• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
BIOL 101 Chp 52: Introduction to Ecology & the Biosphere
 

BIOL 101 Chp 52: Introduction to Ecology & the Biosphere

on

  • 3,357 views

This is a lecture resource for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 52: Introduction to Ecology & the Biosphere (Biology 8E by Campbell et al, 2008)....

This is a lecture resource for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 52: Introduction to Ecology & the Biosphere (Biology 8E by Campbell et al, 2008).

Rob Swatski, Assistant Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA.
Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website, BioGeekiWiki, for more biology learning resources: http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com

Visit my Flickr photostream for anatomy model photographs!
http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatski/

Thanks for looking!

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,357
Views on SlideShare
3,179
Embed Views
178

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
138
Comments
0

4 Embeds 178

http://robswatski.virb.com 149
http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com 15
http://virb.com 11
http://robswatskibiology.wikifoundry.com 3

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    BIOL 101 Chp 52: Introduction to Ecology & the Biosphere BIOL 101 Chp 52: Introduction to Ecology & the Biosphere Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 52Intro toEcology &theBiosphere BIOL 101 General Biology I Rob Swatski Asst. Prof. BiologyWilly Volk http://flic.kr/p/2EML7W HACC-York 1
    • Ecology The study of interactions between organisms & the environment Interactions determine the distribution & abundance of organisms Ecologists work at ALL levels: individual organisms  entire planet! 2
    • Organismal ecologyPopulationecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology 3
    • Organismal Ecology 4
    • Population Ecology 5
    • Community Ecology 6
    • Ecosystem Ecology 7
    • Ecosystem Ecology Studies energy flow & chemical cycling Biotic factors Abiotic factors 8
    • Landscape Ecology Landscape: a mosaic of connected ecosystems Studies how ecosystems are arranged in a geographic area 9
    • GlobalEcology Biosphere: the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems Studies the influence of energy & chemicals on organisms across the Earth 10
    • Kangaroos/km2 0–0.1 Biogeography 0.1–1 1–5 5–10 10–20 > 20 Limits of distribution 11
    • Ecology is COMPLEX!Why is species X absent from an area? Area inaccessible Yes or insufficient time Does dispersal Yes Habitat selection Chemical limit its Yes Predation, parasitism, factors Does behavior distribution? No Do biotic factors competition, disease limit its (other species) Water distribution? No limit its Do abiotic factors Oxygen distribution? No limit its Salinity distribution? pH Soil nutrients, etc. Temperature Light Soil structure Fire Moisture, etc. Physical factors 12
    • Dispersal Current 1970 1966 1965 1960 1961 1958 1943 1951 1937 1956 1970 Natural range13 expansions
    • BioticFactorsInteractions with other species PredationCompetition 14
    • Does feeding by sea urchins limit seaweed distribution? 15
    • RESULTS 100 Both limpets & urchins removedSeaweed Cover (%) 80 Sea urchin Only urchins removed 60 Limpet 40 20 Only limpets removed Control (both urchins & limpets present) 0 August February August February 1982 1983 1983 1984 16
    • Abiotic FactorsTemp. WaterSunlight Salinity Rocks & Wind soil 17
    • Seven-Mile Bridge 18
    • Seven-Mile Bridge 19
    • 20
    • Temperature Major regulator of biological processes Cells freeze & rupture below 0°C, while proteins denature above 45°C Thermoregulation by mammals & birds consumes energy! 21
    • Water Availability inhabitat is major limiting factorAdaptations for water conservationSalinity: affects osmosis & water balance 22
    • SunlightLight intensity& quality affectphotosynthesisWater absorbs light Most PSN occurs nearwater’s surface UV stress in deserts & mountains 23
    • What major abiotic factors are at work here? 24
    • Rocks & Soil Physical structure Mineralcomposition pH 25
    • Climate Long-termprevailing weather conditions in an area Includes temperature,water, sunlight, & wind Macroclimate: patterns on theglobal, regional, & local levelMicroclimate: very fine patterns 26
    • Global Climate Patterns 90ºN (North Pole) 60ºNLow angle of incoming sunlight 30ºN 23.5ºN (Tropic of Cancer)Sun directly overhead at equinoxes 0º (equator) 23.5ºS (Tropic of Capricorn) 30ºSLow angle of incoming sunlight 60ºS 90ºS (South Pole) Atmosphere 27
    • 60ºN 30ºN March equinox 0º (equator) June solstice 30ºSConstant tilt December solstice of 23.5º September equinox 28
    • Global air circulation & precipitation patterns 60ºN Descending Descending dry air dry air 30ºN absorbs absorbs moisture moisture 0º Ascending(equator) moist air 30ºS releases moisture 60ºS 30º 23.5º 0º 23.5º 30º Arid Tropics Arid zone zone 29
    • 66.5ºN (Arctic Circle) 60ºN Westerlies 30ºNNortheast trades Doldrums 0º (Equator) Southeast trades 30ºS Westerlies 60ºS 66.5ºS (Antarctic Circle) 30
    • Great Ocean Conveyor BeltLabradorcurrentGulf Equatorstream Cold water 31
    • 2 Air cools at 3 Cooler air high elevation. sinks over water. 1 Warm air over land rises. 4 Cool air over water moves inland, replacing rising warm air over land.32 Climate Moderation
    • How Mountains Affect Rainfall Rain Shadow Leeward side of mountain Wind direction Mountain range Ocean 33
    • Biomes Major ecologicalsystems that occupy large geographic regions of land or water Varying combinations of biotic & abiotic factors determine biome structureAquatic & terrestrial biomes 34
    • AquaticBiomes Make up the largestpart of the biosphere in terms of areaCover approx. 75% of the Earth’s surface Fresh water or salt water (marine) Have an enormous impact on the biosphere 35
    • Stratification of Aquatic Biomes Light penetration Temperature Depth 36
    • Lake Zonation Littoral zone Limnetic zone Photic zone Pelagic Benthic zone zone Aphotic zone 37
    • 38 Phytoplankton & Zooplankton
    • Marine Zonation Intertidal zone Neritic zone Oceanic zone0 Photic zone200 m Continental Pelagic shelf zone Benthic Aphotic zone zone detritus2,000–6,000 m Abyssal zone 39
    • Seasonal Turnover 0º 2º 4º 4º 4º 4ºC Winter 40
    • 4º 4º O2 4ºturnover 4º 4º 4ºC nutrients Spring 41
    • 22º 20ºThermocline 18º 8º 6º 5º 4ºC Summer 42
    • 4º O2 4º 4ºturnover 4º 4º 4ºC nutrients Autumn 43
    • Oligotrophic LakeO2nutrients 44
    • 45 Lake Bled, Slovenia
    • Eutrophic Lake New Jersey Pine BarrensO2nutrients 46
    • 47
    • Wetlands Any habitat that is inundated by water at least some of the time Supports plants adapted to water- saturated soil Among the most productive biomes on Earth 48
    • WetlandLocations Shallow basinsFlooded river banksAlong the coasts oflarge lakes & seas 49
    • Fresh Water Stream50 headwaters
    • Fresh Water River 51
    • Estuaries Salt Marshes: influenced by tidal flow Variable salinity Nutrient-rich 52
    • Barrier Island53 Cumberland Island, GA
    • 54
    • 55
    • 56
    • 57
    • 58
    • 59
    • 60
    • Rocky Intertidal Biome 61
    • 62
    • 63
    • 64
    • Ocean Pelagic Biome 65
    • 66
    • 67
    • 68
    • 69
    • 70
    • 71
    • Tropical Coral Reef Biome 72
    • Sombrero Key, FL 73
    • 74
    • 75
    • 76
    • Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent 77
    • 78
    • 79
    • 80
    • 81
    • Distribution of Terrestrial Biomes Tropical forest Savanna Desert 30ºN ChaparralTropic of TemperateCancer grassland Equator Temperate Tropic of broadleaf forest Capricorn Northern 30ºS coniferous forest Tundra High mountains Polar ice 82
    • Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest Annual mean temperature (ºC) 30 Temperate 15 broadleaf forest Northern coniferous 0 forest Arctic and alpine tundra –15 0 100 200 300 400 Annual mean precipitation (cm)Climograph 83
    • Terrestrial Biomes Distribution Temperature & precipitation Plants & animals 84
    • VerticalLayeringCanopyLow-tree layerUnderstoryGround layerForest floorRoot layer Tropical85 Rainforest
    • 86 Desert
    • 87 Savanna
    • 88 Temperate Grassland
    • Coniferous Forest89 (Taiga)
    • Temperate Broadleaf Forest 90
    • Tundra 91
    • 92
    • Credits by Rob Swatski, 2010 Visit my website for more Biology study resources! http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatskiPlease send your comments and feedback to: rjswatsk@hacc.eduImages used in this work bear a This work bears an Creative Commons license and Attribution-Noncommercial are attributed to their original Share Alike Creative authors. Commons license. 93