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BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood
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BIOL 121 Chp 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: The Blood (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Ed. by Tortora and …

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: The Blood (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Ed. by Tortora and Derrickson).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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  1. 1   The   Cardiovascular   System:     Blood   BIOL  121:  A&P  I   Chapter  19   Rob  Swatski   Associate  Professor  of  Biology   HACC  –  York  Campus   Textbookimages-Copyright©2014JohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Allrightsreserved.
  2. 2   Internal  Fluid   Environment  of   the  Body   Blood  plasma   (in  blood   vessels)   IntersLLal   fluid  (b/w   cells)  
  3. FuncLons  of  Blood   Transport:   O2,  CO2,  wastes,   nutrients,  heat,   hormones     RegulaLon:   pH,   temperature,   osmoregula*on     Immunity:   white  blood   cells   (leukocytes)   CloNng:   prevent  blood   loss   (hemorrhage)   3  
  4. 4   Blood   Sampling   Techniques   Venipuncture   Finger  sLck   Heel  sLck   Arterial  sLck  
  5. 5   Venipuncture  
  6. 6   Finger  sLck  
  7. 7  Heel  sLck  
  8. 8   Arterial  SLck  
  9. 9   What  is   Blood?   Blood  plasma   &  formed   elements   pH  =  7.4   (7.35-­‐7.45)   Volume  =     4-­‐6  liters   High  viscosity   –  benefits?  
  10. 19_01a  
  11. 11  
  12. 12   Blood   Plasma   91.5%   water   7%   proteins   1.5%   solutes  
  13. 13   Plasma   Proteins     Albumins   (54%)   Globulins   (38%)   Fibrinogen   (7%)  
  14. 14   Albumins   Most   abundant   plasma  protein   Made  in  the   liver   Maintains   blood  osmoLc   pressure   Transports   hormones  
  15. 15   Globulins   Immunoglobulins   AnLbodies   Heavy  &  light   chains   Bind  to  anLgens  
  16. 16   Fibrinogen   Hemostasis   Soluble  &   inacWve   CloNng  cascade   Fibrin  (insoluble   &  acWve)  
  17. Solutes   Electro-­‐   lytes   Nutrients   Gases   Hormones   Wastes   17  
  18. 18   Formed   Elements   Erythrocytes   (Red  blood   cells)   Leukocytes   (White  blood   cells)   Thrombocytes   (Platelets)  
  19. 19  
  20. 20  
  21. 21   Hematocrit   Blood  plasma   (55%  volume)   Formed   elements  (45%   volume)   Anemia:  low   RBCs   Polycythemia:   high  RBCs  
  22. 22   Hemopoiesis   ConWnual   replacement  of   blood  cells   Embryo:  yolk  sac,   liver,  spleen,   thymus,  lymph   nodes,  red  bone   marrow   AVer  Birth  &   Adult:  red  bone   marrow  only  
  23. 23   Hemopoiesis   Pluripotent  stem  cells     Myeloid   stem  cells   Lymphoid   stem  cells  
  24. 24  
  25. 25   Myeloid  Stem  Cells   Progenitor  cells   (Colony-­‐forming   units,  CFUs)   Precursor  cells   (“Blasts”)  
  26. 26   Lymphoid  Stem   Cells   Precursor  cells   (“Blasts”)   T  cells   B  cells   Natural  Killer   (NK  cells)  
  27. HemopoieLc  Growth  Factors   (regulate  differenWaWon  &  proliferaWon  of  blood  cells)   ErythropoieLn   (EPO,  kidneys):   increases  RBCs   ThrombopoieLn   (TPO,  liver):   sWmulates  platelet   formaWon   Cytokines   (bone  marrow,   WBCs,   fibroblasts,   endothelial   cells):  sWmulate   hemopoiesis;   increases  WBCs;   colony-­‐sWmulaWng   factors  &  interleukins   27  
  28. 28   Flexible,   biconcave  disk   High  SA-­‐V  raWo   No  nucleus  or   organelles   Contain   hemoglobin   Do  not  divide   5.4  million  per  uL   (men);  4.8  million   per  uL  (women)   Erythrocytes  
  29. 29  
  30. 30  
  31. 31   Hemoglobin   (Hgb)   4  polypepWde  chains   (quaternary)   1  heme  (Fe+2)  per  chain   Each  heme  combines   reversibly  with  1  O2  
  32. 32   Gas  Transport   by   Hemoglobin   1  Hgb  (4  hemes)   can  carry  up  to  4   O2   Globin  carries   CO2  to  lungs   Also  transports   nitric  oxide   (NO):  vasodilator  
  33. 33   Blood   Disorders:   Abnormal  Hgb   Thalassemia   Sickle  cell   anemia  
  34. 34   Sickle-­‐cell  anemia  
  35. 35   RBC  Life   Cycle   120-­‐day  life  span   Constant  wear-­‐and-­‐ tear   No  repair  possible:   why  not?   Dead  RBCs  removed   by  macrophages  in   liver,  spleen,  marrow  
  36. 36   Hemoglobin   Recycling   Globin  à  amino   acids   Heme  à  Fe+3  &   biliverdin   Transferrin:  transfers   iron  to  liver  or  bone   marrow     Biliverdin  à  bilirubin   à  bile  
  37. 37  
  38. 38   Erythropoiesis   RBC  producWon   in  red  bone   marrow   SWmulated  by   hypoxia   CFU-­‐E  à   Proerythroblasts   ReLculocytes  à   eject  nucleus,   then  organelles   Become  mature   erythrocytes  
  39. 39  
  40. 40  
  41. 41  
  42. 42   Leukocytes   No  hemoglobin   Larger  cells  with   nucleus   Less  abundant   than  RBCs  &   platelets   Unique  MHC-­‐ anWgens   Granular  or   Agranular  
  43. (a) Neutrophil (b) Eosinophil (c) Basophil (d) Lymphocyte (e) Monocyte LM all 1600x
  44. 44   WBC   Physiology   Only  2%  in   circulaWon   Most  in  lymph,   skin,  lung,  nodes,   spleen     Leukocytosis   Leukopenia  
  45. 45   Leukocytosis  
  46. 46   Leukopenia  
  47. 47   WBC  Anatomy   Granular   (Granulocyte)   Agranular   (Agranulocyte)  
  48. 48   Granulocytes   Neutrophils   Eosinophils   Basophils  
  49. 49   Agranulocytes   Monocytes   Lymphocytes  
  50. 50   Neutrophils   Polymorphonuclear   leukocytes  (“polys”)   60-­‐70%  of  WBCs   Numerous,  Wny   granules   MulW-­‐lobed  nucleus  
  51. 51   Eosinophils   2-­‐4%  of  WBCs   Large,  orange-­‐red   granules   Nucleus  with  2   lobes  
  52. 52   Basophils   <1%  of  WBCs   Large,  blue-­‐purple   granules   Bilobed  nucleus   (omen  hidden)  
  53. 53   Lymphocytes   20-­‐25%  of  WBCs   Agranulocytes   B  cells,  T  cells,   NK  cells   Large,  round,   darkly  stained   nucleus   Sky  blue   cytoplasm  
  54. 54   Monocytes   3-­‐8%  of  WBCs   Agranulocytes   Larger  cell:   12-­‐20  μm   Kidney  or   horseshoe-­‐ shaped  nucleus   Foamy  blue-­‐gray   cytoplasm  
  55. 55   EmigraLon   of  WBC’s   EmigraLon  =  Exit   out  of  blood   capillary   SelecLns:  on  BV   endothelium   Integrins:  on   WBC  membrane   Roll  à  SWck  à   Squeeze  
  56. 56  
  57. 57   Chemotaxis   Cellular   movement  toward   chemicals   Kinins:  released   from  injured   Wssues   Toxins  from   microbes   Phagocytosis:   neutrophils,   monocytes,   macrophages  
  58. 58  
  59. 59   Neutrophil   FuncLons   Fastest  response   &  emigraWon  to   bacteria   Phagocytosis   Secrete   lysozymes   Contain  strong   oxidants:  O2 -­‐,  H2O2,   OCl-­‐   Contain   defensins  
  60. 60  
  61. 61   Phases  of  Phagocytosis  
  62. 62   Neutrophil  with   ECM  net  
  63. 63   Eosinophil   FuncLons   Emigrate  into   Wssue  fluid   Secrete   histaminase   (“an*histamine”)   Reduce  inflammaWon   from  allergic  reacWons   PhagocyWze   anLgen-­‐anLbody   complexes   Arack  parasiWc   worms  
  64. 64  
  65. 65   Basophil   FuncLons   Emigrate  into  CT   as  mast  cells   Secrete   histamine,   serotonin,  &   heparin   Intensify   inflammaLon   Trigger   hypersensiLvity   reacLons   (allergies)  
  66. 66   Monocyte   FuncLons   Emigrate  in  large   numbers   PhagocyWze   microbes   Remove  dead   Wssue  post-­‐ infecWon   DifferenWate   into   macrophages  
  67. 67  
  68. 68   Macrophages   Fixed   Alveolar  cells   (lungs)   Kupffer  cells   (liver)   Wandering   Emigrate  to   site  of  injury/ infecWon  
  69. 69  
  70. 70  
  71. 71  
  72. 72   Lymphocyte   FuncLons   B  cells:  destroy  bacteria   &  toxins   B  cells  à  Plasma  cells   (secrete  anLbodies)     T  cells:  destroy  viruses,   fungi,  organ  transplants,   cancer  cells,  some   bacteria   Natural  Killer  (NK)   cells:  destroy  variety  of   infecWous  microbes  &   tumor  cells  
  73. Mr.  T   73  
  74. 74   Blood   Counts   Complete   (CBC)   DifferenLal   (WBCs)   Hemoglobin   (g/100  mL)  
  75. “I  pity  the  fool   cancer  cell  that   tries  to  mess  with   me!”   T  cell  clones   Mr.  T  cell   75  
  76. DifferenLal  WBC  Count   Neutrophils:   bacterial   infecWon,   burns,  stress,   inflammaWon   Lymphocytes:   viral  infecWon,   some  leukemias,   infecWous   mononucleosis   Monocytes:   fungal/viral   infecWon,   some   leukemias,  TB,   other  chronic   diseases   Eosinophils:   allergic   reacWons  or   parasites,   autoimmune   disease     Basophils:   allergic   reacWons,   leukemias,   cancers,   hypothyroid-­‐ ism     76  
  77. 77   Platelets   (Thrombocytes)   150,000-­‐400,000   platelets/uL   5-­‐9  day  lifespan   Removed  by   macrophages  in   liver  &  spleen   FuncWon  in   hemostasis,   including  blood   cloNng  
  78. 78  
  79. 79   Platelet   Anatomy   Cell  fragments   No  nucleus;  Contain   many  vesicles   (granules)   Granules  store   cloNng  factors  &   accessory  clotng   chemicals  
  80. 80   Myeloid  Stem  Cells   CFU-­‐Meg   Megakaryoblasts   Megakaryocytes   Platelets  
  81. 81  Megakaryocytes  
  82. 82   Hemostasis   Vascular  spasm   Platelet  plug   Blood  cloNng   (coagulaLon)  
  83. 83   Vascular   Spasm   BV  damage   triggers  pain   receptors   VasoconstricLon   Slows   hemorrhaging  
  84. 84   Clotng   (CoagulaWon)   Factors   ADP   ATP   Calcium  ions   Serotonin   Thromboxane   A2   Fibrin-­‐ Stabilizing-­‐ Factor   Platelet-­‐Derived   Growth  Factor   (PDGF)   Platelet  Chemicals  
  85. 85   Platelet   Plug   1.  Platelet   adhesion   2.  Platelet   release  reacLon   3.  Platelet   aggregaLon  
  86. Red blood cell Platelet Collagen fibers and damaged endothelium 1 Platelet adhesion Collagen fibers Liberated ADP, serotonin, and thromboxane A2 2 Platelet release reaction Collagen fibers PLATELET PLUG 3 Platelet aggregation
  87. 87   1.  Platelet  adhesion  
  88. 88   2.  Platelet  release  reacLon  
  89. 89   3.  Platelet  aggregaLon  
  90. 90   CloNng   (CoagulaLon)   Serum   Clot  =   insoluble  fibrin   Traps  blood   cells   CloNng  factors   in  plasma  &   platelets   Tissue  factor  
  91. 91   Calcium  ions   (Ca+2)   Clotng  Factors   Tissue  Factor   (TF)  or   ThromboplasWn   CloNng  (CoagulaLon)  Factors  
  92. 92   1.  FormaLon  of   prothrombinase   2.  Prothrombin   à  Thrombin   3.  Fibrinogen  à   Fibrin   CloNng  Cascade  
  93. 93   CloNng   Cascade   Extrinsic  pathway   Intrinsic  pathway   Common   pathway  
  94. 94   Extrinsic  Pathway  
  95. 95   Intrinsic  Pathway  
  96. 96   Common   Pathway  
  97. 97   Clot   RetracLon  
  98. 98   HemostaLc  Control   Prostacyclin   From  BV   endothelium   &  WBCs   Prevents   platelet   adhesion  &   release   reacWon   AnLcoagulants   AnLthrombin,   Heparin,  and   AcLvated   Protein  C  (APC)   FibrinolyLc   System   Fibrinolysis   Plasminogen   (inac*ve)  à   Plasmin   (ac*ve)  à   digests  fibrin  
  99. 99   Intravascular   CloNng   (Thrombosis)   Thrombus:   inappropriate   clot   Stasis   AccumulaWon  of   clotng  factors   à  coagulaWon   Embolus   (Pulmonary   embolism)  
  100. 100  
  101. 101   AnLcoagulants   Aspirin:  blocks   thromboxane  A2   Heparin:  used  during   hemodialysis  &  surgery   Coumadin  (Warfarin):   vitamin  K  antagonist   Citrate  phosphate   dextrose  (CPD)  or  EDTA:   removes  Ca+2   ThrombolyLc  agents:   streptokinase  à  dissolves   clots  
  102. 102  
  103. 103   Blood  Types   Glycoproteins  &   glycolipids  on   RBC  membranes   AggluLnogens  =   A  anLgen  &  B   anLgen   AnL-­‐A  and  AnL-­‐ B  anLbodies  in   plasma   ABO  blood   group  
  104. 104  
  105. 105   ABO  Blood   Group   A  anWgen  only  =   Type  A   B  anWgen  only  =   Type  B   Both  A  and  B   anWgens  =  Type  AB   Neither  A  or  B   anWgens  =  Type  O  
  106. 106   AnLbodies   (AggluLnins)   Plasma  contains   anWbodies  to  the   anWgens  not  found   in  your  blood   AnL-­‐A  anLbody:   reacts  with  A  anWgen   AnL-­‐B  anLbody:   reacts  with  B  anWgen  
  107. 107   Rh  Blood   Group   AnWgen   discovered  on   RBCs  of  Rhesus   monkeys   Rh+:  anWgen   present   Rh-­‐:  anWgen   absent   AnL-­‐Rh  anLbody   develops  only  in   Rh-­‐  plasma  a9er   exposure  
  108. 108   HemolyLc  Disease  of  the  Newborn  
  109. 109   Blood   Transfusions   Transfer  of   whole  blood,   cells,  or  plasma   Treat  anemia   or  severe  blood   loss   IncompaLble   transfusions:   agglu*na*on   RBCs  burst,  Hgb   results  in  kidney   damage  
  110. 110   DonaLng  &  Receiving  Blood   Type  O  =   Universal  donor   No  A  or  B   anWgens  on  RBCs   Type  AB  =   Universal   recipient   No  anW-­‐A  or  anW-­‐ B  anWbodies  in   plasma  
  111. 111   Blood   Typing   Detects  ABO  and   Rh  groups   Mix  blood  sample   with  serums   (anLsera)   containing   anWbodies  to   each  anWgen   Cross-­‐matching:   determines   compaWbility  
  112. 112  
  113. 113  
  114. 114   Anemia   Low  RBC  count   Reduced  O2-­‐ carrying  capacity   of  blood   Not  enough  O2   to  produce  ATP   &  heat   FaWgue,  cold   intolerance,  skin   pallor  
  115. 115  
  116. 116  
  117. Types  of  Anemia   Iron-­‐ deficiency   Pernicious   Hemorrhagic   HemolyLc   Thalassemia   AplasLc   117  
  118. 118   HemolyLc  Anemia  
  119. 119   Sickle-­‐Cell   Anemia   GeneWc  mutaWon   in  Hgb  synthesis   Deforms  RBCs  à   easily  rupture  &   clot   Found  in  malaria   belt  regions   Carriers  have   increased  malaria   resistance     RBCs  leak  K+  à   kills  parasite  
  120. Beginning to sickle Crenated Normal Sickled SEM 1,655x Red blood cells
  121. 121   Leukemia   Acute   Uncontrolled   producWon  of   immature  WBCs   Crowds  out  red   bone  marrow   Prevents  normal   RBC  &  platelet   producWon   Chronic   AccumulaWon  of   mature  WBCs  in   blood   Classified  by   type  of  WBC  

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