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BIOL 101 Chp 1 Lecture Presentation: Intro - Themes in the Study of Life
 

BIOL 101 Chp 1 Lecture Presentation: Intro - Themes in the Study of Life

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 1: Themes in the Study of Life. ...

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 1: Themes in the Study of Life.

Rob Swatski, Assistant Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA.
Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website, BioGeekiWiki, for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com

Visit my Flickr photostream for anatomy model photographs! http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatski/

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    BIOL 101 Chp 1 Lecture Presentation: Intro - Themes in the Study of Life BIOL 101 Chp 1 Lecture Presentation: Intro - Themes in the Study of Life Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 1 Intro: Themes in the Study of Life BIOL 101 General Biology I Rob SwatskiAssociate Professor of Biology HACC- HACC-York 1
    • Biologists askquestions …2
    • 3
    • Life is…4 Order
    • Evolutionary adaptation5
    • Response to the environment 6
    • Reproduction 7
    • Growth and development 8
    • Energyprocessing 9
    • 10 Regulation
    • Themes organize & connectbiology concepts11 Chunk it!!!
    • “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” evolution”Theodosius Dobzhansky 12
    • The biosphere Tissues Ecosystems Organs and organ systemsCommunities Cells Organelles Organisms Atoms Populations Molecules 13
    • Organ systems Organs Tissue Cell MoleculeLevels of AtomOrganization 14
    • BiosphereEcosystemsCommunitiesPopulations Organisms 15
    • EmergentProperties 16
    • 17
    • 18
    • Reductionism Complex Simple 19
    • Systems Biology 20
    • Interactions 21
    • Ecosystem DynamicsEnergy Nutrient Flow Cycling 22
    • 23
    • Sunlight Leaves absorb light energy from Leaves take in the sun. carbon dioxide CO2 from the air and release oxygen. O2 Cycling of chemical nutrientsLeaves fall to Water and Animals eatthe ground and minerals in leaves and fruitare decomposed the soil are from the tree.by organisms taken up bythat return the treeminerals to the throughsoil. its roots. 24
    • Sunlight Producers absorb light energy and transform it into chemical energy. Chemical energy Chemical energy in food is transferred from plants to consumers.(a) Energy flow from sunlight to producers to consumers 25
    • Heat When energy is used to do work, some energy is converted to thermal energy, which is lost as heat. An animal’s muscle cells convert chemical energy from food to kinetic energy, the energy of motion. A plant’s cells use chemical energy to do work such as growing new leaves.(b) Using energy to do work 26
    • Potential EnergyKinetic Chemical 27
    • 28
    • 29
    • 30
    • Structure vs.Function31
    • 100 µm 32
    • 33
    • Cell Structure & Function Plasma Contain Able tomembrane DNA divide 34
    • 35
    • Prokaryotes Eukaryotes No Organelles organelles present Nucleus No nucleus present Protists, Bacteria & fungi, plants, Archaea animals 36
    • 37
    • Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell DNA (no nucleus) MembraneMembraneCytoplasm Nucleus (membrane- enclosed) Membrane- DNA (throughout enclosed organelles nucleus) 1 m 38
    • DNAChromosomes Genes 39
    • Nucleus ADNA C Nucleotide T A T Cell A C C G T A G T A (a) DNA double helix (b) Single strand of DNA 40
    • 41
    • Genome  Gene  DNA  RNA  Protein TRANSCRIPTION DNA mRNA TRANSLATION Protein 42
    • 43
    • 44
    • Systems Biology45 Bioinformatics
    • 46
    • Homeostasis47
    • Negative PositiveFeedback Feedback 48
    • Negative Feedback System Decreases stimulus if too high Increases stimulus if too low 49
    • Negative A feedback – Enzyme 1 B D Enzyme 2 Excess D blocks a step D D C Enzyme 3 DNegative feedback 50
    • Positive Feedback System 51
    • W Enzyme 4 Positive X feedback + Enzyme 5 Excess Z Z Y stimulates a Z Z step Z Enzyme 6 Z ZPositive feedback 52
    • Evolution accounts for the unity & diversity of life 53
    • 54
    • 55
    • Suedberg Fossil Pit56 Devonian 375 MYA
    • 57
    • 58
    • Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom DomainUrsus americanus(American black bear) Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia EukaryaTaxonomy 59
    • 3 Domains of LifeBacteria Archaea Eukarya 60
    • Domain Bacteria 61
    • Domain Archaea 62
    • Domain EukaryaKingdom Kingdom Kingdom KingdomProtista Fungi Plantae Animalia 63
    • Kingdom Protista 64
    • Kingdom Fungi 65
    • Kingdom Plantae 66
    • Kingdom Animalia 67
    • Unity in the Diversity of Life15 µm 5 µm Cilia of Cilia ofParamecium windpipe cells 68
    • 69
    • 70
    • 71
    • 72
    • 1859: The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin 73
    • Don’t Listen to Your Parents “You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, and rat-catching and you will be a disgrace to yourself and your family.” Dr. Robert Darwin 74
    • Two Main Points of Origin of Species Descent Natural with Selectionmodification 75
    • 76
    • Individuals in a population havetraits that varyTraits are heritableMore offspring are produced thenactually surviveCompetition is inevitableSpecies are generally welladapted to their environment 77
    • 78
    • 79
    • Adaptations:80 evidence of natural selection
    • 81
    • 82
    • 83
    • Warbler finches Insect-eaters Green warbler finch Certhidea olivaceaCOMMON Gray warbler finchANCESTOR Certhidea fusca Seed-eater Sharp-beaked ground finch Bud-eater Geospiza difficilis Vegetarian finch Platyspiza crassirostris Mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates Insect-eaters Tree finches Woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida Medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper Large tree finch Camarhynchus psittacula Small tree finch Camarhynchus parvulus Cactus-flower- Large cactus ground finch eaters Geospiza conirostris Cactus ground finch Ground finches Geospiza scandens Seed-eaters Small ground finch Geospiza fuliginosa Medium ground finch Geospiza fortis Large ground finch Geospiza magnirostris 84
    • 85
    • Two Main Types of Scientific Inquiry Discovery science Hypothesis -Based science 86
    • Natural Descriptive structures & processes Inductive Observation reasoningDiscovery Data analysisScience 87
    • 88 Inductive Reasoning
    • Types of DataQualitative Quantitative 89
    • Qualitative Data 90
    • Quantitative Data 91
    • Hypothesis-Hypothesis-Based Science Observe Question Hypothesize Predict 92
    • Observations QuestionHypothesis #1: Hypothesis #2:Dead batteries Burnt-out bulb 93
    • Hypothesis #1: Hypothesis #2: Dead batteries Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Prediction: Replacing batteries Replacing bulb will fix problem will fix problem Test of prediction Test of predictionTest falsifies hypothesis Test does not falsify hypothesis 94
    • Deductive Reasoning 95
    • Scarlet Kingsnake (nonvenomous) nonvenomous)Eastern Coral Snake 96
    • Eastern coral snake(venomous) venomous) 97
    • Scarlet kingsnake (nonvenomous) Key Range of scarlet kingsnake only Overlapping ranges of scarlet kingsnake & eastern coral snake North Carolina Eastern coral snake South (venomous) Carolina Scarlet kingsnake (nonvenomous) 98
    • (a) Artificial kingsnake(b) Brown artificial snake that has been attacked 99
    • RESULTS 100 Artificial kingsnakes 83% 84%Percent of total attacks Brown 80 on artificial snakes artificial snakes 60 40 20 17% 16% 0 Coral snakes Coral snakes absent present 100
    • 101
    • What is a Theory? Generates SupportedBroad and new by lots of general testable evidence hypotheses 102
    • Models 3-D objects Diagrams Math equations Computer programs 103
    • The Culture of Science: CommunicationThe Culture of Science: Creativity Teamwork 104
    • “Question mark” by “Rufous Hummingbird “Symbiosis” by FlickrFlickr user Marco “All fired up to impress user Jill ClardyBellucci the ladies!”” by Flickr user Rick Leche“Sunflower: the “Black-tailed “Female Striped HorseFibonacci sequence, jackrabbit”” by Flickr Fly (Tabanus lineola)”Golden Section” by user wolfpix by Flickr user ThomasFlickr user lucapost Shahan“Pygmy Seahorse” by “035” by Flickr user “DNA bands” by FlickrFlickr user PacificKlaus naku user source“Venus fly trap leaf “Fruit fly (Drosophila “Lettuce Sea Slug” bystudy” by Flickr user melanogaster, male)” Flickr user laszlo-photoPetrichor by Flickr user Max xx“Baby Gentoo “Body Parts” by Flickr “Charles Darwin” byPenguin” by Flickr user user geoftheref Flickr user ColinChadica Purrington“Rufous Hummingbird “From Helix to “Darwin’s tree of life”“Heavy Metal”” by Hairball” by Flickr user by Flickr user ColinFlickr user Rick Leche dullhunk Purrington 105
    • “ESTRELLA DESDE LA “Field of flowers” by http://www.sciencenews.ALHAMBRA, PEDIASTRUM Flickr user Alesa Dam org/view/access/id/6117CLATHRATUM” by Flickr 8/title/gd_sperm.jpguserhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/microagua/“LA AMEBA SOL, LUNA EN “Moss Covered Lava “Rat Testes” by Flickr userLA NOCHE: Field, Grindavik, Iceland” LeahLACTINOSPHAERIUM” by by Flickr userFlickr user WanderingtheWorldhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/microagua/“PARA JOSÉ MANUEL “Eye Arrangement of a “Orchid” by Flickr userORTIGUEIRA, ALMA DEL Hogna Wolf Spider” by experATENEO FOTOGRÁFICO” by Flickr user ThomasFlickr user Shahanhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/microagua/“DE PIEL LISA, LISA, “Colorful Broad-headed “Mauve Orchid” by FlickrCLOSTERIUM EHRENBERGII, Sharpshooter Leafhopper user Tim HamiltonPARA VERO” by Flickr user - (Oncometopiahttp://www.flickr.com/phot orbona?)” by Flickr useros/microagua/ Thomas Shahan“bracket fungi” by Flickr “Male Praying Mantis “Orchids in Hong Kong”user gari.baldi Head - (Stagmomantis by Flickr user Michael carolina?)” by Flickr user McDonough Thomas Shahan“Small fungus in beech “Head of a Black Carpenter “Walking Stick” by Flickrleaves” by Flickr user Ant (Camponotus user goingslonutmeg66 pennsylvanicus))” by Flickr user Thomas Shahan 106
    • “Cheating Fakir Spider” “wed measure” by “Transfering a Bat Rayby Flickr user Harpagornis Flickr user eustatic from the holding pen” by~away~ Flickr user cv.vick“Boo! (Or, evolution is “Eastern Coral Snake, “Biology Posters inawesome)” by Flickr user Everglades” by Flickr Action” by Flickr userfjordaan user TomSpinker DArcy Norman“Model and Mimic” by “Scarlet Kingsnake – “A juvenile sticklebackFlickr user DrPhotoMoto north Florida” by Flickr head stained red for user TomSpinker developing bone and blue for forming cartilage” by Flickr user dullhunk“Armadillo” by Flickr user “gravity” by Flickr userRich Anderson the mad LOLscientist Each of these images are Creative Commons licensed works attributed to their“primal instincts: Jane “let there be light…” byinterview by Joshua Flickr user darkmatter original authors.Wickerham p. 01” byFlickr user kafka4prez“if, then” by Flickr user - “Observing ratluz - behavior” by Flickr user jepoirrier 107
    • Credits by Rob Swatski, 2013 Visit my website for more Biology study resources! http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatskiPlease send your comments and feedback to: rjswatsk@hacc.edu This work bears an Attribution-Noncommercial Share Alike Creative Commons license. 108