5 3 Notes

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5 3 Notes

  1. 1. 5.3 Representative Groups Valence electrons Alkali Metals Alkali Earth Metals Boron,Carbon, Nitrogen & Oxygen families Halogens Noble Gases Using Lewis Dot Models
  2. 3. Valence Electrons: <ul><li>Are electron(s) that occupies the highest energy level of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Play a key role in chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Number of them increases from left to right in the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical columns or (groups) have the same number of valence electrons </li></ul>
  3. 4. Alkali Metals Group 1A <ul><li>Are in group 1A </li></ul><ul><li>Are very REACTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Have 1 valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>Are known as Soft metals </li></ul>
  4. 5. Alkali Earth Metals Group 2A Are in group 2A Harder than the group 1A metals Have 2 valence electrons Melting points very greatly
  5. 6. Boron Goup 3A <ul><li>3A elements have 3 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Al Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Boron is a metaloid (non-metal) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Carbon Group 4A <ul><li>4A elements have 4 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic nature of elements increases from top to bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Most of compounds in human body are Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon 2 nd most abundant element in Earth’s crust. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Nitrogen Group 5A <ul><li>5A elements have 5 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen and Phosphorus are fertilizers </li></ul>
  8. 9. Oxygen Group 6A <ul><li>6A elements have 6 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone is another form of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex forms of life need oxygen to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur occurs in large deposits, it is used to make sulfuric acid. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Halogen Group 7A <ul><li>7A elements have 7 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Highly reactive non-metals </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine is used by the thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoride for preventing tooth decay </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine kills bacteria in drinking water. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Noble Gases group 8A <ul><li>8A elements have 8 valence electrons except Helium which has only 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Colorless, odorless and extremely Un-reactive. </li></ul><ul><li>All are used in Neon lights except Radon </li></ul>
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