0
1	
  
The	
  Skeletal	
  
System:	
  Bone	
  
Tissue	
  
BIOL	
  121:	
  A&P	
  I	
  
Chapter	
  6
Rob	
  Swatski	
  
Asso...
2	
  
3	
  
Skeletal	
  System	
  Tissues	
  
Bone	
   Car)lage	
   Dense	
  CT	
   Epithelium	
   Adipose	
   Nervous	
  
4	
  
5	
  
FuncLons	
  of	
  Bone	
  
Supports	
  
body	
  
Protects	
  
so?	
  )ssues	
  
Muscle	
  
aAachment	
  
site	
  
6	
  
FuncLons	
  of	
  Bone,	
  cont.	
  
Mineral	
  
storage	
  &	
  
homeostasis	
  
Produces	
  
blood	
  cells	
  in	...
7	
  
8	
  
Bone	
  
Marrow	
  
9	
  
10	
  
Anatomy	
  of	
  
a	
  Long	
  Bone	
  
11	
  
Anatomy	
  of	
  a	
  
Long	
  Bone	
  
Diaphysis	
  
Epiphysis	
  
Metaphysis	
  
Epiphyseal	
  
plate	
  
ArLcula...
(b) Partially sectioned humerus
Medullary cavity in diaphysis
Compact bone
Spongy bone
Epiphyseal line
Proximal epiphysis
...
13	
  
Anatomy	
  of	
  a	
  Long	
  
Bone,	
  cont.	
  
Medullary	
  
(Marrow)	
  
cavity	
  
Endosteum	
  
Periosteum	
 ...
14	
  
15	
  
16	
  
Histology	
  of	
  Bone	
  
Tissue	
  
Compact	
  
bone	
  
Spongy	
  
bone	
  
Specialized	
  
bone	
  cells	
  
E...
17	
  
18	
  
Matrix	
  
15%	
  water,	
  30%	
  
collagen,	
  55%	
  
mineral	
  salts	
  
Calcium	
  phosphate	
  
(hydroxyapa)...
19	
  
20	
  
4	
  Types	
  of	
  
Bone	
  Cells	
  
Osteogenic	
  
cells	
  
Osteoblasts	
  
Osteocytes	
  
Osteoclasts	
  
21	
  
Osteogenic	
  
Cells	
  
=	
  Osteoprogenitor	
  
cells	
  
Undifferen)ated	
  
Periosteum	
  &	
  
endosteum	
  
De...
22	
  
Osteoblasts	
  
Bone-­‐building	
  
cells	
  
Do	
  not	
  divide	
  
Form	
  bone	
  
matrix	
  &	
  secrete	
  
c...
23	
  
Osteocytes	
  
Mature	
  bone	
  
cells	
  
Maintain	
  
bone	
  )ssue	
  
No	
  longer	
  
secrete	
  
matrix	
  
24	
  
25	
  
Osteoclasts	
  
Largest	
  of	
  the	
  
bone	
  cells	
  
Originate	
  from	
  
fused	
  monocytes	
  
(wbc’s)	
  ...
26	
  
27	
  
Compact	
  
(Dense)	
  Bone	
  
Solid,	
  hard,	
  
external	
  layer	
  
of	
  bone	
  
Forms	
  diaphysis	
  
of	...
28	
  
Osteons	
  
=	
  Haversian	
  
systems	
  
Osteocytes	
  
Abundant	
  
vascular	
  )ssue:	
  
blood	
  vessels	
  &...
(a)	
  Osteons	
  (haversian	
  systems)	
  in	
  compact	
  bone	
  and	
  trabeculae	
  in	
  spongy	
  bone	
  
Compact...
30	
  
Osteon	
  
Histology	
  
Concentric	
  lamellae	
  
of	
  matrix	
  around	
  
central	
  canal	
  
Osteocytes	
  i...
31	
  
32	
  
33	
  
Spongy	
  
Bone	
  
No	
  osteons	
  
Consists	
  of	
  
trabeculae	
  
Supports	
  red	
  
bone	
  marrow	
  
Redu...
34	
  
35	
  
36	
  
Blood	
  Supply	
  
of	
  Bone	
  	
  
Periosteal	
  
arteries	
  
Nutrient	
  
arteries	
  
Epiphyseal	
  
arterie...
37	
  
Bone	
  FormaLon	
  
(OssificaLon)	
  
Embryonic	
  CT	
  begins	
  
as	
  mesenchyme	
  
Template	
  for	
  
ossific...
38	
  
39	
  
Intramembranous	
  
OssificaLon	
  
Forms	
  flat	
  bones	
  of	
  
skull	
  &	
  mandible	
  
“Jelly	
  sandwich”	
...
40	
  
41	
  Osteoblasts	
  
42	
  
Intramembranous	
  
OssificaLon,	
  cont.	
  
Calcifying	
  matrix	
  joins	
  to	
  
form	
  trabeculae	
  
Spongy	...
43	
  
Flat bone
of skull
Mandible
Blood capillary
Ossification
center
Mesenchyme
Osteoblast
Collagen fiber
Development of ossifi...
45	
  
Endochondral	
  
OssificaLon	
  
Forms	
  longs	
  bones	
  
Replaces	
  car)lage	
  
with	
  bone	
  
Six	
  step	
...
46	
  
1.	
  Development	
  
of	
  CarLlage	
  
Model	
  
Originates	
  from	
  
mesenchyme	
  
Basic	
  shape	
  and	
  
...
47	
  
2.	
  Growth	
  of	
  
CarLlage	
  
Model	
  
Chondrocytes	
  divide	
  &	
  
matrix	
  forms	
  
IntersLLal	
  gro...
48	
  
3.	
  Development	
  
of	
  Primary	
  
OssificaLon	
  
Center	
  
Perichondrium	
  à	
  Periosteum	
  
Forms	
  pe...
49	
  
50	
  
4.	
  Development	
  
of	
  Medullary	
  
Cavity	
  
Osteoblasts	
  deposit	
  matrix	
  
over	
  calcified	
  car)l...
51	
  
5.	
  
Development	
  
of	
  Secondary	
  
OssificaLon	
  
Center	
  
Blood	
  vessels	
  enter	
  
uncalcified	
  ep...
52	
  
6.	
  FormaLon	
  of	
  
ArLcular	
  CarLlage	
  
&	
  Epiphyseal	
  
Plate	
  
Epiphyseal	
  car)lage	
  does	
  
...
Development of
cartilage model:
mesenchymal
cells develop into
chondroblasts,
which form the
cartilage model.
1
Proximal
e...
Uncalcified
extracellular
matrix
Development of the
medullary (marrow)
cavity: bone
breakdown by
osteoclasts forms
the med...
(b) Twelve-week fetus. The red areas represent
bones that are forming (calcified). Clear areas
represent cartilage (uncalc...
56	
  
Epiphyseal	
  
(Growth)	
  Plate	
  
Chondrocytes	
  produce	
  
carLlage	
  on	
  epiphyseal	
  side	
  
Car)lage	...
57	
  
4	
  Zones	
  of	
  
Epiphyseal	
  Plate	
  
Zone	
  of	
  ResLng	
  
CarLlage	
  
Zone	
  of	
  ProliferaLng	
  
C...
Epiphysis
(c) Lengthwise growth of bone at epiphyseal plate
EPIPHYSEAL (GROWTH)
PLATE:
Zone of resting cartilage
Zone of p...
59	
  
Zone	
  of	
  ResLng	
  
CarLlage	
  
Anchors	
  growth	
  plate	
  
to	
  bone	
  
60	
  
Zone	
  of	
  
ProliferaLng	
  
CarLlage	
  
Rapid	
  cell	
  division	
  
(stacks	
  of	
  coins)	
  
61	
  
Zone	
  of	
  
Hypertrophic	
  
CarLlage	
  
Cells	
  enlarge	
  &	
  
remain	
  in	
  columns	
  
62	
  
Zone	
  of	
  Calcified	
  
CarLlage	
  
Thin	
  zone	
  –	
  mostly	
  
dead	
  cells	
  
Osteoblasts	
  &	
  
oste...
63	
  
Calcified	
  
CarLlage	
  
Ridges in periosteum
create groove for
periosteal blood vessel.
1
Periosteal ridges
Periosteum
Periosteal blood
vessel
Per...
Ridges in periosteum create groove for
periosteal blood vessel.
1
Periosteal ridges
Periosteum
Periosteal blood
vessel
Per...
Periosteal ridges fuse, forming an
endosteum-lined tunnel.
2
Endosteum
Tunnel
Osteoblasts in endosteum build new
concentric lamellae inward toward center of
tunnel, forming a new osteon.
3
Endosteum
Bone grows outward as osteoblasts in
periosteum build new circumferential
lamellae. Osteon formation repeats as
new perios...
Medullary
cavity
Bone formed by
osteoblasts
Bone
destroyed by
osteoclasts
Infant Child Young
adult
Adult
(b) Macroscopic c...
70	
  
Factors	
  
AffecLng	
  Bone	
  
Growth:	
  
Nutri&on	
  
Calcium	
  &	
  Phosphorus	
  
Vitamin	
  C	
  à	
  colla...
71	
  
Factors	
  
AffecLng	
  Bone	
  
Growth:	
  
Hormones	
  
Insulinlike	
  Growth	
  
Factors	
  (IGFs)	
  
Thyroid	
 ...
72	
  
Bone	
  
Homeostasis	
  
Remodeling	
  
Osteoclasts	
  
Osteoblasts	
  
73	
  
OrthodonLcs	
  
74	
  
The	
  Effects	
  of	
  
Corsetry	
  
75	
  
Bone	
  
Fractures	
  
Greens)ck	
  
Impacted	
  
Open	
  
Comminuted	
  
PoA	
  
Colles’	
  
Stress	
  
Ulna
Greenstick
Radius
Wrist
bones
Humerus
Impacted
Humerus
Open (Compound)
Radius
Ulna
Humerus
Comminuted
Tibia
Pott
Fibula
Ankle bones
Ulna
Colles’
Radius
Wrist
bones
82	
  
Fracture	
  Repair	
  
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All
Periosteum
Fracture
hematoma
Fibrocartilaginous
callus (soft)
Reactive phase:...
84	
  
1.	
  Reac&ve	
  Phase:	
  FormaLon	
  of	
  fracture	
  
hematoma	
  (clot)	
  
85	
  
2.	
  Repara&ve	
  Phase:	
  FibrocarLlaginous	
  	
  
callus	
  formaLon	
  
86	
  
3.	
  Repara&ve	
  Phase:	
  Bony	
  callus	
  
formaLon	
  
87	
  
4.	
  Bone	
  Remodeling	
  Phase	
  
88	
  
Calcium	
  
Homeostasis	
  &	
  
Bone	
  Tissue	
  
Skeleton	
  =	
  Calcium	
  
reservoir	
  
Nerve	
  &	
  muscle...
89	
  
Hormonal	
  
RegulaLon	
  of	
  
Ca+2	
  
Parathyroid	
  Hormone	
  
(PTH)	
  
Calcitriol	
  
Calcitonin	
  
STIMULUS
CONTROLLED CONDITION
Blood calcium (Ca2+) level
RECEPTORS
CONTROL CENTER
Parathyroid hormone gene
EFFECTORS
RESPO...
91	
  
How	
  do	
  they	
  
do	
  this?	
  
92	
  
Aging	
  &	
  Bone	
  
Tissue	
  
Demineraliza)on	
  
Osteoporosis	
  
Reduced	
  protein	
  
synthesis	
  
Less	
 ...
93	
  
94	
  
Disorders	
  of	
  
Bone	
  
OssificaLon	
  
RickeAs	
  
Osteomalacia	
  
95	
  The	
  End	
  
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BIOL 121 Chp 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Ed. by Tortora and Derrickson).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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Transcript of "BIOL 121 Chp 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue"

  1. 1. 1   The  Skeletal   System:  Bone   Tissue   BIOL  121:  A&P  I   Chapter  6 Rob  Swatski   Associate  Professor  of  Biology   HACC  –  York  Campus  Textbook images - Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 2  
  3. 3. 3   Skeletal  System  Tissues   Bone   Car)lage   Dense  CT   Epithelium   Adipose   Nervous  
  4. 4. 4  
  5. 5. 5   FuncLons  of  Bone   Supports   body   Protects   so?  )ssues   Muscle   aAachment   site  
  6. 6. 6   FuncLons  of  Bone,  cont.   Mineral   storage  &   homeostasis   Produces   blood  cells  in   red  bone   marrow   (hemopoiesis)   Energy   storage  in   yellow  bone   marrow  
  7. 7. 7  
  8. 8. 8   Bone   Marrow  
  9. 9. 9  
  10. 10. 10   Anatomy  of   a  Long  Bone  
  11. 11. 11   Anatomy  of  a   Long  Bone   Diaphysis   Epiphysis   Metaphysis   Epiphyseal   plate   ArLcular   carLlage  
  12. 12. (b) Partially sectioned humerus Medullary cavity in diaphysis Compact bone Spongy bone Epiphyseal line Proximal epiphysis Metaphysis
  13. 13. 13   Anatomy  of  a  Long   Bone,  cont.   Medullary   (Marrow)   cavity   Endosteum   Periosteum   Fibrous  layer   Osteogenic   layer  
  14. 14. 14  
  15. 15. 15  
  16. 16. 16   Histology  of  Bone   Tissue   Compact   bone   Spongy   bone   Specialized   bone  cells   Extracellular   matrix  
  17. 17. 17  
  18. 18. 18   Matrix   15%  water,  30%   collagen,  55%   mineral  salts   Calcium  phosphate   (hydroxyapa)te),   calcium  carbonate,   K,  Mg       Collagen  fiber   skeleton     =  tensile  strength   CalcificaLon   (MineralizaLon)     =  hardness  
  19. 19. 19  
  20. 20. 20   4  Types  of   Bone  Cells   Osteogenic   cells   Osteoblasts   Osteocytes   Osteoclasts  
  21. 21. 21   Osteogenic   Cells   =  Osteoprogenitor   cells   Undifferen)ated   Periosteum  &   endosteum   Develop  into   osteoblasts  
  22. 22. 22   Osteoblasts   Bone-­‐building   cells   Do  not  divide   Form  bone   matrix  &  secrete   collagen  fibers   Develop  into   osteocytes  
  23. 23. 23   Osteocytes   Mature  bone   cells   Maintain   bone  )ssue   No  longer   secrete   matrix  
  24. 24. 24  
  25. 25. 25   Osteoclasts   Largest  of  the   bone  cells   Originate  from   fused  monocytes   (wbc’s)   Bone  resorpLon  
  26. 26. 26  
  27. 27. 27   Compact   (Dense)  Bone   Solid,  hard,   external  layer   of  bone   Forms  diaphysis   of  long  bones   Resists  stresses   of  weight  &   movement   Arranged  in   units  called   osteons  
  28. 28. 28   Osteons   =  Haversian   systems   Osteocytes   Abundant   vascular  )ssue:   blood  vessels  &   lympha)cs   Nervous  )ssue  
  29. 29. (a)  Osteons  (haversian  systems)  in  compact  bone  and  trabeculae  in  spongy  bone   Compact bone Spongy bone Periosteum Medullary cavity Outer circumferential lamellae Interstitial lamellae Concentric lamellae Blood vessels Canaliculi Osteocyte Lacuna Periosteal vein Periosteal artery Periosteum: Outer fibrous layer Inner osteogenic layer Central canal Compact bone Spongy bone Inner circumferential lamellae Trabeculae Medullary cavity See Figure 6.3b for details Perforating canal Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers Osteon
  30. 30. 30   Osteon   Histology   Concentric  lamellae   of  matrix  around   central  canal   Osteocytes  inside   lacunae   Canaliculi   IntersLLal   lamellae  
  31. 31. 31  
  32. 32. 32  
  33. 33. 33   Spongy   Bone   No  osteons   Consists  of   trabeculae   Supports  red   bone  marrow   Reduces  weight   Short,  flat,   irregular  bones   Epiphyses  of   long  bones  
  34. 34. 34  
  35. 35. 35  
  36. 36. 36   Blood  Supply   of  Bone     Periosteal   arteries   Nutrient   arteries   Epiphyseal   arteries   Metaphyseal   arteries  
  37. 37. 37   Bone  FormaLon   (OssificaLon)   Embryonic  CT  begins   as  mesenchyme   Template  for   ossifica)on   Intramembranous   ossificaLon   Endochondral   ossificaLon  
  38. 38. 38  
  39. 39. 39   Intramembranous   OssificaLon   Forms  flat  bones  of   skull  &  mandible   “Jelly  sandwich”   Mesenchyme  à   Osteogenic  cells   Ossifica)on  center   Osteoblasts  à  Matrix   (Calcifica)on)   Osteoblasts  à   Osteocytes   Osteogenic  cells  
  40. 40. 40  
  41. 41. 41  Osteoblasts  
  42. 42. 42   Intramembranous   OssificaLon,  cont.   Calcifying  matrix  joins  to   form  trabeculae   Spongy  bone  forms   around  red  bone  marrow   Surface  mesenchyme  à   Periosteum   Superficial  spongy  bone   à  Compact  bone  
  43. 43. 43  
  44. 44. Flat bone of skull Mandible Blood capillary Ossification center Mesenchyme Osteoblast Collagen fiber Development of ossification center: osteoblasts secrete organic extracellular matrix 1 Osteocyte in lacuna Calcification: calcium and other mineral salts are deposited and extracellular matrix calcifies (hardens) 2 Canaliculus Osteoblast Newly calcified bone extracellular matrix Mesenchyme condenses Formation of trabeculae: extracellular matrix develops into trabeculae that fuse to form spongy bone 3 Blood vessel Spongy bone trabeculae Osteoblast Periosteum Compact bone tissue Spongy bone tissue Compact bone tissue Development of the periosteum: mesenchyme at the periphery of the bone develops into the periosteum 4
  45. 45. 45   Endochondral   OssificaLon   Forms  longs  bones   Replaces  car)lage   with  bone   Six  step  process   Begins  with  forma)on   of  carLlage  model  
  46. 46. 46   1.  Development   of  CarLlage   Model   Originates  from   mesenchyme   Basic  shape  and   length  of  bone   Hyaline  car)lage  &   chondroblasts   Perichondrium  
  47. 47. 47   2.  Growth  of   CarLlage   Model   Chondrocytes  divide  &   matrix  forms   IntersLLal  growth   ApposiLonal  growth   Mid-­‐region  cells  burst   &  lower  pH   Destroys  chondrocytes   &  triggers  calcifica)on  
  48. 48. 48   3.  Development   of  Primary   OssificaLon   Center   Perichondrium  à  Periosteum   Forms  periosteal  bone  collar   Nutrient  artery  penetrates   center  of  bone  model   Periosteal  bud  brings   osteoblasts  &  osteoclasts  to   center  
  49. 49. 49  
  50. 50. 50   4.  Development   of  Medullary   Cavity   Osteoblasts  deposit  matrix   over  calcified  car)lage   Form  trabeculae  of  spongy   bone   Osteoclasts  form   medullary  cavity  
  51. 51. 51   5.   Development   of  Secondary   OssificaLon   Center   Blood  vessels  enter   uncalcified  epiphyses   Spongy  bone   develops  
  52. 52. 52   6.  FormaLon  of   ArLcular  CarLlage   &  Epiphyseal   Plate   Epiphyseal  car)lage  does   not  ossify   Remains  as  arLcular   carLlage   Epiphyseal  (Growth)  plate   also  remains  as  car)lage   Source  of  inters))al   growth  
  53. 53. Development of cartilage model: mesenchymal cells develop into chondroblasts, which form the cartilage model. 1 Proximal epiphysis Diaphysis Distal epiphysis Hyaline cartilage Perichondrium Endochondral Ossification - Overview Growth of cartilage model: growth occurs by cell division of chondrocytes. 2 Uncalcified extracellular matrix Calcified extracellular matrix Nutrient artery Periosteum Primary ossification center Spongy bone Development of primary ossification center: in this region of the diaphysis, bone tissue replaces most of the cartilage. 3
  54. 54. Uncalcified extracellular matrix Development of the medullary (marrow) cavity: bone breakdown by osteoclasts forms the medullary cavity. 4 Calcified extracellular matrix Periosteum Medullary cavity Nutrient artery and vein Development of secondary ossification centers: these occur in the epiphyses of the bone. 5 Secondary ossification center Uncalcified extracellular matrix Epiphyseal artery and vein Articular cartilage Spongy bone Epiphyseal plate Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate: both structures consist of hyaline cartilage. 6 Endochondral Ossification – Overview, cont.
  55. 55. (b) Twelve-week fetus. The red areas represent bones that are forming (calcified). Clear areas represent cartilage (uncalcified).
  56. 56. 56   Epiphyseal   (Growth)  Plate   Chondrocytes  produce   carLlage  on  epiphyseal  side   Car)lage  replaced  by  bone   on  diaphyseal  side   Plate  closes  at  age  18-­‐25   Chondrocytes  stop  dividing   Bone  replaces  car)lage   (epiphyseal  line)  
  57. 57. 57   4  Zones  of   Epiphyseal  Plate   Zone  of  ResLng   CarLlage   Zone  of  ProliferaLng   CarLlage   Zone  of  Hypertrophic   CarLlage   Zone  of  Calcified   CarLlage  
  58. 58. Epiphysis (c) Lengthwise growth of bone at epiphyseal plate EPIPHYSEAL (GROWTH) PLATE: Zone of resting cartilage Zone of proliferating cartilage Zone of hypertrophic cartilage Zone of calcified cartilage Diaphysis Articular cartilage New chondrocytes are formed Old chondrocytes are replaced by bone New diaphysi s
  59. 59. 59   Zone  of  ResLng   CarLlage   Anchors  growth  plate   to  bone  
  60. 60. 60   Zone  of   ProliferaLng   CarLlage   Rapid  cell  division   (stacks  of  coins)  
  61. 61. 61   Zone  of   Hypertrophic   CarLlage   Cells  enlarge  &   remain  in  columns  
  62. 62. 62   Zone  of  Calcified   CarLlage   Thin  zone  –  mostly   dead  cells   Osteoblasts  &   osteoclasts  ac)ve  
  63. 63. 63   Calcified   CarLlage  
  64. 64. Ridges in periosteum create groove for periosteal blood vessel. 1 Periosteal ridges Periosteum Periosteal blood vessel Perforating canal Groove Periosteal ridges fuse, forming an endosteum-lined tunnel. 2 Endosteum Tunnel Osteoblasts in endosteum build new concentric lamellae inward toward center of tunnel, forming a new osteon. 3 Endosteum Bone grows outward as osteoblasts in periosteum build new circumferential lamellae. Osteon formation repeats as new periosteal ridges fold over blood vessels. 4 Circumferential lamellae Periosteum New osteon Central (haversian) canal
  65. 65. Ridges in periosteum create groove for periosteal blood vessel. 1 Periosteal ridges Periosteum Periosteal blood vessel Perforating canal Groove
  66. 66. Periosteal ridges fuse, forming an endosteum-lined tunnel. 2 Endosteum Tunnel
  67. 67. Osteoblasts in endosteum build new concentric lamellae inward toward center of tunnel, forming a new osteon. 3 Endosteum
  68. 68. Bone grows outward as osteoblasts in periosteum build new circumferential lamellae. Osteon formation repeats as new periosteal ridges fold over blood vessels. 4 Circumferential lamellae Periosteum New osteon Central (haversian) canal
  69. 69. Medullary cavity Bone formed by osteoblasts Bone destroyed by osteoclasts Infant Child Young adult Adult (b) Macroscopic changes
  70. 70. 70   Factors   AffecLng  Bone   Growth:   Nutri&on   Calcium  &  Phosphorus   Vitamin  C  à  collagen   Vitamins  K  &  B12  à   protein  synthesis  
  71. 71. 71   Factors   AffecLng  Bone   Growth:   Hormones   Insulinlike  Growth   Factors  (IGFs)   Thyroid  hormone,   hGH,  insulin   Estrogen  &   testosterone  
  72. 72. 72   Bone   Homeostasis   Remodeling   Osteoclasts   Osteoblasts  
  73. 73. 73   OrthodonLcs  
  74. 74. 74   The  Effects  of   Corsetry  
  75. 75. 75   Bone   Fractures   Greens)ck   Impacted   Open   Comminuted   PoA   Colles’   Stress  
  76. 76. Ulna Greenstick Radius Wrist bones
  77. 77. Humerus Impacted
  78. 78. Humerus Open (Compound) Radius Ulna
  79. 79. Humerus Comminuted
  80. 80. Tibia Pott Fibula Ankle bones
  81. 81. Ulna Colles’ Radius Wrist bones
  82. 82. 82   Fracture  Repair  
  83. 83. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Periosteum Fracture hematoma Fibrocartilaginous callus (soft) Reactive phase: formation of fracture hematoma 1 Reparative phase: fibrocartilaginous callus formation 2a Reparative phase: bony callus formation 2b Bone remodeling phase 3 New blood vessel Spongy bone trabeculae Bony (hard) callus Healed fracture
  84. 84. 84   1.  Reac&ve  Phase:  FormaLon  of  fracture   hematoma  (clot)  
  85. 85. 85   2.  Repara&ve  Phase:  FibrocarLlaginous     callus  formaLon  
  86. 86. 86   3.  Repara&ve  Phase:  Bony  callus   formaLon  
  87. 87. 87   4.  Bone  Remodeling  Phase  
  88. 88. 88   Calcium   Homeostasis  &   Bone  Tissue   Skeleton  =  Calcium   reservoir   Nerve  &  muscle  fiber   func)on   Blood  clohng   cascade   Enzyme  func)on   9-­‐11  mg  Ca+2/100  ml   plasma  
  89. 89. 89   Hormonal   RegulaLon  of   Ca+2   Parathyroid  Hormone   (PTH)   Calcitriol   Calcitonin  
  90. 90. STIMULUS CONTROLLED CONDITION Blood calcium (Ca2+) level RECEPTORS CONTROL CENTER Parathyroid hormone gene EFFECTORS RESPONSE Increase in blood Ca2+ level Osteoclasts increase bone resorption Kidneys retain Ca2+ in blood, excrete phosphate in urine, and produce calcitriol Parathyroid gland cells Return to homeostasis when response brings blood Ca2+ level back to normal Disrupts homeostasis by decreasing Detect lowered Ca2+ concentration which increases production of cyclic AMP Input Output Gene “turned on” which increases release of PTH Osteoclasts Kidneys
  91. 91. 91   How  do  they   do  this?  
  92. 92. 92   Aging  &  Bone   Tissue   Demineraliza)on   Osteoporosis   Reduced  protein   synthesis   Less  collagen   Less  growth   hormones  
  93. 93. 93  
  94. 94. 94   Disorders  of   Bone   OssificaLon   RickeAs   Osteomalacia  
  95. 95. 95  The  End  
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