BIOL 121 Chp 5: The Integumentary System

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 5: The Integumentary System (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Ed. by Tortora and Derrickson).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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BIOL 121 Chp 5: The Integumentary System

  1. 1. 1   The   Integumentary   System   BIOL  121:  A&P  I   Chapter  5 Rob  Swatski   Associate  Professor  of  Biology   HACC  –  York  Campus   Textbook images - Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 2   Integumentary   System   Skin   Epidermis   Dermis   Hypodermis   Accessory   structures   Hair   Glands   Nails  
  3. 3. 3  
  4. 4. 4   FuncLons  of   Integumentary  System   Protec5on   Regula5on   Sensory   input  
  5. 5. 5  
  6. 6. 6   Epidermis   Most   superficial   layer   Stra5fied   squamous   epithelium   5  main  layers   (strata)  
  7. 7. 7   Dermis   Thickest   layer   Dense   irregular  CT   Accessory   structures  
  8. 8. 8  
  9. 9. 9   Hypodermis   Deepest  layer   Areolar  CT  &   adipose   Stores  energy   Regulates   temperature   Blood  vessel  &   nerve  passage  
  10. 10. 10  
  11. 11. 11   Overview  of  the  Epidermis  
  12. 12. 12   4  Main  Cells  of  the   Epidermis   KeraLnocytes   Melanocytes   Langerhans   cells   (Intraepidermal   macrophages)   Merkel  cells   (TacLle   epithelial  cells)  
  13. 13. 13  
  14. 14. 14   KeraLnocytes   Kera5n   Lamellar   granules   Cell   junc5ons  
  15. 15. 15   Melanocytes   Melanin   Skin  color   pigment   Absorbs   UV  
  16. 16. 16  
  17. 17. 17   Langerhans   Cells   Develop  in   bone   marrow   Immune   func5on  
  18. 18. 18   Merkel  Cells   On  Merkel   (tac5le)  discs   Respond  to   touch  s5muli  
  19. 19. 19  
  20. 20. 20   Layers  (Strata)  of  the  Epidermis       Stratum  corneum     Stratum  lucidum*     Stratum  granulosum     Stratum  spinosum       Stratum  basale  
  21. 21. 21  
  22. 22. 22  
  23. 23. (d) Sectional view of dermal papillae, epidermal ridges, and epidermal layers Epidermal ridge Corpuscle of touch in dermal papilla LM 250x Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale
  24. 24. 24   Stratum   Basale   Deepest  layer   Ac5ve  mitosis   Tonofilaments   Desmosomes  
  25. 25. 25   Desmosomes  
  26. 26. 26   Stratum   Spinosum   8-­‐10  layers   “Spiny”   Strong  &   flexible   Absorbs   melanin   Desmosomes  
  27. 27. 27   Stratum   Granulosum   3-­‐5  layers   Transi5on   zone   Flat,  dying   cells   (apoptosis)   Lamellar   granules   Keratohyalin   granules  
  28. 28. 28   Stratum   Lucidum   4-­‐6  layers   Clear,  flat,   dead  cells   Finger5ps,   palms,  soles  
  29. 29. 29   Stratum   Corneum   25-­‐30  layers   Flat,  dead   cells   Rich  in   kera5n  &   lipids   Constantly   shed   Strong   barrier  
  30. 30. 30  
  31. 31. 31   Growth  of   Epidermis   Stratum  basale     (stem  cells)   Mitosis   Kera5niza5on   Epidermal   Growth   Factors  (EGFs)  
  32. 32. 32   Psoriasis  
  33. 33. 33  
  34. 34. 34   Skin  graVs  
  35. 35. 35   Dermis   CT:  collagen,  elas5c   fibers,  adipose   Papillary  &  Re5cular   regions   Fibroblasts  &   macrophages   Hair  follicles  &   glands   Blood  vessels  &   nerves  
  36. 36. 36   Papillary   Region   Areolar   CT   Adipose   Hair   follicles   Glands   Sensory   receptors  
  37. 37. 37   FuncLons  of   Papillary   Region   Strength   Elas5city   Extensibility  
  38. 38. 38   Sensory  receptors   Paccinian  corpuscles  
  39. 39. 39   Epidermal  Ridges   sweat  pores  
  40. 40. 40   ReLcular   Region   Dense   irregular  CT:   collagen!   Adipose   Hair  follicles   Glands   Sensory   receptors  
  41. 41. 41  
  42. 42. 42  stretch  marks   Lines  of   cleavage  
  43. 43. 43   Skin  Color   Jaundice   Cyanosis   Erythema  
  44. 44. 44   Jaundice   Yellowish   skin/eye   color   Bilirubin   build-­‐up   Liver  disease  
  45. 45. 45  
  46. 46. 46   Cyanosis   Bluish  color   to  skin/nails   Hemoglobin   deple5on  
  47. 47. 47   Erythema   Redness  of   skin   Dermal   capillary   enlargement   Inflamma5on,   infec5on,   burns  
  48. 48. 48   InflammaLon  
  49. 49. 49   Melanocytes   Tyrosine   Melanin   (results  may   vary)  
  50. 50. Melanin  ProducLon   Freckles   Albinism   Vi5ligo   50  
  51. 51. 51   Freckles  
  52. 52. 52   Albinism  
  53. 53. 53  
  54. 54. 54   ViLligo  
  55. 55. 55   Papa  Smurf  is   real…  
  56. 56. 56   Accessory   Structures   Hair  (Pili)   Nails   Sudoriferous   glands   Sebaceous   glands   Ceruminous   glands  
  57. 57. 57  
  58. 58. 58   Hair  (pili)  
  59. 59. 59   FuncLons  of  Hair   Insula5on   UV  protec5on   Protects  eyes   Touch  sensa5on     (hair  root  plexus)  
  60. 60. (b) Several hair shafts showing the shinglelike cuticle cells Hair shaft SEM 70x Epidermal cells
  61. 61. 61   Anatomy  of  Hair   ShaV   Medulla   Cortex   Cu5cle   Root   Internal  &   external   sheaths   Hair  Follicle   Bulb   Matrix  
  62. 62. 62   Hair   follicle  
  63. 63. 63  
  64. 64. (c) Frontal and transverse sections of hair root Hair root: Medulla Cortex Cuticle of the hair Hair follicle: Internal root sheath External root sheath Epithelial root sheath Dermal root sheath External root sheath Internal root sheath Epithelial root sheath Cuticle of the hair Cortex Medulla Hair matrix Melanocyte Papilla of the hair Blood vessels Bulb Dermal root sheath
  65. 65. (d) Transverse section of hair root Hair root: Cuticle of the hair Cortex Medulla Dermal root sheath Internal root sheath External root sheath Epithelial root sheath Hair follicle:
  66. 66. 66   Surrounding   Structures  of   Hair   Arrector   pili   Hair  root   plexus   Sebaceous   glands  
  67. 67. 67  
  68. 68. 68   Types  of   Hair   Lanugo   Vellus   Terminal  
  69. 69. 69   Lanugo  
  70. 70. 70   Vellus  
  71. 71. 71   Terminal   hair  
  72. 72. 72   Terminal   hair  
  73. 73. 73   Demodex  
  74. 74. 74   Blinky  
  75. 75. Growing   Stage   ResLng   Stage   75   Hair  Growth   Cycle  
  76. 76. 76   Hair  Color   Dark  hair   Blonde  &   Red  hair   Graying   hair   White   hair  
  77. 77. 77   Sudoriferous   Glands   Eccrine   Apocrine  
  78. 78. 78   Eccrine   gland  
  79. 79. 79   Eccrine   gland  
  80. 80. 80   Apocrine   gland  
  81. 81. 81   Sebaceous   Glands   Near  hair   follicles   Produce  sebum   Moistens  hair   Waterproofs   skin   Inhibits  bacteria   growth  
  82. 82. 82   Sebaceous   gland  
  83. 83. 83   Sebaceous   gland  
  84. 84. 84   Ceruminous   Glands   In  external   auditory  meatus   Produce   cerumen   Physical  barrier   An5microbial   Lubrica5on  
  85. 85. 85  
  86. 86. 86   Nails  
  87. 87. 87   Structure  of   Nails   Free  edge   Nail  body   Lunula   Eponychium   (cu5cle)   Nail  root  w/   matrix  
  88. 88. Free edge Nail body (plate) Lunula Eponychium (cuticle) Nail root (a) Dorsal view
  89. 89. NAIL ROOT is the portion that is not visible (b) Sagittal section showing internal detail EPONYCHIUM (cuticle) is the stratum corneum of the epidermis LUNULA is the thick, white part of the nail NAIL BED is the skin below the nail plate Sagittal plane FREE EDGE extends past the finger or toe HYPONYCHIUM secures nail to the fingertip Epidermis Dermis Phalanx (finger bone)NAIL MATRIX is the epithelium proximal to the nail root. It contains dividing cells, which produce new nail cells NAIL BODY is the visible portion of
  90. 90. 90   Thin  Skin   <  0.5  mm   Covers  most   of  body   No   epidermal   ridges  
  91. 91. 91   Thick  Skin   0.5  -­‐  5  mm   Palms,  soles,   digits   Epidermal   ridges   Stratum   lucidum   No  hair  follicles,   sebaceous  glands  
  92. 92. FuncLons  of  Skin   Cutaneous   SensaLon   Thermo-­‐ regulaLon   Blood   reservoir   ProtecLon   -­‐  Physical   -­‐  Chemical   -­‐  Biological   ExcreLon   and   AbsorpLon   Vitamin  D   synthesis   -­‐  calcitriol   92  
  93. 93. 93   Thermo-­‐ regulaLon   PerspiraLon   Evapora5on   Cooling   Shivering   Vasoconstric5on   Warming  
  94. 94. 94  
  95. 95. 95   Epidermal   Wound   Healing   MigraLon   InhibiLon   Thickening  
  96. 96. 96   MigraLon  
  97. 97. 97   InhibiLon  &  Thickening  
  98. 98. 98  
  99. 99. 99   Deep  Wound   Healing   InflammaLon   MigraLon   ProliferaLon   MaturaLon  
  100. 100. 100   InflammaLon  
  101. 101. 101   MaturaLon  
  102. 102. 102  Hypertrophic  scar   Fibrosis  
  103. 103. Keloid  scar  103  
  104. 104. 104   Collagen  fibers   ElasLc  fibers   Fibroblasts   Melanocytes   Langerhans  cells   Phagocytes   Effects   of   Aging  
  105. 105. 105   Wrinkling   Dryness  &  cracking   Blood  vessel  walls   thicken   Subcutaneous  fat  lost   …There’s   More!  
  106. 106. 106  Photodamage  
  107. 107. 107   Cancer   Hyperplasia   Tumor   (Neoplasm)   Benign   Malignant   Normal   cells   Tumor-­‐ forming   cells  
  108. 108. 108   Cancer  cell  
  109. 109. 109   Carcinogenesis   Carcinogens:     x-­‐rays,  viruses,  toxins   Gene  muta5ons   Metastasis   Angiogenesis  
  110. 110. 110   Metastasis  
  111. 111. Types  of  Cancer   Carcinoma   Melanoma   Sarcoma   Leukemia   Lymphoma   111  
  112. 112. 112   Skin  Cancer   Basal  cell   carcinoma   Squamous  cell   carcinoma   Malignant   melanoma  
  113. 113. 113   Basal  cell  carcinoma  
  114. 114. 114  Squamous  cell  carcinoma  
  115. 115. 115  Malignant  melanoma  
  116. 116. 116   Normal  nevus   (mole)   Malignant   melanoma  
  117. 117. 117  
  118. 118. 118   Risk  Factors  for   Skin  Cancer   Skin  type   Sun  exposure   Family  history   Age   Immune  health  
  119. 119. 119   Treatment  of   Cancer   Chemotherapy  
  120. 120. 120   RadiaLon   therapy  
  121. 121. 121   Burns   Heat,  electricity,   radia5on,  chemicals     Systemic  vs.  local   effects   Severity:  depth,  area,   age,  health     Shock,  circulatory  &   kidney  problems,   infec5on     Rule  of  nines  
  122. 122. 122   Burn  ClassificaLon  
  123. 123. 123   1st  Degree   Burn  
  124. 124. 124  
  125. 125. 125   2nd  Degree   Burn  
  126. 126. 126   3rd  Degree   Burn  
  127. 127. 127   Rule  of   Nines  
  128. 128. 128   Pressure  Sore     (DecubiLs  ulcer)  
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