Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

BIOL 102 Chp 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

4,082

Published on

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 102 General Biology II students on Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life (Biology 9E by Campbell et al). …

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 102 General Biology II students on Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life (Biology 9E by Campbell et al).

Rob Swatski, Assistant Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA.
Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website, BioGeekiWiki, for more biology learning resources: http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com

Visit my Flickr photostream for anatomy model photographs!
http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatski/

Thanks for looking!

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,082
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
163
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 26 Phylogeny & the Tree of LifeBIOL 102: Rob Swatski Assoc. Prof. BiologyGeneral Biology II HACC- HACC-York 1
  • 2. This is NOT a Snake Common Scaly-Foot Legless Lizard! Scaly- 2
  • 3. The Science ofClassification Phylogeny Systematics: fossil, molecular, & genetic Taxonomy Binomial nomenclature 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. CarolusLinnaeus(1707-(1707-1778)1st “modern” taxonomy system based on physical appearances Two key features we still use: 1. Two-part scientific names 2. Hierarchical classification 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. Systema Naturae 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. BinomialNomenclature The 1st part of the name is the Genus (always Capitalized) The 2nd name is the specific epithet (unique for each species in the Genus) The entire species name is italicized or underlined Both words together make up the scientific name of a species 12
  • 13. “Linnea, a plantof Lapland, lowly, insignificant, disregarded,flowering but for a brief space” - from Linnaeuswho resembles it… 13
  • 14. Creative Scientific NamesBrachyanax thelestrephones (fly){“little chief nipple twister” (Greek)} 14
  • 15. Vampyroteuthis infernalis{“vampire squid from Hell”} 15
  • 16. Funkotriplogynium iagobadius (mite)iago {“James”}, badius {Brown”}, {“King of Funk”} 16
  • 17. Mackenziurus johnnyi, M. joeyi, M. deedeei, M. ceejayi17
  • 18. Metallichneumon neurospatarchus(icneumonid wasp) 18
  • 19. Agathidium bushi, A. cheneyi, A. rumsfeldi (slime mold beetles) 19
  • 20. More Creative Scientific Names! Anophthalmus hitleri (blind cave beetle) Satan eurystomus (blind cave fish) {big-mouthed Prince of Darkness} Darthvaderum (mite) Han solo (trilobite)Bangiomorpha pubescens (fossil red alga) {1st recorded sex act} Cuterebra emasculator (bot flies) {eat testes of rodent hosts} 20
  • 21. Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family GenusHierarchical SpeciesClassification 21
  • 22. Species: Panthera pardus Genus: Panthera Family: Felidae Order: Carnivora Class: Mammalia Phylum: ChordataDomain: Kingdom:Bacteria Animalia Domain: Archaea Domain: Eukarya 22
  • 23. Order Family Genus Species Panthera Felidae Panthera pardus (leopard) Taxidea Carnivora Taxidea Mustelidae taxus (American badger) Lutra Lutra lutra (European otter) Canis latrans Canidae Canis (coyote) Canis lupus (gray wolf)Phylogenetic Tree 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. ModernSystematics Phylogeny-based Cladistics: PhyloCode Recognizes only groups that include a common ancestor … … & all its descendents 26
  • 27. Phylogenetic Trees Represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships Each branch point represents the divergence of 2 species Sister taxa: groups sharing an immediate common ancestor Rooted tree: includes a branch representing the last common ancestor of all related taxa Polytomy: a branch from which more than 2 groups emerge 27
  • 28. Branch point:where lineages diverge Taxon A Taxon B Sister taxa Taxon C Taxon D Taxon EANCESTRALLINEAGE Taxon F Basal Taxon G taxonThis branch point This branch point forms arepresents the polytomy: an unresolvedcommon ancestor of pattern of divergence.taxa A–G. 28
  • 29. What Can We Learn fromPhylogenetic Trees? Show patterns of descent They do NOT indicate when species evolved… … or how much genetic change occurred in a lineage We can’t assume that a taxon evolved from the taxon next to it on a tree 29
  • 30. Applicationsof Phylogeny Practical value! Provides valuable info about similar traits in closely-related species Ex: Identify species of food being sold as “whale” meat Ex: Identify source of a particular strain of bacteria 30
  • 31. RESULTS Minke (Southern Hemisphere) Unknowns #1a, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Minke (North Atlantic) Unknown #9 Humpback (North Atlantic) Humpback (North Pacific) Unknown #1b Gray Blue Unknowns #10, 11, 12 Unknown #13 Fin (Mediterranean) Fin (Iceland) 31
  • 32. Which strain of Anthrax is it? A B D B D C C C B D A A (a) (b) (c) 32
  • 33. Sources ofPhylogenetic Data Morphologies Genes Biochemistry Organisms with similar morphologies or DNA are likely to be more closely related than those with different morphologies or DNA 33
  • 34. Homologyvs. Analogy Must distinguish between similarities when building a phylogeny Homology: similarity due to shared ancestry Analogy: similarity due to convergent evolution Convergent evolution 34
  • 35. Convergent Evolution ofBurrowers Marsupial mole: develops in pouch Eutherian mole: develops in uterus 35
  • 36. Convergent Evolution Occurs when similar enviro pressures & natural selection produce analogous adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages Ex: Bat & bird wings are homologous as forelimbs … …. but analogous as functional wings Analogous traits that evolved independently are also called homoplasies 36
  • 37. Distinguishing Between Homology & Analogy Compare fossil evidence Compare the degree of complexity The more complex two similar structures are … … the more likely it is that they are homologous 37
  • 38. MolecularSystematics Analyze comparable DNA segments from different organisms Use computer programs & mathematical tools Recognizes only groups that include a common ancestor … Once homologous characters have been identified, they can be used to infer a phylogeny 38
  • 39. Aligning 1 1Segments 2of DNA Deletion 2 1 2 Insertion 3 1 2 4 1 2 39
  • 40. MolecularHomoplasies Two species that are not closely related can share 25% of their bases … … by coincidence! Mathematical tools are used to help identify homoplasies 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. Cladistics Grouping organisms A by common descent B Group I Clade: a group of species that includes Can ancestral species & all its descendants D Clades can be nested E into larger clades … F … but not all groupings of G organisms qualify as clades 42
  • 43. 43
  • 44. Monophyletic Clade (Group) A B Group I C D E F GConsists of the ancestor species & all its descendents 44
  • 45. Paraphyletic Clade (Group) A B C D E Group II F GConsists of an ancestral species & some, but not all, of its descendents 45
  • 46. Polyphyletic Clade (Group) A B Group  C D E F GConsists of various species that lack a common ancestor 46
  • 47. SharedCharactersShared ancestral character:originated in an ancestor of the taxonShared derived character: anevolutionary novelty unique to a specific clade A character can be both ancestral & derived – it depends on the contextInfer phylogenies knowing inwhich clade a shared derived character 1st appeared 47
  • 48. Outgroups& Ingroups Outgroup: A species (or group of species) closely related to the ingroup Ingroup: the various species being studied The goal is to differentiate between shared derived & ancestral characters Homologies shared by both the outgroup & ingroup are ancestral characters 48
  • 49. Constructing a TAXAPhylogenetic LeopardTree Bass Vertebral column 0 1 1 1 1 1 (backbone) Hinged jaws 0 0 1 1 1 1 Four walking legs 0 0 0 1 1 1 Amniotic (shelled) egg 0 0 0 0 1 1 Hair 0 0 0 0 0 1 Character Table 49
  • 50. Lancelet (outgroup) Lamprey BassVertebral column Frog Hinged jaws Turtle Four walking legs Amnion Leopard Hair Phylogenetic Tree 50
  • 51. In some trees, the length of a branch can reflect the # of genetic changes that have occurred in a particular DNA sequence in that lineage Drosophila Lancelet Zebrafish Frog Chicken Human Mouse 51
  • 52. In other trees, branch length can represent chronological time & branching points can be determined from the fossil record Drosophila Lancelet Zebrafish Frog Chicken Human Mouse PALEOZOIC MESOZOIC CENOZOIC 542 251 65.5 Present Millions of years ago 52
  • 53. Maximum Parsimony Assumes that the tree requiring the fewest shared derived53 characters is the most likely
  • 54. Maximum Likelihood A tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA54 changes over time
  • 55. Human Mushroom TulipHuman 0 30% 40%Mushroom 0 40%Tulip 0 Percentage differences between sequences 55
  • 56. 15% 5% 5% 15% 15% 10% 20% 25%Tree 1: More likely Tree 2: Less likely Comparison of possible trees with different likelihoods 56
  • 57. Phylogenetic Trees asHypotheses The best hypotheses for phylogenetic trees fit the most data Use morphological, molecular, & fossil data Phylogenetic bracketing: use features of descendents to predict features of an ancestor Infer features of dinosaurs from their descendents: birds & crocodiles 57
  • 58. Phylogenetic tree of birds & their close relatives Lizards & snakes Crocodilians Ornithischian dinosaursCommonancestor ofcrocodilians, Saurischiandinosaurs, dinosaurs& birds Birds 58
  • 59. Front limb Hind limb Eggs Fossil remains of Oviraptor & eggs (dinosaurs built nests & brooded their eggs) 59
  • 60. Artist’s reconstruction of the dinosaur’s egg-brooding posture 60
  • 61. MolecularEvidence for Phylogeny DNA that codes for rRNA changes relatively slowly Useful for investigating distant branching points mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA): evolves rapidly Used to explore recent evolutionary events 61
  • 62. GeneDuplications Increase the # of genes in the genome Provides more opportunities for evolutionary changes Can be traced to a common ancestor Homologous genes 62
  • 63. Orthologous Genes Found in a single copy in the genome Are homologous between species Can diverge only after speciation occurs Widespread & extend across many diverse species 63
  • 64. Orthologous Genes Ancestral gene Ancestral species Speciation with divergence of gene Species A Orthologous Species B genes 64
  • 65. Paralogous Genes Result from gene duplication Found in multiple copies in the genome Can diverge within the clade that carries them Often evolve new functions 65
  • 66. Paralogous Genes Ancestral gene Species CGene duplication and divergence Paralogous genesSpecies C after many generations 66
  • 67. GenomeEvolutionGene number & species complexity are not strongly linked Genes in complex organisms are very versatileEach gene can perform many functions 67
  • 68. Revisions tothe Tree of Life Only plants & animals, at first…then 5 kingdoms Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia The 3-domain system has been adopted: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Eukarya & Archaea are more closely related to each other than to Bacteria (rRNA genes) 68
  • 69. Eukarya The 3 Green algae Land plants Forams Ciliates Dinoflagellates Diatoms Domains Red algae of Life Amoebas Cellular slime molds Euglena Trypanosomes Animals Leishmania Fungi Sulfolobus Green nonsulfur bacteria Thermophiles (Mitochondrion) SpirochetesHalophiles Chlamydia COMMON ANCESTOR Green OF ALL sulfur bacteria LIFE Methanobacterium Bacteria Cyanobacteria (Plastids, including Archaea chloroplasts) 69
  • 70. Horizontal Gene Transfer Bacteria Eukarya Archaea4 3 2 1 0 Billions of years ago 70
  • 71. Endosymbiosis & a Ring of Life? 71
  • 72. Archaea Eukarya BacteriaA Ring of Life 72
  • 73. 73
  • 74. Credits by Rob Swatski, 2013 Visit my website for more Biology study resources! http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatskiPlease send your comments and feedback to: rjswatsk@hacc.eduImages used in this work bear a This work bears an Creative Commons license and Attribution-Noncommercial are attributed to their original Share Alike Creative authors. Commons license. 74

×