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BIOL 121 Chp 20: The Cardiovascular System - The Heart



This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System - The Heart (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 12th Ed. by Tortora and ...

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System - The Heart (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 12th Ed. by Tortora and Derrickson).

Rob Swatski, Assistant Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA.
Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website, BioGeekiWiki, for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com

Visit my Flickr photostream for anatomy model photographs! http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatski/



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    BIOL 121 Chp 20: The Cardiovascular System - The Heart BIOL 121 Chp 20: The Cardiovascular System - The Heart Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 20 Cardiovascular System: The Heart Rob Swatski Assistant Professor of Biology HACC – York Campus 1
    • 20_03a 2
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    • Heart Location: Mediastinum 6
    • Apex: anteriorly, inferiorly, left-side Base: posteriorly, superiorly, right-side Heart Orientation Anterior surface: deep to sternum & ribs Inferior surface: on diaphragm Right border: faces right lung Left border (Pulmonary border): faces left lung 7
    • Heart Surface Projection Superior right point: sup border - 3rd right costal cartilage Superior left point: inf border - 2nd left costal cartilage, 3 cm left of midline Inferior left point: 5th intercostal space, 9 cm left of midline Inferior right point: sup border - 6th right costal cartilage, 3 cm right of midline 8
    • Pericardium Pericardium Fibrous pericardium (outer) - dense irregular CT - protects & anchors heart - prevents overstretching Serous pericardium (epicardium): - thin, delicate membrane - parietal & visceral layers - pericardial cavity - pericardial fluid 9
    • Pericarditis Cardiac tamponade 10
    • Layers of the Heart Wall Epicardium: mesothelium & CT (visceral layer of serous pericardium) Myocardium: cardiac muscle Endocardium: endothelium & CT (lines chambers & valves) 11
    • Myocarditis & Endocarditis endocarditis myocarditis 12
    • Muscle Bundles of the Myocardium 13
    • Chambers & Sulci of the Heart 4 Chambers: - 2 superior atria - 2 inferior ventricles Sulci: grooves on heart surface - contain coronary BVs & adipose Coronary sulcus - encircles heart b/w atria & ventricles Anterior interventricular sulcus - ant. boundary b/w ventricles Posterior interventricular sulcus - post. boundary b/w ventricles 14
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    • Right Atrium Receives blood from 3 sources: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, & coronary sinus Interatrial septum Fossa ovalis: remnant of fetal foramen ovale Tricuspid valve - blood flows through into right ventricle - 3 cusps of dense CT - “RAT on the Right” (Right Atrioventricular, Tricuspid) 18
    • Right Ventricle Forms most of ant. surface of heart Interventricular septum Trabeculae carneae Papillary muscles Chordae tendineae Pulmonary semilunar valve - allows blood into pulmonary trunk 19
    • Papillary Muscles & Chordae Tendineae 20
    • 21
    • Left Atrium Forms most of base of heart Receives blood from lungs through 4 pulmonary veins - 2 right & 2 left Bicuspid valve: blood flows through into left ventricle - 2 cusps - “LAMB on the Left”: Left Atrioventricular, Mitral, or Bicuspid 22
    • Left Ventricle Forms apex of heart Chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, & trabeculae carneae Aortic semilunar valve - allows blood into ascending aorta - openings to the coronary arteries directly above valve 23
    • Myocardial Thickness & Function Thickness varies based on each chamber’s function: - Atria walls are thin; Ventricle walls are thick - Right ventricle walls are thin; Left ventricle walls are thick 24
    • Fibrous Skeleton of Heart Dense CT rings surround heart valves - fuse together & merge with interventricular septum Functions of fibrous skeleton: - valve support structure - insertion point for cardiac muscle bundles - electrical insulator b/w atria & ventricles 25
    • AV Valves OPEN Allow blood flow from atria into ventricles when ventricular pressure is lower than atrial pressure Occurs during ventricular relaxation: - papillary muscles are relaxed - chordae tendineae are slack 26
    • 27
    • AV Valves CLOSED Prevents backflow of blood into atria Occurs during ventricular contraction: - papillary muscles contract - chordae tendineae pulled taut - valve cusps pushed closed 28
    • SL Valves SL valves OPEN during ventricular contraction - allow blood flow into pulmonary trunk & aorta SL valves CLOSE during ventricular relaxation - blood fills cusps & valves close - prevents blood from flowing backwards into ventricles 29
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    • Heart Valve Disorders Stenosis: narrowing of valve that restricts blood flow - repaired by balloon valvuloplasty, surgery, or valve replacement Insufficiency or incompetence: valve cannot close completely Balloon valvuloplasty 33
    • Mitral Valve Stenosis 34
    • Systemic Circulation LEFT side of heart pumps oxygenated blood to body Left ventricle  Aorta  Arteries  Capillaries  Organs  Venules  Veins  Superior/Inferior vena cava/Coronary sinus  Right atrium 35
    • Pulmonary Circulation RIGHT side of heart pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs Right atrium  Right ventricle  Pulmonary trunk  Pulmonary arteries  Lungs  Pulmonary Veins 36
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    • Coronary Circulation Blood flow through myocardium The heart “feeds itself” first Many anastomoses 40
    • Coronary Arteries Right coronary Left coronary artery artery Posterior Anterior Marginal Circumflex interventricular interventricular branch branch branch branch (LAD) 41
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    • Coronary Veins Collect wastes from myocardium Great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein Drain into coronary sinus 44
    • Cardiac Muscle Tissue Striated, branching, shorter fibers of heart Intercalated discs with gap junctions One central nucleus per fiber 45
    • Cardiac Muscle Histology 46
    • Cardiac Muscle Tissue Same actin & myosin arrangement as skeletal muscle Autorhythmic Longer contractions (longer Ca+2 delivery) 47
    • Cardiac Myofibril 48
    • Conduction System Autorhythmic fibers  spontaneous APs Propagate APs through myocardium Sinatrial (SA) node = pacemaker 49
    • SA node Conduction System AV node AV bundle (of His) Right & left bundle branches Purkinje fibers 50
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    • Regulation of the Conduction System Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Hormones (epinephrine) Modify heart rate & strength of contraction They do NOT establish the fundamental rhythm 52
    • Action Potential Depolarization Plateau Repolarization Refractory period 53
    • Physiology of Contraction 54
    • Role of Ions in the Action Potential 55
    • Electro- cardiogram (EKG) Visual record of all APs during each cardiac cycle (heartbeat) Detected at body’s surface Diagnostic value Detects abnormal conduction, enlargement, & muscle damage 56
    • EKG P wave P-Q interval QRS complex T wave 57
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    • Cardiac Cycle At 75 beats/min, 1 cycle = 0.85 sec Pressure & volume changes during cycle Blood pumped from high to low pressure areas 62
    • Atrial systole Cardiac Cycle (contraction) Atrial diastole (relaxation) Ventricular systole Ventricular diastole 63
    • Blood Volumes End Diastolic Volume (EDV) = 130 ml End Systolic Volume (ESV) = 60 ml Stroke Volume (SV) = 70 ml 64
    • SV = EDV - ESV 65
    • Phases of the Cardiac Cycle Isovolumetric Relaxation (all valves close) Ventricular Filling (AV valves open) Isovolumetric Contraction (AV valves close) Ventricular Ejection (SL valves open) 66
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    • Ventricular Pressures Aortic BP = 120 mmHg Pulmonary trunk BP = 30 mmHg Why? How? 69
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    • Heart Sounds Produced when valves close “lubb” = AV valves close “DUPP” = SL valves close 71
    • Heart Sounds 72
    • Heart Murmurs Abnormal sounds before, b/w, or after normal sounds May also mask normal sounds Caused by valve disorders, increased blood flow/volume 73
    • Cardiac Output Volume of blood ejected each minute from either ventricle CO = Stroke Volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR) 70 ml SV x 75 beats/min = 5.25 L/min 74
    • Influences on Stroke Volume Preload (Frank-Starling Law of the Heart) Contractility Afterload 75
    • Preload The greater the stretch, the greater the force of contraction The greater the blood volume, the greater the force of contraction 76
    • Contractility Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Hormones Ca+2 or K+ levels 77
    • Afterload The back pressure that must be overcome… …before the semilunar valve can open The greater the BP = the greater the afterload 78
    • Congestive Heart Failure If afterload is high, more blood remains in the ventricles… …which increases the preload Left ventricular failure = pulmonary edema Right ventricular failure = peripheral edema 79
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    • Neural Regulation of Heart Rate Cardiovascular center in medulla oblongata Sympathetic impulses increase HR & force of contraction Parasympathetic impulses decrease HR & force of contraction 82
    • Nervous System Receptors Baroreceptors: monitor BP Proprioceptors: monitor movements Chemoreceptors: monitor blood chemistry 83
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    • Biochemical Regulation of Heart Rate Epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyroid hormones Na+, K+, Ca+2 Age, gender, physical fitness, temperature 85
    • Risk Factors for Heart Disease High blood High BP Smoking cholesterol Lack of Obesity regular Family history exercise Left Male gender Diabetes ventricular hypertrophy 86
    • Plasma Lipids & Heart Disease High blood cholesterol: promotes plaques High-Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) Very Low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDLs) 87
    • 88
    • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Angina Myocardial Ischemia Pectoris Infarction Leads to reduced Complete Reduced blood Causes hypoxia obstruction of Narrowing of blood flow, chest flow through & weakens coronary blood coronary arteries pain, pressure, coronary arteries cardiac muscle flow causing heart discomfort attack 89
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    • Coronary Artery Disease Obstructions Atherosclerosis Coronary artery spasm Coronary artery thrombosis 91
    • Atherosclerosis & Plaque Development 92
    • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) 93
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    • Congenital Heart Defects 96
    • Congenital Heart Defects, cont. 97
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    • Arrhythmia Irregularity in heart rhythm due to conduction system defect Bradycardia Tachycardia Fibrillation 99
    • Credits by Rob Swatski, 2010 Visit my website for more Anatomy study resources! http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatski Please send your comments and feedback to: rjswatsk@hacc.edu Images used in this work bear a This work bears an Creative Commons license and Attribution-Noncommercial are attributed to their original Share Alike Creative authors. Commons license. 100