Events leading to English Civil War


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Events leading to English Civil War

  1. 1. The Stuart Dynasty and the seeds of the English Civil War
  2. 2. King James VI of Scotland <ul><li>becomes King James I of England </li></ul><ul><li>Rules from 1603-1625 </li></ul>
  3. 3. James I, Who art thou? <ul><li>Son of Mary, Queen of Scots </li></ul><ul><li>Was King of Scotland during Queen Elizabeth’s reign </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited English throne after Elizabeth dies in 1603 </li></ul>
  4. 4. King James’ I philosophy <ul><li>Believed in the “divine right of kings” </li></ul><ul><li>The King did not have to answer to Parliament because his power came from God </li></ul>
  5. 5. King James’ I Problems <ul><li>Fought with Parliament over money </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament felt that the Church of England was too Catholic, King James thought it was none of their business! </li></ul>
  6. 6. King James’ I major accomplishment <ul><li>James I had Biblical scholars create a new translation of the Bible in 1611 </li></ul><ul><li>The King James Bible is still widely read today </li></ul>
  7. 7. James I died in 1625, his son Charles follows him as king
  8. 8. Charles I <ul><li>Ruled as King from 1625-1649 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problems for Charles I <ul><li>Was too proud, had little common sense, and always needed money </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly arguing with Parliament about financial matters </li></ul>
  10. 10. Charles I needed money from Parliament to fight wars in Europe in 1628
  11. 11. Parliament would grant money to Charles I only if he signed the Petition of Right
  12. 12. Under the Petition of Right, Charles I promised not to : : <ul><li>*Imprison people without cause </li></ul><ul><li>*Tax people without consent of Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>*Force homeowners to house soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>*Impose martial law during peacetime </li></ul>
  13. 13. More problems with Parliament <ul><li>this time over religion in 1639 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Charles I appointed William Laud Archbishop <ul><li>Laud forced Scottish Protestants to adopt Catholic practices </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland threatened to invade England </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rather than granting money to Charles I, Parliament began limiting his power <ul><li>In 1642, Charles I tried to arrest the leaders of Parliament, but was unable to </li></ul>
  16. 16. Charles I was forced to retreat to the north of England in 1642 where he still had supporters. This was the beginning of.................
  17. 17. The English Civil War
  18. 18. Royalists or Cavaliers were loyal to King Charles I, these were mainly nobles and church officials
  19. 19. Roundheads fought against Charles I <ul><li>These were mainly Puritans and supporters of Parliament who did not want a King to rule with absolute power </li></ul>
  20. 20. King Charles I and the Cavaliers controlled most of the land of England and had more experienced military leaders <ul><li>Parliament and the Roundheads had more money, but needed a military leader to lead them in battle </li></ul><ul><li>When that military leader appeared, the Roundheads became unstoppable </li></ul>
  21. 21. Oliver Cromwell leads the Roundheads <ul><li>Cromwell convinced his soldiers that God was on their side </li></ul><ul><li>His New Model Army defeated the King’s forces in 1646. 100,000 died in the war. </li></ul>
  22. 22. But Cromwell wanted more!! <ul><li>He refuses to break up his army </li></ul><ul><li>In 1648 he marches into London and takes control of Parliament </li></ul>
  23. 23. Charles I on trial <ul><li>In 1649, Charles I is put on trial in Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>He is found guilty of being a traitor </li></ul><ul><li>He is executed in public in January 1649 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cromwell as Lord Protector <ul><li>Cromwell rules England as a military dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Puritanical rule closed theatres and made “merrymaking” a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Cromwell and the Puritans would quickly wear out their welcome </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cromwell invades Ireland <ul><li>In 1649, Cromwell invades Ireland and slaughters Catholic priests </li></ul><ul><li>Irish lands are taken away and given to the English </li></ul><ul><li>More than 500,000 Irish died from famine and plague between 1641-1652 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Death of Cromwell <ul><li>Cromwell ruled England until his death in 1658 </li></ul><ul><li>His brother Richard succeeded him but was unpopular </li></ul><ul><li>English people wanted to have a king again and would have one soon enough </li></ul>
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