Events leading to English Civil War
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Events leading to English Civil War

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Events leading to English Civil War Events leading to English Civil War Presentation Transcript

  • The Stuart Dynasty and the seeds of the English Civil War
  • King James VI of Scotland
    • becomes King James I of England
    • Rules from 1603-1625
  • James I, Who art thou?
    • Son of Mary, Queen of Scots
    • Was King of Scotland during Queen Elizabeth’s reign
    • Inherited English throne after Elizabeth dies in 1603
  • King James’ I philosophy
    • Believed in the “divine right of kings”
    • The King did not have to answer to Parliament because his power came from God
  • King James’ I Problems
    • Fought with Parliament over money
    • Parliament felt that the Church of England was too Catholic, King James thought it was none of their business!
  • King James’ I major accomplishment
    • James I had Biblical scholars create a new translation of the Bible in 1611
    • The King James Bible is still widely read today
  • James I died in 1625, his son Charles follows him as king
  • Charles I
    • Ruled as King from 1625-1649
  • Problems for Charles I
    • Was too proud, had little common sense, and always needed money
    • Constantly arguing with Parliament about financial matters
  • Charles I needed money from Parliament to fight wars in Europe in 1628
  • Parliament would grant money to Charles I only if he signed the Petition of Right
  • Under the Petition of Right, Charles I promised not to : :
    • *Imprison people without cause
    • *Tax people without consent of Parliament
    • *Force homeowners to house soldiers
    • *Impose martial law during peacetime
  • More problems with Parliament
    • this time over religion in 1639
  • Charles I appointed William Laud Archbishop
    • Laud forced Scottish Protestants to adopt Catholic practices
    • Scotland threatened to invade England
  • Rather than granting money to Charles I, Parliament began limiting his power
    • In 1642, Charles I tried to arrest the leaders of Parliament, but was unable to
  • Charles I was forced to retreat to the north of England in 1642 where he still had supporters. This was the beginning of.................
  • The English Civil War
  • Royalists or Cavaliers were loyal to King Charles I, these were mainly nobles and church officials
  • Roundheads fought against Charles I
    • These were mainly Puritans and supporters of Parliament who did not want a King to rule with absolute power
  • King Charles I and the Cavaliers controlled most of the land of England and had more experienced military leaders
    • Parliament and the Roundheads had more money, but needed a military leader to lead them in battle
    • When that military leader appeared, the Roundheads became unstoppable
  • Oliver Cromwell leads the Roundheads
    • Cromwell convinced his soldiers that God was on their side
    • His New Model Army defeated the King’s forces in 1646. 100,000 died in the war.
  • But Cromwell wanted more!!
    • He refuses to break up his army
    • In 1648 he marches into London and takes control of Parliament
  • Charles I on trial
    • In 1649, Charles I is put on trial in Parliament
    • He is found guilty of being a traitor
    • He is executed in public in January 1649
  • Cromwell as Lord Protector
    • Cromwell rules England as a military dictator
    • Puritanical rule closed theatres and made “merrymaking” a crime
    • Cromwell and the Puritans would quickly wear out their welcome
  • Cromwell invades Ireland
    • In 1649, Cromwell invades Ireland and slaughters Catholic priests
    • Irish lands are taken away and given to the English
    • More than 500,000 Irish died from famine and plague between 1641-1652
  • Death of Cromwell
    • Cromwell ruled England until his death in 1658
    • His brother Richard succeeded him but was unpopular
    • English people wanted to have a king again and would have one soon enough