BIOL 102 Chp 17 Vocab

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  • 1. Chapter 17 Vocab: From Gene to Protein – BIOL 102 General Biology II 1. 5' cap: a modified form of guanine nucleotide added onto the nucleotide at the 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule 2. A site: the place on a ribosome that holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain 3. alternative RNA splicing: a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns 4. anticodon: a nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule 5. base pair substitution: a type of point mutation where one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand are replaced by another pair of nucleotides 6. codon: a three nucleotide sequence of mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal 7. deletion: a mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene 8. domain: an independently folding part of a protein 9. E site: the place on a ribosome where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome 10. exon: a sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing 11. frameshift mutation: a mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons 12. gene expression: the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, just RNAs 13. insertion: a mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene 14. intron: a noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing 15. messenger RNA: a type of RNA, synthesized using a DNA template, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein
  • 2. Chp 17 Vocab – BIOL 102 16. missense mutation: a base-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid 17. mutagen: a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation 18. mutation: a change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA, ultimately creating genetic diversity 19. nonsense mutation: a mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein 20. P site: the place on a ribosome that holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain 21. point mutation: a change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair 22. poly-A tail: a sequence of 50-250 adenine nucleotides added onto the 3' end of a pre-mRNA molecule 23. polyribosome: a group of several ribosomes attached to, and translating, the same messenger RNA molecule 24. primary transcript: an initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene 25. promoter: a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place 26. reading frame: on the mRNA, the triplet grouping of ribonucleotides used by the translation machinery during polypeptide synthesis 27. ribosomal RNA: the most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins makes up ribosomes 28. ribosome: a complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as a site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm 29. ribozyme: an RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme, catalyzing reactions during RNA splicing 30. RNA polymerase: an enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription 31. RNA processing: modification of RNA transcripts, including splicing out of introns, joining together of exons, and alteration of the 5' and 3' ends 2
  • 3. Chp 17 Vocab – BIOL 102 32. RNA splicing: after synthesis of a eukaryotic primary RNA transcript, the removal of portions (introns) of the transcript that will not be included in the mRNA 33. signal peptide: a sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading (amino) end of a polypeptide that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell 34. signal recognition particle: a protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from a ribosome and helps direct the ribosome to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by binding to a receptor protein on the ER 35. spliceosome: a large complex made up of proteins and RNA molecules that splices RNA by interacting with the ends of an RNA intron, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons 36. TATA box: a DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex 37. template strand: the DNA strand that provides the pattern for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript 38. terminator: a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene and signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule and detach from the DNA 39. transcription: the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template 40. transcription factor: a regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes 41. transcription initiation complex: the completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to the promoter 42. transcription unit: a region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule 43. transfer RNA: an RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA 44. translation: the synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule 45. triplet code: a set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains 3
  • 4. Chp 17 Vocab – BIOL 102 46. wobble: flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon 4