Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood

5,881

Published on

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: The Blood (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Ed. by Tortora and …

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: The Blood (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Ed. by Tortora and Derrickson).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

1 Comment
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,881
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
491
Comments
1
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 1   The   Cardiovascular   System:     Blood   BIOL  121:  A&P  I   Chapter  19   Rob  Swatski   Associate  Professor  of  Biology   HACC  –  York  Campus   Textbookimages-Copyright©2014JohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Allrightsreserved.
  • 2. 2   Internal  Fluid   Environment  of   the  Body   Blood  plasma   (in  blood   vessels)   IntersLLal   fluid  (b/w   cells)  
  • 3. FuncLons  of  Blood   Transport:   O2,  CO2,  wastes,   nutrients,  heat,   hormones     RegulaLon:   pH,   temperature,   osmoregula*on     Immunity:   white  blood   cells   (leukocytes)   CloNng:   prevent  blood   loss   (hemorrhage)   3  
  • 4. 4   Blood   Sampling   Techniques   Venipuncture   Finger  sLck   Heel  sLck   Arterial  sLck  
  • 5. 5   Venipuncture  
  • 6. 6   Finger  sLck  
  • 7. 7  Heel  sLck  
  • 8. 8   Arterial  SLck  
  • 9. 9   What  is   Blood?   Blood  plasma   &  formed   elements   pH  =  7.4   (7.35-­‐7.45)   Volume  =     4-­‐6  liters   High  viscosity   –  benefits?  
  • 10. 19_01a  
  • 11. 11  
  • 12. 12   Blood   Plasma   91.5%   water   7%   proteins   1.5%   solutes  
  • 13. 13   Plasma   Proteins     Albumins   (54%)   Globulins   (38%)   Fibrinogen   (7%)  
  • 14. 14   Albumins   Most   abundant   plasma  protein   Made  in  the   liver   Maintains   blood  osmoLc   pressure   Transports   hormones  
  • 15. 15   Globulins   Immunoglobulins   AnLbodies   Heavy  &  light   chains   Bind  to  anLgens  
  • 16. 16   Fibrinogen   Hemostasis   Soluble  &   inacWve   CloNng  cascade   Fibrin  (insoluble   &  acWve)  
  • 17. Solutes   Electro-­‐   lytes   Nutrients   Gases   Hormones   Wastes   17  
  • 18. 18   Formed   Elements   Erythrocytes   (Red  blood   cells)   Leukocytes   (White  blood   cells)   Thrombocytes   (Platelets)  
  • 19. 19  
  • 20. 20  
  • 21. 21   Hematocrit   Blood  plasma   (55%  volume)   Formed   elements  (45%   volume)   Anemia:  low   RBCs   Polycythemia:   high  RBCs  
  • 22. 22   Hemopoiesis   ConWnual   replacement  of   blood  cells   Embryo:  yolk  sac,   liver,  spleen,   thymus,  lymph   nodes,  red  bone   marrow   AVer  Birth  &   Adult:  red  bone   marrow  only  
  • 23. 23   Hemopoiesis   Pluripotent  stem  cells     Myeloid   stem  cells   Lymphoid   stem  cells  
  • 24. 24  
  • 25. 25   Myeloid  Stem  Cells   Progenitor  cells   (Colony-­‐forming   units,  CFUs)   Precursor  cells   (“Blasts”)  
  • 26. 26   Lymphoid  Stem   Cells   Precursor  cells   (“Blasts”)   T  cells   B  cells   Natural  Killer   (NK  cells)  
  • 27. HemopoieLc  Growth  Factors   (regulate  differenWaWon  &  proliferaWon  of  blood  cells)   ErythropoieLn   (EPO,  kidneys):   increases  RBCs   ThrombopoieLn   (TPO,  liver):   sWmulates  platelet   formaWon   Cytokines   (bone  marrow,   WBCs,   fibroblasts,   endothelial   cells):  sWmulate   hemopoiesis;   increases  WBCs;   colony-­‐sWmulaWng   factors  &  interleukins   27  
  • 28. 28   Flexible,   biconcave  disk   High  SA-­‐V  raWo   No  nucleus  or   organelles   Contain   hemoglobin   Do  not  divide   5.4  million  per  uL   (men);  4.8  million   per  uL  (women)   Erythrocytes  
  • 29. 29  
  • 30. 30  
  • 31. 31   Hemoglobin   (Hgb)   4  polypepWde  chains   (quaternary)   1  heme  (Fe+2)  per  chain   Each  heme  combines   reversibly  with  1  O2  
  • 32. 32   Gas  Transport   by   Hemoglobin   1  Hgb  (4  hemes)   can  carry  up  to  4   O2   Globin  carries   CO2  to  lungs   Also  transports   nitric  oxide   (NO):  vasodilator  
  • 33. 33   Blood   Disorders:   Abnormal  Hgb   Thalassemia   Sickle  cell   anemia  
  • 34. 34   Sickle-­‐cell  anemia  
  • 35. 35   RBC  Life   Cycle   120-­‐day  life  span   Constant  wear-­‐and-­‐ tear   No  repair  possible:   why  not?   Dead  RBCs  removed   by  macrophages  in   liver,  spleen,  marrow  
  • 36. 36   Hemoglobin   Recycling   Globin  à  amino   acids   Heme  à  Fe+3  &   biliverdin   Transferrin:  transfers   iron  to  liver  or  bone   marrow     Biliverdin  à  bilirubin   à  bile  
  • 37. 37  
  • 38. 38   Erythropoiesis   RBC  producWon   in  red  bone   marrow   SWmulated  by   hypoxia   CFU-­‐E  à   Proerythroblasts   ReLculocytes  à   eject  nucleus,   then  organelles   Become  mature   erythrocytes  
  • 39. 39  
  • 40. 40  
  • 41. 41  
  • 42. 42   Leukocytes   No  hemoglobin   Larger  cells  with   nucleus   Less  abundant   than  RBCs  &   platelets   Unique  MHC-­‐ anWgens   Granular  or   Agranular  
  • 43. (a) Neutrophil (b) Eosinophil (c) Basophil (d) Lymphocyte (e) Monocyte LM all 1600x
  • 44. 44   WBC   Physiology   Only  2%  in   circulaWon   Most  in  lymph,   skin,  lung,  nodes,   spleen     Leukocytosis   Leukopenia  
  • 45. 45   Leukocytosis  
  • 46. 46   Leukopenia  
  • 47. 47   WBC  Anatomy   Granular   (Granulocyte)   Agranular   (Agranulocyte)  
  • 48. 48   Granulocytes   Neutrophils   Eosinophils   Basophils  
  • 49. 49   Agranulocytes   Monocytes   Lymphocytes  
  • 50. 50   Neutrophils   Polymorphonuclear   leukocytes  (“polys”)   60-­‐70%  of  WBCs   Numerous,  Wny   granules   MulW-­‐lobed  nucleus  
  • 51. 51   Eosinophils   2-­‐4%  of  WBCs   Large,  orange-­‐red   granules   Nucleus  with  2   lobes  
  • 52. 52   Basophils   <1%  of  WBCs   Large,  blue-­‐purple   granules   Bilobed  nucleus   (omen  hidden)  
  • 53. 53   Lymphocytes   20-­‐25%  of  WBCs   Agranulocytes   B  cells,  T  cells,   NK  cells   Large,  round,   darkly  stained   nucleus   Sky  blue   cytoplasm  
  • 54. 54   Monocytes   3-­‐8%  of  WBCs   Agranulocytes   Larger  cell:   12-­‐20  μm   Kidney  or   horseshoe-­‐ shaped  nucleus   Foamy  blue-­‐gray   cytoplasm  
  • 55. 55   EmigraLon   of  WBC’s   EmigraLon  =  Exit   out  of  blood   capillary   SelecLns:  on  BV   endothelium   Integrins:  on   WBC  membrane   Roll  à  SWck  à   Squeeze  
  • 56. 56  
  • 57. 57   Chemotaxis   Cellular   movement  toward   chemicals   Kinins:  released   from  injured   Wssues   Toxins  from   microbes   Phagocytosis:   neutrophils,   monocytes,   macrophages  
  • 58. 58  
  • 59. 59   Neutrophil   FuncLons   Fastest  response   &  emigraWon  to   bacteria   Phagocytosis   Secrete   lysozymes   Contain  strong   oxidants:  O2 -­‐,  H2O2,   OCl-­‐   Contain   defensins  
  • 60. 60  
  • 61. 61   Phases  of  Phagocytosis  
  • 62. 62   Neutrophil  with   ECM  net  
  • 63. 63   Eosinophil   FuncLons   Emigrate  into   Wssue  fluid   Secrete   histaminase   (“an*histamine”)   Reduce  inflammaWon   from  allergic  reacWons   PhagocyWze   anLgen-­‐anLbody   complexes   Arack  parasiWc   worms  
  • 64. 64  
  • 65. 65   Basophil   FuncLons   Emigrate  into  CT   as  mast  cells   Secrete   histamine,   serotonin,  &   heparin   Intensify   inflammaLon   Trigger   hypersensiLvity   reacLons   (allergies)  
  • 66. 66   Monocyte   FuncLons   Emigrate  in  large   numbers   PhagocyWze   microbes   Remove  dead   Wssue  post-­‐ infecWon   DifferenWate   into   macrophages  
  • 67. 67  
  • 68. 68   Macrophages   Fixed   Alveolar  cells   (lungs)   Kupffer  cells   (liver)   Wandering   Emigrate  to   site  of  injury/ infecWon  
  • 69. 69  
  • 70. 70  
  • 71. 71  
  • 72. 72   Lymphocyte   FuncLons   B  cells:  destroy  bacteria   &  toxins   B  cells  à  Plasma  cells   (secrete  anLbodies)     T  cells:  destroy  viruses,   fungi,  organ  transplants,   cancer  cells,  some   bacteria   Natural  Killer  (NK)   cells:  destroy  variety  of   infecWous  microbes  &   tumor  cells  
  • 73. Mr.  T   73  
  • 74. 74   Blood   Counts   Complete   (CBC)   DifferenLal   (WBCs)   Hemoglobin   (g/100  mL)  
  • 75. “I  pity  the  fool   cancer  cell  that   tries  to  mess  with   me!”   T  cell  clones   Mr.  T  cell   75  
  • 76. DifferenLal  WBC  Count   Neutrophils:   bacterial   infecWon,   burns,  stress,   inflammaWon   Lymphocytes:   viral  infecWon,   some  leukemias,   infecWous   mononucleosis   Monocytes:   fungal/viral   infecWon,   some   leukemias,  TB,   other  chronic   diseases   Eosinophils:   allergic   reacWons  or   parasites,   autoimmune   disease     Basophils:   allergic   reacWons,   leukemias,   cancers,   hypothyroid-­‐ ism     76  
  • 77. 77   Platelets   (Thrombocytes)   150,000-­‐400,000   platelets/uL   5-­‐9  day  lifespan   Removed  by   macrophages  in   liver  &  spleen   FuncWon  in   hemostasis,   including  blood   cloNng  
  • 78. 78  
  • 79. 79   Platelet   Anatomy   Cell  fragments   No  nucleus;  Contain   many  vesicles   (granules)   Granules  store   cloNng  factors  &   accessory  clotng   chemicals  
  • 80. 80   Myeloid  Stem  Cells   CFU-­‐Meg   Megakaryoblasts   Megakaryocytes   Platelets  
  • 81. 81  Megakaryocytes  
  • 82. 82   Hemostasis   Vascular  spasm   Platelet  plug   Blood  cloNng   (coagulaLon)  
  • 83. 83   Vascular   Spasm   BV  damage   triggers  pain   receptors   VasoconstricLon   Slows   hemorrhaging  
  • 84. 84   Clotng   (CoagulaWon)   Factors   ADP   ATP   Calcium  ions   Serotonin   Thromboxane   A2   Fibrin-­‐ Stabilizing-­‐ Factor   Platelet-­‐Derived   Growth  Factor   (PDGF)   Platelet  Chemicals  
  • 85. 85   Platelet   Plug   1.  Platelet   adhesion   2.  Platelet   release  reacLon   3.  Platelet   aggregaLon  
  • 86. Red blood cell Platelet Collagen fibers and damaged endothelium 1 Platelet adhesion Collagen fibers Liberated ADP, serotonin, and thromboxane A2 2 Platelet release reaction Collagen fibers PLATELET PLUG 3 Platelet aggregation
  • 87. 87   1.  Platelet  adhesion  
  • 88. 88   2.  Platelet  release  reacLon  
  • 89. 89   3.  Platelet  aggregaLon  
  • 90. 90   CloNng   (CoagulaLon)   Serum   Clot  =   insoluble  fibrin   Traps  blood   cells   CloNng  factors   in  plasma  &   platelets   Tissue  factor  
  • 91. 91   Calcium  ions   (Ca+2)   Clotng  Factors   Tissue  Factor   (TF)  or   ThromboplasWn   CloNng  (CoagulaLon)  Factors  
  • 92. 92   1.  FormaLon  of   prothrombinase   2.  Prothrombin   à  Thrombin   3.  Fibrinogen  à   Fibrin   CloNng  Cascade  
  • 93. 93   CloNng   Cascade   Extrinsic  pathway   Intrinsic  pathway   Common   pathway  
  • 94. 94   Extrinsic  Pathway  
  • 95. 95   Intrinsic  Pathway  
  • 96. 96   Common   Pathway  
  • 97. 97   Clot   RetracLon  
  • 98. 98   HemostaLc  Control   Prostacyclin   From  BV   endothelium   &  WBCs   Prevents   platelet   adhesion  &   release   reacWon   AnLcoagulants   AnLthrombin,   Heparin,  and   AcLvated   Protein  C  (APC)   FibrinolyLc   System   Fibrinolysis   Plasminogen   (inac*ve)  à   Plasmin   (ac*ve)  à   digests  fibrin  
  • 99. 99   Intravascular   CloNng   (Thrombosis)   Thrombus:   inappropriate   clot   Stasis   AccumulaWon  of   clotng  factors   à  coagulaWon   Embolus   (Pulmonary   embolism)  
  • 100. 100  
  • 101. 101   AnLcoagulants   Aspirin:  blocks   thromboxane  A2   Heparin:  used  during   hemodialysis  &  surgery   Coumadin  (Warfarin):   vitamin  K  antagonist   Citrate  phosphate   dextrose  (CPD)  or  EDTA:   removes  Ca+2   ThrombolyLc  agents:   streptokinase  à  dissolves   clots  
  • 102. 102  
  • 103. 103   Blood  Types   Glycoproteins  &   glycolipids  on   RBC  membranes   AggluLnogens  =   A  anLgen  &  B   anLgen   AnL-­‐A  and  AnL-­‐ B  anLbodies  in   plasma   ABO  blood   group  
  • 104. 104  
  • 105. 105   ABO  Blood   Group   A  anWgen  only  =   Type  A   B  anWgen  only  =   Type  B   Both  A  and  B   anWgens  =  Type  AB   Neither  A  or  B   anWgens  =  Type  O  
  • 106. 106   AnLbodies   (AggluLnins)   Plasma  contains   anWbodies  to  the   anWgens  not  found   in  your  blood   AnL-­‐A  anLbody:   reacts  with  A  anWgen   AnL-­‐B  anLbody:   reacts  with  B  anWgen  
  • 107. 107   Rh  Blood   Group   AnWgen   discovered  on   RBCs  of  Rhesus   monkeys   Rh+:  anWgen   present   Rh-­‐:  anWgen   absent   AnL-­‐Rh  anLbody   develops  only  in   Rh-­‐  plasma  a9er   exposure  
  • 108. 108   HemolyLc  Disease  of  the  Newborn  
  • 109. 109   Blood   Transfusions   Transfer  of   whole  blood,   cells,  or  plasma   Treat  anemia   or  severe  blood   loss   IncompaLble   transfusions:   agglu*na*on   RBCs  burst,  Hgb   results  in  kidney   damage  
  • 110. 110   DonaLng  &  Receiving  Blood   Type  O  =   Universal  donor   No  A  or  B   anWgens  on  RBCs   Type  AB  =   Universal   recipient   No  anW-­‐A  or  anW-­‐ B  anWbodies  in   plasma  
  • 111. 111   Blood   Typing   Detects  ABO  and   Rh  groups   Mix  blood  sample   with  serums   (anLsera)   containing   anWbodies  to   each  anWgen   Cross-­‐matching:   determines   compaWbility  
  • 112. 112  
  • 113. 113  
  • 114. 114   Anemia   Low  RBC  count   Reduced  O2-­‐ carrying  capacity   of  blood   Not  enough  O2   to  produce  ATP   &  heat   FaWgue,  cold   intolerance,  skin   pallor  
  • 115. 115  
  • 116. 116  
  • 117. Types  of  Anemia   Iron-­‐ deficiency   Pernicious   Hemorrhagic   HemolyLc   Thalassemia   AplasLc   117  
  • 118. 118   HemolyLc  Anemia  
  • 119. 119   Sickle-­‐Cell   Anemia   GeneWc  mutaWon   in  Hgb  synthesis   Deforms  RBCs  à   easily  rupture  &   clot   Found  in  malaria   belt  regions   Carriers  have   increased  malaria   resistance     RBCs  leak  K+  à   kills  parasite  
  • 120. Beginning to sickle Crenated Normal Sickled SEM 1,655x Red blood cells
  • 121. 121   Leukemia   Acute   Uncontrolled   producWon  of   immature  WBCs   Crowds  out  red   bone  marrow   Prevents  normal   RBC  &  platelet   producWon   Chronic   AccumulaWon  of   mature  WBCs  in   blood   Classified  by   type  of  WBC  

×