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BIOL 101 Chp 9: Cellular Respiration

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    BIOL 101 Chp 9: Cellular Respiration BIOL 101 Chp 9: Cellular Respiration Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration BIOL 101: General Biology I Rob Swatski Assistant Professor of Biology HACC-York 1
    • Energy & Open Systems Energy enters an ecosystem as sunlight… …and exits as heat Photosynthesis  O2 + Glucose Cellular Respiration  CO2 + ATP + heat 2
    • Light energy ECOSYSTEM endergonic Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 + H2O Organic + O molecules 2 Cellular respiration in mitochondria exergonic ATP ATP powers most cellular work Heat energy 3
    • Catabolic Pathways Anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration (fermentation) Partial breakdown Complete Yields 36 or 38 of organics that Yields 2 ATP breakdown of ATP occurs without O2 organics with O2 4
    • C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy 5
    • Redox Reactions Reduction e- Oxidation 6
    • General Example of a Redox Reaction is oxidized (loses e-) becomes reduced (gains e-) 7
    • Aerobic Cellular Respiration = Redox Reaction is oxidized becomes reduced 8
    • Electron Transfer in Cellular Respiration Uses the coenzyme: NAD+ NAD+ (oxidized) is both an electron acceptor & oxidizing agent NADH (reduced) represents stored energy used to synthesize ATP 9
    • Dehydrogenase e- 10
    • e- 11
    • 2 e– + 2 H+ 2 e– + H+ NADH H+ Dehydrogenase Reduction of NAD+ NAD+ + 2[H] + H+ Oxidation of NADH Nicotinamide (reduced) Nicotinamide (oxidized) 12
    • Where do all the electrons go? Electron Transport Chain (ETC) ETC passes e- in a series of steps O2 pulls e- down the ETC in an energy-yielding tumble This energy is used to make ATP 13
    • 1/ O H2 + 1/2 O2 2H 2 2 (from food via NADH) Controlled release of 2 H+ + 2 e– energy for synthesis of ATP Explosive release of heat and light energy 1/ O 2 2 Uncontrolled Cellular reaction respiration 14
    • Cellular Respiration: 3 Main Stages Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) Oxidative phosphorylation 15
    • Electrons carried via NADH Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate Cytosol ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation 16
    • Electrons Electrons carried carried via NADH and via NADH FADH2 Glycolysis Citric Glucose Pyruvate acid cycle Cytosol Mitochondrion ATP ATP Substrate-level Substrate-level phosphorylation phosphorylation 17
    • Electrons Electrons carried carried via NADH and via NADH FADH2 Citric Oxidative Glycolysis phosphorylation: acid e- transport Glucose Pyruvate cycle & chemiosmosis Cytosol Mitochondrion ATP ATP ATP Substrate-level Substrate-level Oxidative phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation 18
    • Used to make smaller amounts Substrate-Level of ATP Phosphorylation Uses glycolysis & citric acid cycle Enzyme Enzyme ADP P Substrate + ATP Product 19
    • Glycolysis Occurs in cytoplasm Glucose  pyruvate 2 Major Phases 20
    • 2 Major Phases of Glycolysis 1. Energy investment phase 2. Energy payoff phase 21
    • Energy Investment Phase Glucose 2 ADP + 2 P 2 ATP used Energy Payoff Phase 4 ADP + 4 P 4 ATP formed 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O Net Glucose 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 ATP 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 NADH + 2 H+ 22
    • Glucose ATP 1 Hexokinase ADP Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate ATP 1 Hexokinase ADP Glucose-6-phosphate Energy Investment Phase 23
    • Glucose ATP 1 Hexokinase ADP Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate 2 Phosphoglucoisomerase 2 Fructose-6-phosphate Phosphogluco- isomerase Fructose-6-phosphate isomer 24
    • Glucose ATP 1 Hexokinase ADP Fructose-6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate 2 Phosphoglucoisomerase ATP 3 Fructose-6-phosphate Phosphofructo- ATP kinase 3 Phosphofructokinase ADP ADP Fructose- 1, 6-bisphosphate Fructose- 1, 6-bisphosphate Energy Investment Phase 25
    • Glucose ATP 1 Hexokinase ADP Glucose-6-phosphate 2 Phosphoglucoisomerase Fructose- 1, 6-bisphosphate Fructose-6-phosphate 4 Aldolase ATP 3 Phosphofructokinase ADP 5 Isomerase Fructose- 1, 6-bisphosphate 4 Aldolase 5 Isomerase Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde- Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate phosphate 3-phosphate 26
    • 2 NAD+ 6 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 NADH 2 Pi + 2 H+ 2 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate Glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate 2 NAD+ 6 Triose phosphate e- dehydrogenase 2 NADH 2Pi + 2 H+ Energy Capture 2 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate Phase 27
    • 2 NAD+ 6 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 NADH 2 Pi + 2 H+ 2 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP 7 Phosphoglycerokinase 2 ATP 1, 3- 2 Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP 2 3-Phosphoglycerate 7 Phosphoglycero- 2 ATP 2 ATP kinase 2 3-Phosphoglycerate 28
    • 2 NAD+ 6 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 NADH 2Pi + 2 H+ 2 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP 7 Phosphoglycerokinase 2 ATP 2 3-Phosphoglycerate 8 2 3-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoglyceromutase 8 Phosphoglycero- 2 2-Phosphoglycerate mutase 2 2-Phosphoglycerate 29
    • 2 NAD+ 6 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 NADH 2 Pi + 2 H+ 2 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP 7 Phosphoglycerokinase 2 ATP 2 3-Phosphoglycerate 2 2-Phosphoglycerate 8 Phosphoglyceromutase 9 Enolase 2 2-Phosphoglycerate 2 H2O 9 Enolase 2 H 2O 2 Phosphoenolpyruvate 2 Phosphoenolpyruvate 30
    • 2 NAD+ 6 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 NADH 2 Pi + 2 H+ 2 1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP 7 Phosphoglycerokinase 2 ATP 2 Phosphoenolpyruvate 2 ADP 2 3-Phosphoglycerate 8 Phosphoglyceromutase 10 Pyruvate 2 ATP 2 ATP kinase 2 2-Phosphoglycerate 9 Enolase 2 H 2O 2 Phosphoenolpyruvate 2 ADP 10 Pyruvate kinase 2 ATP 2 Pyruvate 2 Pyruvate 31
    • Summary of Glycolysis • Location within cell: • Aerobic or anaerobic: • Initial reactant: • Final product(s): • Side products: • Net yield of energy: 32
    • Summary of Glycolysis • Location within cell: cytosol • Aerobic or anaerobic: anaerobic • Initial reactant: glucose • Final product(s): 2 pyruvate molecules • Side products: 2 NADH • Net yield of energy: 2 ATP (4 created; 2 invested) 33