Chapter 53   Population    Ecology      BIOL 101:   General Biology I         Rob SwatskiAssistant Professor of Biology   ...
PopulationDynamics  Population   Density  Dispersion  Emigration Immigration               2
Population    SizeEstimations  Extrapolation    (indirect)     Index of   population   size (direct)   Mark-and-   recaptu...
4
Deaths         BirthsImmigration                Emigration                                        5
Dispersion  Clumped  Uniform  Random             6
Clumped Dispersion7                    Why?
Uniform Dispersion8                    Why?
Random Dispersion9                   Why?
Type of Dispersion?                      10
Type of Dispersion?                  11
Type of Dispersion?                  12
Demographics  Demography    Birth &  Death rates   Life table    Cohort                13
Life Table             14
15
16
Survivorship Curve                                  1,000Number of survivors (log scale)                                  ...
Number of Survivors (log scale)                                  1,000                                                    ...
LifeHistory   Age at  maturityReproductive    rate# of offspring  per repro     cycle       19
20
Evolution & Life               History Diversity    Semelparity                     Iteroparity                  Species  ...
What kinds of environments favor these two types of      reproduction?                             22
KestrelRESULTSParents surviving the following winter (%)   100                                                   Male     ...
Dandelion24     Coconut palm
Exponential Population Growth                       8,000Elephant Population                       6,000                  ...
J-curve                      2,000                                                      Exponential                       ...
1,000          Number of Paramecium/mL                                      800                                      600  ...
overshootNumber of Daphnia/50 mL                          180                          150                          120   ...
Types of Selection  r-selection          K-selectiondensity-independent   density-dependent                               ...
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
Density-Independent PopulationsBR and DR do not change with population density                                            ...
40
41
Density-DependentPopulations  As population     density   increases…  BR decreases  DR increases                  42
Density-Dependent Factors  Crowding   Disease Competition Territoriality  Predation                  43
44
Gannets     45
2,100                   1,900                   1,700 Number of Sheep                   1,500                   1,300     ...
50                                                 2,500                            Wolves              MooseNumber of Wol...
Snowshoe Hare & Lynx                       48
Boom-and-Bust Cycles                               Snowshoe hare                  160Number of Hares                      ...
Credits                        by Rob Swatski, 2010       Visit my website for more Anatomy study resources!              ...
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BIOL 101 Chp 53: Population Ecology

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 53: Population Ecology. (Campbell Biology, 10th Ed. by Reece et al).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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BIOL 101 Chp 53: Population Ecology

  1. 1. Chapter 53 Population Ecology BIOL 101: General Biology I Rob SwatskiAssistant Professor of Biology HACC - York 1
  2. 2. PopulationDynamics Population Density Dispersion Emigration Immigration 2
  3. 3. Population SizeEstimations Extrapolation (indirect) Index of population size (direct) Mark-and- recapture 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Deaths BirthsImmigration Emigration 5
  6. 6. Dispersion Clumped Uniform Random 6
  7. 7. Clumped Dispersion7 Why?
  8. 8. Uniform Dispersion8 Why?
  9. 9. Random Dispersion9 Why?
  10. 10. Type of Dispersion? 10
  11. 11. Type of Dispersion? 11
  12. 12. Type of Dispersion? 12
  13. 13. Demographics Demography Birth & Death rates Life table Cohort 13
  14. 14. Life Table 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Survivorship Curve 1,000Number of survivors (log scale) 100 Females 10 Males 1 0 2 4 6 8 1017 Age (years) = constant death rate
  18. 18. Number of Survivors (log scale) 1,000 I 100 II 10 III 1 0 50 100 Percentage of Maximum Lifespan 18
  19. 19. LifeHistory Age at maturityReproductive rate# of offspring per repro cycle 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Evolution & Life History Diversity Semelparity Iteroparity Species Species Big-bang Repeated reproduce reproducereproduction reproduction once & die many times 21
  22. 22. What kinds of environments favor these two types of reproduction? 22
  23. 23. KestrelRESULTSParents surviving the following winter (%) 100 Male Female 80 60 40 20 0 Reduced Normal Enlarged brood size brood size brood size (3-4 chicks) (5-6 chicks) (7-8 chicks) 23
  24. 24. Dandelion24 Coconut palm
  25. 25. Exponential Population Growth 8,000Elephant Population 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Idealized environment Year 25
  26. 26. J-curve 2,000 Exponential growthPopulation Size (N) 1,500 Carrying capacity K = 1,500 S-curve Logistic growth 1,000 500 0 0 5 10 15 Number of Generations 26
  27. 27. 1,000 Number of Paramecium/mL 800 600 400 200 0A 0 5 10 15Paramecium Time (days)Population in the Lab 27
  28. 28. overshootNumber of Daphnia/50 mL 180 150 120 90 60 30 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Time (days) A Daphnia Population in the Lab 28
  29. 29. Types of Selection r-selection K-selectiondensity-independent density-dependent 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. Density-Independent PopulationsBR and DR do not change with population density 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. Density-DependentPopulations As population density increases… BR decreases DR increases 42
  43. 43. Density-Dependent Factors Crowding Disease Competition Territoriality Predation 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. Gannets 45
  46. 46. 2,100 1,900 1,700 Number of Sheep 1,500 1,300 1,100 900 700 500 0 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 YearPopulation Dynamics 46
  47. 47. 50 2,500 Wolves MooseNumber of Wolves Number of Moose 40 2,000 30 1,500 20 1,000 10 500 0 0 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Year 47
  48. 48. Snowshoe Hare & Lynx 48
  49. 49. Boom-and-Bust Cycles Snowshoe hare 160Number of Hares Number of Lynx (thousands) (thousands) 120 9 Lynx 80 6 40 3 0 0 1850 1875 1900 1925 Year 49
  50. 50. Credits by Rob Swatski, 2010 Visit my website for more Anatomy study resources! http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatskiPlease send your comments and feedback to: rjswatsk@hacc.eduImages used in this work bear a This work bears an Creative Commons license and Attribution-Noncommercial are attributed to their original Share Alike Creative authors. Commons license. 50
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