BIOL 108 Chp 3 Vocab Spring 2010
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BIOL 108 Chp 3 Vocab Spring 2010

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BIOL 108 Chp 3 Vocab Spring 2010 BIOL 108 Chp 3 Vocab Spring 2010 Document Transcript

  • Chapter 3 Vocabulary – Cells – BIOL 108 Intro to Bio Sci 1. Active transport: a process that uses energy to move molecules across a membrane 2. Cell: the smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all of the necessary functions of life, including reproducing itself 3. Cell theory: this states that all living organisms are made up of one or more cells and all cells arise from other pre-existing cells 4. Cell wall: a rigid structure, outside the cell membrane, that protects and gives shape to the cell 5. Chloroplast: an organelle in plants and algae in which photosynthesis occurs 6. Cholesterol: a lipid that helps the membrane maintain its flexibility 7. Chromatin: a mass of long, thin fibers consisting of DNA with some proteins attached 8. Cilia: numerous short cellular projections that can move fluids along the cell’s surface 9. Contact inhibition: occurs when normal cells stop dividing as they bump up against each other 10. Cytoplasm: the jelly-like fluid inside a cell 11. Cytoskeleton: the inner protein framework of an animal cell that provides shape and support 12. Desmosome: a cell junction that is like a spot weld or rivet that fastens cells together into strong sheets 13. Diffusion: passive transport in which a particle (solute) is dissolved in a gas or liquid (solvent) and moves down a concentration gradient, from an area of high solute concentration to an area of lower concentration 14. Endocytosis: a cellular process in which large particles outside the cell are surrounded by a fold of the cell membrane, which pinches off to form a vesicle, moving the enclosed particles into the cell 15. Endomembrane system: a group of organelles that produce and modify molecules to be exported out of the cell, as well as break down toxic chemicals and cellular waste products; consists of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus
  • Chapter 3 Vocabulary – Cells – BIOL 108 Intro to Bio Sci 16. Endosymbiosis theory: this explains how chloroplasts in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals, evolved from prokaryotes ingested by a simple cell 17. Enzymatic protein: this is used to accelerate intracellular and extracellular reactions on the cell membrane 18. Eukaryote: a unicellular or multicellular organism having a nucleus and organelles throughout its cellular cytoplasm; examples include the protists, fungi, plants, and animals 19. Exocytosis: the method by which cells export products for use in another location 20. Facilitated diffusion: the spontaneous movement of a molecule across a cell membrane with the assistance of a transport protein (carrier molecule) 21. Flagellum: a whip-like tail that moves a cell through its environment 22. Fluid mosaic: this describes the structure of the cell membrane, which is made up of several different types of molecules, many of which are not fixed in place but float, held in proper orientation by hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces 23. Gap junction: a pore surrounded by special proteins that forms an open channel between two cells 24. Glycerol: the polar "head" of a phospholipid where the fatty acid tails are attached 25. Golgi apparatus: an organelle that processes molecules synthesized within a cell and packages molecules that are destined for use elsewhere in the body 26. Hydrophilic: a substance attracted to water 27. Hydrophobic: a substance repelled by water 28. Hypertonic: this describes how the solute concentration is higher in the extracellular fluid, causing water to diffuse out of cells 29. Hypotonic: this describes how the solute concentration is lower in the extracellular fluid, causing water to diffuse into cells 30. Intermembrane space: the region between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria 31. Isotonic: this describes how the solute concentration of the extracellular fluid is the same as the cell’s cytoplasm, resulting in the equal diffusion of water into and out of cells 2
  • Chapter 3 Vocabulary – Cells – BIOL 108 Intro to Bio Sci 32. Lysosome: a round, membrane-enclosed, acid-filled vesicle that functions as garbage disposals, helping to break down a cell’s waste products 33. Matrix: the space within the inner membrane of mitochondria, where high-energy electrons are brought to help make ATP 34. Mitochondria: the organelle in plant and animal cells that converts the energy stored in food into a form usable by the cell 35. Nonpolar: a molecule that is electrically uncharged 36. Nuclear membrane: this surrounds the nucleus of the cell 37. Nucleolus: an area near the center of a nucleus that produces ribosome subunits 38. Nucleus: a cell organelle that contains the cell's DNA and directs most cellular activities by controlling which molecules are produced and in what quantity they are produced 39. Organelle: the specialized structures inside cells that allow them to function 40. Osmosis: the diffusion of water across a cell membrane 41. Passive transport: the spontaneous movement of molecules, occurring without the input of energy 42. Phagocytosis: the process where relatively large solid particles are engulfed by the cell membrane, forming a vesicle, which then moves the particles into the cell 43. Phospholipid: a lipid having a glycerol head and 2 long fatty acid tails that makes up the foundation of all cell membranes 44. Phospholipid bilayer: the structure of a cell membrane consisting of two layers of phospholipids, arranged with their tails facing each other and their heads facing the watery solution outside and inside the cell 45. Pinocytosis: the process where dissolved particles and liquids are engulfed by the cell membrane, forming a vesicle, which then moves the particles into the cell 46. Plasma membrane: a two-layered structure that holds the contents of a cell in place and regulates what enters and leaves the cell 47. Plasmodesmata: the tube-like channels connecting plant cells to each other, enabling communication and transport between them 3
  • Chapter 3 Vocabulary – Cells – BIOL 108 Intro to Bio Sci 48. Polar: a molecule having both a positive and negative electrical charge 49. Primary active transport: the process that uses energy directly from ATP in order to move molecules across a cell membrane 50. Prokaryote: single-celled bacteria and archaea without a nucleus that are characterized by tremendous metabolic diversity 51. Receptor protein: this binds to external chemicals in order to regulate processes within the cell 52. Receptor mediated endocytosis: the process in which receptors on a cell’s surface bind to specific molecules, the plasma membrane engulfs both molecule and receptor, moving them both into the cell 53. Recognition protein: this provides a "fingerprint" for the cell, so it can be recognized by other cells 54. Ribosome: one of many granular particles in the cytoplasm where proteins are made 55. Rough endoplasmic reticulum: this organelle modifies proteins that will be shipped elsewhere in the organism 56. Secondary active transport: the process where a transporter protein simultaneously moves one molecule against its concentration gradient while letting another molecule flow down its concentration gradient, without the direct use of ATP 57. Simple diffusion: the movement of small, uncharged molecules directly through the phospholipid bilayer of a cell membrane without the assistance of any other molecules 58. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: this organelle synthesizes lipids and detoxifies alcohols, drugs, and metabolic waste products 59. Solute: a substance that is dissolved in a gas or liquid 60. Solvent: the gas or liquid in which a substance is dissolved 61. Stroma: the fluid in the inner compartment of a chloroplast that contains some DNA and lots of protein-making chemical pathways 62. Surface protein: this is found primarily on the inner or outer surface of a cell membrane 4
  • Chapter 3 Vocabulary – Cells – BIOL 108 Intro to Bio Sci 63. Thylakoid: an interconnected flattened membrane sac inside a chloroplast that contains the light-collecting reactions of photosynthesis 64. Tight junction: this forms a continuous, water-tight seal around cells and also anchors cells in place 65. Tonicity: the relative concentration of solutes outside of the cell relative to inside the cell 66. Transmembrane protein: a protein embedded in the cell membrane that acts like motorized revolving doors to actively transport molecules in and out of cells 67. Transport protein: this provides a passageway for molecules to travel into and out of the cell 68. Turgor pressure: the force exerted by the cellular contents against the cell membrane and cell wall; it is maintained by osmosis as water rushes into the cell when it contains high concentrations of dissolved substances 69. Vacuole: this organelle functions as a storage space inside the cell and plays a role in nutrition, waste management, predator deterrence, reproduction, and physical support 70. Vesicle: this is a portion of the cell membrane that is pinched off and used to transport chemicals through, into, or out of a cell 5