BIOL 108 Chp 11-pt 1: Animal Diversification
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BIOL 108 Chp 11-pt 1: Animal Diversification






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BIOL 108 Chp 11-pt 1: Animal Diversification BIOL 108 Chp 11-pt 1: Animal Diversification Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 11Chapter 11Part 1Part 1Animal DiversificationAnimal DiversificationBIOLBIOL 108108Intro to BioIntro to Bio SciSciRobRob SwatskiSwatskiAssoc ProfAssoc Prof BiologyBiologyHACCHACC--YorkYork
  • 11·1–11·3Animals arejust onebranch of theEukaryadomain.
  • 11.1 What is an animal?11.1 What is an animal?Three Key Characteristics
  • Take-Home Message 11.1Animals are organisms that share threecharacteristics:1) All of them can move during at least onestage of development.2) All of them eat other organisms.3) All of them are multicellular.
  • 11.2 Four key distinctions11.2 Four key distinctionsdivide the animals.divide the animals.
  • 1) Does the animal have1) Does the animal have defineddefinedtissuestissues, with specialized cells?, with specialized cells?
  • 2) Does the animal develop with2) Does the animal develop withradial symmetry or bilateralradial symmetry or bilateralsymmetry?symmetry?A body structured like a pieorA body with a left and right side, whichare mirror images
  • 3) During development, does3) During development, doesthe animal’s gut develop fromthe animal’s gut develop fromfront to back or back to front?front to back or back to front?ProtostomesandDeuterostomes
  • 4) Does growth occur by4) Does growth occur bymolting or by addingmolting or by addingcontinuously to the skeletalcontinuously to the skeletalelements?elements?
  • Take-Home Message 11.2 The animals probably originated from anancestral protist. Four key distinctions divide the extantanimals:1) Tissue or not2) Radial or bilateral symmetry3) Protostome or deuterostome development4) Growth through molting or through continuousskeletal enlargement
  • 11.3 Everything that is not11.3 Everything that is notextinct is evolutionarilyextinct is evolutionarilysuccessful.successful.
  • What is “success” evolutionarily?What is “success” evolutionarily?Extant or Extinct
  • Take-Home Message 11.3 From an evolutionary perspective, all extantspecies are successful. However, some groups are represented bymore species than others. Among the 36 animal phyla, 9 phyla accountfor more than 99 percent of all describedanimal species.
  • 11.4Invertebratesare animalswithout abackbone.
  • 11.411.4 Invertebrates are the largestInvertebrates are the largestand most diverse group of animals.and most diverse group of animals.
  • Take-Home Message 11.4 Invertebrates, defined as animals without abackbone, are the largest and most diversegroup of animals, comprising 96% of all theliving species of animals. The invertebrates are not a monophyleticgroup, however, and include protostomes anddeuterostomes.
  • 11.5–11.12Acrossseveral evolutionarytransitions, theinvertebrate animalsdiversified.
  • 11.5 Sponges are animals that11.5 Sponges are animals thatlack tissues and organs.lack tissues and organs.
  • Sponge ReproductionSponge Reproduction How do they do it? Hermaphrodites• Male and female sexual reproductive organs• Free-swimming larvae become sessile adults Asexual reproduction• Budding
  • Take-Home Message 11.5 Sponges are among the simplest of the animallineages. A sponge consists of a hollow tube with poresin its wall, it has no tissues or organs, and onlythree kinds of cells.
  • 11.6 Jellyfish and other cnidarians11.6 Jellyfish and other cnidariansare among the most poisonousare among the most poisonousanimals in the world.animals in the world.
  • CnidariansCnidarians Two types of cnidarian bodies:• A sessile polyp• A free-floating medusa Reproduce both sexually and asexually Carnivores that use cnidocysts• Stinging cells
  • 3 Major Groups of Cnidarians3 Major Groups of Cnidarians Corals Sea anemones Jellyfishes
  • The CoralsThe Corals Small, soft-bodied polyps living in largecolonial groups Secrete calcium carbonate Stinging tentacles surrounding a mouth Sexual and asexual reproduction
  • How is global warming affecting theHow is global warming affecting thecoral reefs of the world?coral reefs of the world?
  • The Sea AnemonesThe Sea Anemones Resemble flowers Free-swimming larval stage Adult stage settles• But may crawl slowly
  • The JellyfishesThe Jellyfishes Range tremendously in size Some species deadly
  • Take-Home Message 11.6 Corals, sea anemones, and jellyfishes areradially symmetrical animals with definedtissues, in the phylum Cnidaria. All cnidarians are carnivores and usespecialized stinging cells located in theirtentacles to capture prey.
  • 11.7 Flatworms, roundworms, and11.7 Flatworms, roundworms, andsegmented worms come in allsegmented worms come in allshapes and sizes.shapes and sizes.
  • Annelids:Annelids: PolychaetesPolychaetes Marine worms “Many bristles” Some are burrowing. Some are tube dwelling.
  • Annelids: EarthwormsAnnelids: Earthworms “Few bristles” Bulk feeders• Consume particles of soil and organic material Castings are valued by gardeners.
  • Annelids: LeechesAnnelids: Leeches The saliva of blood-sucking leeches containsan anticoagulant substance that preventsblood from clotting. Not all leeches are blood suckers.• More than half the species of leeches arepredators.
  • Take-Home Message 11.7 Worms are found in several different phylaand are not a monophyletic group. All are bilaterally symmetrical protostomeswith defined tissues. The flatworms and segmented worms(annelids) do not molt; the roundworms do.
  • Take-Home Message 11.7 Flatworms include parasitic flukes andtapeworms, many of which infect humans. Many roundworms are parasites of plants oranimals and are responsible for severalwidespread human diseases. Earthworms are annelids that play animportant role in recycling dead plantmaterial.
  • 11.8 Most mollusks live in shells.11.8 Most mollusks live in shells.
  • GastropodsGastropods Snails and slugs are called gastropod mollusks. “Belly foot” Found in both aquatic and terrestrialenvironments, snails and slugs account forthree-quarters of all mollusks.
  • Bivalve Mollusks Clams, scallops, oysters, and mussels have apair of shells that clamp together. Roughly 8,000 species of bivalves—most ofthem live in the ocean. All are filter feeders.
  • CephalopodsCephalopods
  • Take-Home Message 11.8 Mollusks are protostome invertebrates that donot molt. They are the second most diverse phylum ofanimals and include snails and slugs, clamsand oysters, and squids and octopuses.
  • Take-Home Message 11.8 Most mollusks have a shell for protection, amantle of tissue that wraps around their body,and a specialized tongue called a radula.
  • 11.1011.10 An external skeleton andAn external skeleton andmetamorphosis produced themetamorphosis produced thegreatest adaptive radiation ever.greatest adaptive radiation ever.
  • Mammals get bigger andMammals get bigger andbigger the more they eat.bigger the more they eat.Why don’t insects?
  • Take-Home Message 11.10 The arthropods are protostome invertebrates,and with nearly one million species (andprobably at least as many more yet to beidentified), they outnumber all other forms oflife in species diversity.
  • Take-Home Message 11.10 The ability to fly and the development of abody with a rugged exoskeleton havecontributed to the enormous ecologicaldiversity of insects. The life cycle of most insects includes a larvalstage that is devoted to feeding and growth, apupal stage during which metamorphosisoccurs, and an adult stage in which the insectreproduces.
  • 11.11 Other arthropods include11.11 Other arthropods includearachnids, crustaceans, millipedes,arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes,and centipedes.and centipedes.
  • Millipedes and CentipedesMillipedes and Centipedes• “A thousand feet” and “a hundred feet”• Long, segmented bodies• Millipedes feed on decaying plant material.• Centipedes are predators; they use venomousfangs to kill insects and even small mammals.
  • ArachnidsArachnids Land-dwelling arthropods Include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks Usually have four pairs of walking legs• And a specialized feeding apparatus Only have legs on the thorax
  • Spider VenomSpider Venom Arachnids are predators Black widow spider Brown recluse spider
  • The CrustaceansThe Crustaceans• Lobsters, crayfish, crabs, and shrimps• All have five pairs of appendages extending fromtheir heads.• Many pairs of legs modified for many purposes• Most are aquatic.
  • Take-Home Message 11.11 Centipedes are predators with fangs thatinject venom, and millipedes are herbivoresthat feed on dead plant material. Spiders and scorpions are predatoryarthropods that eat insects and, occasionally,small vertebrates. Lobsters, crabs, shrimp, and barnacles arepredatory marine crustaceans.
  • 11.12 Echinoderms are11.12 Echinoderms arevertebrates closest invertebratevertebrates closest invertebraterelativesrelativesAnd include sea stars, sea urchins, and sanddollars
  • Evolutionary SpecializationEvolutionary Specialization Radial symmetry in adults An evolutionary specialization associated withtheir locomotor mode and feedingspecializations
  • Echinoderms and ChordatesEchinoderms and Chordates Bilateral symmetry in larvae The larvae have anatomical characteristics incommon with the larvae of primitivechordates. Echinoderms and chordates are each other’sclosest relatives.
  • Take-Home Message 11.12 Because they are deuterostomes (as arevertebrates), echinoderms are theinvertebrates that are the closest evolutionaryrelatives to the vertebrates (and otherchordates). Their aquatic larvae are bilaterallysymmetrical and share some anatomicalfeatures with chordates, but adultechinoderms are radially symmetrical.