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BIOL 121 Chp 21 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics Lecture Presentation



This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System - Blood Vessels & Hemodynamics (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 12th Ed. ...

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System - Blood Vessels & Hemodynamics (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 12th Ed. by Tortora and Derrickson).

Rob Swatski, Assistant Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA.
Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website, BioGeekiWiki, for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com

Visit my Flickr photostream for anatomy model photographs! http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatski/

Thanks for looking!



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    BIOL 121 Chp 21 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics Lecture Presentation BIOL 121 Chp 21 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics Lecture Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 21The CardiovascularSystem:Blood Vessels &Hemodynamics Rob Swatski Assistant Professor of Biology HACC – York Campus 1
    • Blood Vessels Structure & Hemodynamics FunctionArteries & Veins & Capillaries Circulation RegulationArterioles Venules 2
    • Types of Blood Vessels Arteries: Arterioles: Capillaries:transport blood transport blood gas & solute away from to capillaries exchange heart 3
    • Types of Blood Vessels Vaso Venules: Veins: drain blood Vasorum: return blood transport blood from capillaries to the heart to tissues of BVinto larger veins wall 4
    • 5
    • Layers ofthe Artery Wall Tunica externa Tunica media Tunica interna 6
    • Layers of the Artery WallTunica externa Tunica media Tunica interna Elastic & Circular External Internal collagen smooth elastic elastic Endothelium fibers muscle lamina lamina & (simple basement squamous membrane epithelium) 7
    • 8
    • Transverse Section Through an Artery 9
    • FunctionalPropertiesof Arteries Elasticity (elastic lamina) Contractility (smooth muscle) 10
    • Sympathetic Nervous System Regulation Vasoconstriction (Vasospasm) Vasodilation (NO, K+, H+) 11
    • ElasticArteries = Conducting arteriesLarge diameter & thicker elastic lamina Less smooth muscle Pressure reservoir 12
    • 13
    • MuscularArteries = Distributing arteries Medium diameter & thinner elastic lamina More smooth muscle & thicker walls Stronger vasoconstriction 14
    • Arterioles Very small diameter & less smooth muscle Deliver blood to capillaries Regulate blood flow Adjust arterial blood pressure 15
    • Metarterioles Regulate blood flow into capillaries Precapillary sphincters Thoroughfare channel Vasomotion: fills bed 5-10x/min 16
    • Blood FlowIntoCapillaryBed 17
    • Blood FlowIntoThoroughfareChannel 18
    • CapillariesConnect arterioles Gas, nutrient, & Capillary bed Microcirculation to venules waste exchange 19
    • 20
    • 21
    • ContinuousCapillaries Endothelium with “leaky” tight junctions Intercellular clefts In skeletal & smooth muscle, lungs, connective tissue 22
    • 23
    • Fenestrated Capillaries Endothelium with many fenestrations (pores) Intercellular clefts In kidneys, small intestine, glands, choroid plexuses 24
    • 25
    • Glomerulus 26
    • 27
    • SinusoidalCapillaries Endothelium with incomplete basement membrane Very large fenestrations & intercellular clefts In liver, bone marrow, spleen, pituitary gland 28
    • 29
    • Venules Drain capillary bedsThin walls & lesssmooth muscle Very porous endothelium Allows emigration 30
    • Venule 31
    • VeinsHave same 3 layers as arteriesThinner walls with valves Little smoothmuscle & no elastic lamina Thicker tunica externaAdapt to changes involume & pressure 32
    • VenousSinusesVery thin walls No smooth muscleSuperior sagittalsinus, coronary sinusAdjust arterialblood pressure 33
    • Varicose Veins Dilated, twisted superficial veins caused by leaky valves Congenital or due to physical stress Blood pools-up in veins Higher pressure forces fluids into ECF 34
    • Varicose Veins In legs, esophagus, anal canal (hemorrhoids) Why is it uncommon for deeper veins to become varicose? 35
    • Anastomoses 2 or more BVs supplying same region Angiogenesis Collateral circulation (alternate routes) Ex: circle of Willis, coronary circulation 36
    • 37
    • Blood Distribution 38
    • CapillaryExchange Diffusion: primary method Across plasma membrane, through clefts & fenestrations O2, CO2, glu, AA, hormones, solutes 39
    • Blood- BrainBarrierNo diffusion ofwater-soluble solutesTight junctionswith no clefts or fenestrations 40
    • Transcytosis Moves substances through endothelium Uses vesicular transport (endocytosis & exocytosis) Transports larger, water- insoluble molecules (proteins) 41
    • Bulk Flow Moves large amounts of substances in same direction Faster transport (high to low pressure) Regulates blood & interstitial fluid volumes Filtration & Reabsorption 42
    • 43
    • Filtration Moves substances into interstitial fluid Blood Hydrostatic Pressure (BHP) Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure (IFOP) 44
    • Reabsorption Moves substances into capillaries Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure (BCOP) Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure (IFHP) 45
    • 46
    • Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) Net outward pressure = 10 mmHg at arterial end Net inward pressure = 9 mm Hg at venous end 85% of filtered fluid returns to capillaries via lymphatics (3L/day) 47
    • Starlings Law of the Capillaries Volume VolumeReabsorbed Filtered 48
    • Edema Due to excess Due to poor filtration reabsorption High capillary Slow protein High blood Low plasma permeability synthesis or loss pressure proteins (lowers (leaks plasma due to liver or(hypertension) BCOP) proteins) renal problems 49
    • 50
    • Factors Affecting Hemodynamics Blood Cardiac VolumePressure (BP) Output (CO) Viscosity Velocity Resistance Venous Elasticity Return 51
    • 52
    • Resistance Opposition to blood flow due to friction Highest in arterioles, capillaries, & venules Vascular resistance: varies with diameter, viscosity, length Systemic Resistance: total 53
    • BloodPressure (BP) Due to ventricular systole (120 mmHg in aorta) BP increases as CO increases BP decreases away from left ventricle 35 mmHg @ capillaries 0 mmHg @ right atrium 54
    • 55
    • Velocity ofBlood Flow Inversely related to BV cross-sectional area Flow is slowest where cross- sectional area is highest Velocity decreases from: aorta  arteries  capillaries Velocity increases from: veins  right atrium 56
    • VenousReturn Volume of blood flow returning to heart from veins Skeletal muscle pump: muscle contraction & valvesRespiratory pump: moves blood into right atrium Lower thoracicpressure  Higher abdominal pressure during inhalation 57
    • 58
    • Factors that Increase Blood Pressure 59
    • Cardiovascular Regulation Cardiovascular Center: in medulla oblongata of brain Sympathetic & parasympathetic control Regulates HR, contractility, & BV diameter Vasomotor nerves: adjust BV diameter 60
    • 61
    • NeuralRegulation of BP Baroreceptors: in major arteries Carotid sinus reflex: maintains brain BP Aortic reflex: maintains general systemic BP If BP decreases: HR, contractility, & vasoconstriction increase 62
    • 63
    • 64
    • 65
    • Syncope(Fainting) 66
    • Syncope A sudden loss of consciousness due to cerebral ischemia (fainting)Vasodepressor Situational Drug-induced Orthostatic syncope syncope syncope hypotension Pressure stress of Diuretics, anti-Sudden emotional coughing, hypertensives, BP decrease upon distress defecation, vasodilators, standing urination tranquilizers 67
    • 68
    • 69
    • Chemoreceptor Reflexes Carotid bodies & Aortic bodies Detect changes in blood O2, CO2, H+ Hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis Stimulate CV center: increases vasoconstriction & respiratory rate 70
    • HormonalRegulation of BP Renin- Angiotensin- Aldosterone system (RAA) Activated by drop in BP or reduced blood flow to kidney Kidneys  Renin 71
    • Aldosterone (H2O & salt Angiotensin reabsorption) (vasoconstriction)Renin 72
    • Hormonal Regulation of BP, cont. ADH ANP (Atrial Epinephrine & (Antidiuretic Natriuretic Norepinephrine Hormone) Peptide) Increases HR & Reduces loss of Increases loss of Na+ contractility  Na+ and H2O in and H2O in urine  raises BP urine  raises BP lowers BP 73
    • Pulse Alternatingexpansion & recoil of elastic arteries after every left ventricle systolePulse rate: avg 70- 80 beats/minTachycardia: >100 beats/minBradycardia: <60 beats/min 74
    • 75
    • Measurement of BP Sphygmomanometer (BP cuff) Korotkoff sounds: provide info about systemic resistance Systolic BP: ventricular contraction (120 mmHg) Diastolic BP: ventricular relaxation (80 mmHg) Pulse pressure: difference b/w systolic & diastolic BP (= 40 mmHg) 76
    • 77
    • Shock Poor CO: cannotdeliver enough O2 & nutrients Cell membrane dysfunction & abnormal metabolism Cell death due to: poor perfusion, switch to anaerobic respiration, &lactic acid build-up 78
    • Signs & Symptoms of ShockWeak, but rapid, resting Clammy, cool, pale skin Altered mental state pulse (tachycardia) (vasoconstriction) (cerebral ischemia) Sweating (sympathetic Hypotension Low cardiac output (CO) stimulation) Decreased urine formation Acidosis (lactic acid Thirst (loss of ECF) (vasoconstriction, build-up) increased aldosterone & ADH) 79
    • Types of ShockHypovolemic Cardiogenic Obstructive VascularDecreased blood Poor heart Blockage of blood Inappropriate or body fluid function flow vasodilation volume Hemorrhage, MI, ischemia, Anaphylactic, Pulmonary sweating, valve disorders, septic, or embolism diarrhea arrhythmias neurogenic shock 80
    • 81
    • 82
    • Aging & the Cardiovascular System Decreased elasticity of Smaller size of cardiac aorta muscle fibers Decreased CO, but Increased systolic BP maximum HR Increased risk of Increased total congestive heart failure, cholesterol & LDL; coronary artery disease, decreased HDL atherosclerosis 83
    • Hypertension Chronically high BP (systolic > 140 mmHg; diastolic > 90 mmHg) Primary hypertension: most common (no identifiable underlying cause) Secondary hypertension (has identifiable cause) Damages BVs, heart, brain, & kidneys before onset of noticeable symptoms 84
    • Treatment of HypertensionLose weight Reduce alcohol Increase exercise Eat healthy diet toReduce salt maintain K+, Ca+2, Don’t smoke and Mg+2 Meds: diuretics, beta-blockers, Manage stress vasodilators, Ca+2 channel blockers 85
    • 86
    • Credits by Rob Swatski, 2010 Visit my website for more Anatomy study resources! http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatskiPlease send your comments and feedback to: rjswatsk@hacc.eduImages used in this work bear a This work bears an Creative Commons license and Attribution-Noncommercial are attributed to their original Share Alike Creative authors. Commons license. 87