from his father and grandfather’s mistakes
    • He rejected the “divine right of king” idea
    • He wanted to give religious freedom to Protestants and Catholics, but Parliament maintained that the Church of England was the only legal religion
  • Legal Reforms
    • In 1679, Parliament passed the habeus corpus law
    • This law guaranteed every person a right to a trial if accused of a crime
    • The King could no longer imprison anyone just because they criticized the King
    • It also prevented the King from denying a person of a trial by jury
    • This remains a cornerstone of Western law
  • Charles II in trouble
    • Charles II eventually gets into trouble over the usual things:
    • *religion
    • and
    • *money
  • Charles II and Louis XIV
    • Because Charles II needed and wanted extra money, he made a deal with King Louis XIV of France
    • Charles secretly agreed to convert to Catholicism if Louis XIV hooked him up with some extra cash
    • While this was a secret, many English people knew the King was fond of Catholicism.
    • They also knew that Charles II had a Catholic brother who was next in line to the throne
  • Political Parties Appear
    • Two parties were formed during Charles II reign, one party supported his brother as King, one party was opposed to his brother as King
  • The Whigs
    • Whigs were opposed to Charles’ brother as king
  • Tories
    • Tories supported Charles’ brother as future king
  • Death of Charles II
    • Charles II dies in 1685 and his brother James II becomes king
    • James II believed in the divine right of kings and was not interested in Parliament’s opinions
  • James II in trouble
    • James II makes some decisions which quickly make him an unpopular king
  • What makes James II unpopular with both Whigs and Tories?
    • He appointed Catholics to high office
    • He dissolved Parliament and never recalled it
    • He stationed 13,000 soldiers outside London, was he preparing to force England to accept Catholicism?
    • His second wife had a son in 1688 that would likely become a Catholic English King
    • England wanted no part of a line of future Catholic kings
  • William and Mary to replace Charles II?
    • Charles II’s first wife was a Protestant who had a daughter named Mary
    • Mary was married to a Dutch prince, William of Orange
    • Whigs and Tories schemed to replace Charles II with William and Mary
    • William landed in England in 1688 and marched with his army to London
  • Charles II’s army deserted him so he decided to sail to France and live out his life in exile. The ascendancy of William and Mary is known as the Bloodless or Glorious Revolution
  • The English Bill of Rights (1689)
    • Establishes Parliament as more powerful than the monarchy
    • No suspension of Parliament’s laws
    • No taxes without consent of Parliament
    • No interfering with freedom of speech
    • No standing army during peacetime
    • No excessive bail in courts
    • No penalty for criticizing king
    • William and Mary agreed to all of these points!
  • The Last Word
    • 2 English philosophers theorized about whether people had the right to overthrow a monarch.
    • These men were Thomas Hobbes and John Locke
  • Thomas Hobbes
    • In his book, Leviathan , Hobbes argued that men were wicked by nature
    • He wrote that an absolute monarchy was the best form of government to keep people from destroying themselves
  • John Locke
    • Locke argued that men had the ability to reason and govern themselves
    • He wrote that government was responsible for providing the rights of life, liberty and property
    • If government did not uphold this social contract, people had every right to overthrow the government
    • Locke’s ideas were eventually borrowed by American Revolutionaries in their rebellion against a future English King, George III