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BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
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BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry. (Campbell Biology, 10th Ed. by Reece et al). …

This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry. (Campbell Biology, 10th Ed. by Reece et al).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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  • 1. Intro: Themes in the Study of Life BIOL 101 General Biology I Chapter 1 Rob Swatski Associate Professor of Biology HACC - York Campus 1
  • 2. Biologists ask questions … 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. 4 Life is… Order
  • 5. 5 Evolutionary adaptation
  • 6. 6 Response to the environment
  • 7. 7 Reproduction
  • 8. 8 Growth and development
  • 9. 9 Energy processing
  • 10. 10 Regulation
  • 11. Themes organize & connect biology concepts Chunk it!!! 11
  • 12. 12 “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” Theodosius Dobzhansky
  • 13. The biosphere Ecosystems Tissues Organs and organ systems Communities Populations Organisms Organelles Cells Atoms Molecules 13
  • 14. 14 Levels of Organization Organ systems Organs Tissue Cell Molecule Atom
  • 15. 15 Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms
  • 16. Emergent Properties 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 19 Complex Simple Reductionism
  • 20. Systems Biology 20
  • 21. 21 Interactions
  • 22. 22 Ecosystem Dynamics Nutrient Cycling Energy Flow
  • 23. 23
  • 24. Animals eat leaves and fruit from the tree. Leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen. Sunlight CO2 O2 Cycling of chemical nutrients Leaves fall to the ground and are decomposed by organisms that return minerals to the soil. Water and minerals in the soil are taken up by the tree through its roots. Leaves absorb light energy from the sun. 24
  • 25. Chemical energy (a) Energy flow from sunlight to producers to consumers Sunlight Producers absorb light energy and transform it into chemical energy. Chemical energy in food is transferred from plants to consumers. 25
  • 26. Heat (b) Using energy to do work When energy is used to do work, some energy is converted to thermal energy, which is lost as heat. An animal’s muscle cells convert chemical energy from food to kinetic energy, the energy of motion. A plant’s cells use chemical energy to do work such as growing new leaves. 26
  • 27. 27 Energy Potential Chemical Kinetic
  • 28. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31 Structure vs. Function
  • 32. 100 μm 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34 Cell Structure & Function Plasma membrane Contain DNA Able to divide
  • 35. 35
  • 36. 36 Prokaryotes No organelles No nucleus Bacteria & Archaea Eukaryotes Organelles present Nucleus present Protists, fungi, plants, animals
  • 37. 37
  • 38. Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell Cytoplasm DNA (no nucleus) Membrane Nucleus (membrane- enclosed) Membrane Membrane- enclosed organelles DNA (throughout nucleus) 1 m 38
  • 39. 39 DNA Chromosomes Genes
  • 40. Nucleus DNA Cell Nucleotide (b) Single strand of DNA A C T A A T C C G T A G T (a) DNA double helix A 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. Genome  Gene  DNA  RNA  Protein 42 TRANSCRIPTION DNA mRNA TRANSLATION Protein
  • 43. 43
  • 44. 44
  • 45. Systems Biology 45 Bioinformatics
  • 46. 46
  • 47. Homeostasis 47
  • 48. 48 Negative Feedback Positive Feedback
  • 49. Negative Feedback System Decreases stimulus if too high Increases stimulus if too low 49
  • 50. Excess D blocks a step Negative feedback Negative feedback D D D D C B A Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 – 50
  • 51. 51 Positive Feedback System
  • 52. Excess Z stimulates a step Positive feedback Z Positive feedback Enzyme 4 Enzyme 5 Enzyme 6 Z Z Z Y X W + 52 Z Z
  • 53. 53 Evolution accounts for the unity & diversity of life
  • 54. 54
  • 55. 55
  • 56. Suedberg Fossil Pit Devonian 375 MYA 56
  • 57. 57
  • 58. 58
  • 59. Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Ursus americanus (American black bear) Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia Eukarya 59 Taxonomy
  • 60. 3 Domains of Life Bacteria Archaea Eukarya 60
  • 61. Domain Bacteria 61
  • 62. 62 Domain Archaea
  • 63. 63 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia
  • 64. Kingdom Protista 64
  • 65. Kingdom Fungi 65
  • 66. 66 Kingdom Plantae
  • 67. Kingdom Animalia 67
  • 68. Cilia of Paramecium Cilia of windpipe cells 15 μm 5 μm 68 Unity in the Diversity of Life
  • 69. 69
  • 70. 70
  • 71. 71
  • 72. 72
  • 73. 1859: The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin 73
  • 74. Don’t Listen to Your Parents “You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, and rat-catching and you will be a disgrace to yourself and your family.” Dr. Robert Darwin 74
  • 75. 75 Two Main Points of Origin of Species Descent with modification Natural Selection
  • 76. 76
  • 77. Individuals in a population have traits that vary Traits are heritable More offspring are produced then actually survive Competition is inevitable Species are generally well adapted to their environment 77
  • 78. 78
  • 79. 79
  • 80. Adaptations: evidence of natural selection 80
  • 81. 81
  • 82. 82
  • 83. 83
  • 84. COMMON ANCESTOR Green warbler finch Certhidea olivacea Gray warbler finch Certhidea fusca Sharp-beaked ground finch Geospiza difficilis Vegetarian finch Platyspiza crassirostris Mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates Woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida Medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper Large tree finch Camarhynchus psittacula Small tree finch Camarhynchus parvulus Large cactus ground finch Geospiza conirostris Cactus ground finch Geospiza scandens Small ground finch Geospiza fuliginosa Medium ground finch Geospiza fortis Large ground finch Geospiza magnirostris Insect-eaters Seed-eater Bud-eater Insect-eaters Tree finches Ground finches Seed-eaters Cactus-flower- eaters Warbler finches 84
  • 85. 85
  • 86. 86 Two Main Types of Scientific Inquiry Discovery science Hypothesis-Based science
  • 87. 87 Descriptive Natural structures & processes Observation Inductive reasoning Data analysis Discovery Science
  • 88. 88 Inductive Reasoning Generalizations are derived from a large number of specific observations
  • 89. 89 Qualitative Quantitative Types of Data
  • 90. 90 Qualitative Data
  • 91. 91 Quantitative Data
  • 92. 92 Hypothesis-Based Science Observe Question Hypothesize Predict
  • 93. Observations Question Hypothesis #1: Dead batteries Hypothesis #2: Burnt-out bulb 93
  • 94. Hypothesis #1: Dead batteries Hypothesis #2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Test of prediction Test falsifies hypothesis Test does not falsify hypothesis Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Test of prediction 94
  • 95. 95 Deductive Reasoning
  • 96. Eastern Coral Snake 96 Scarlet Kingsnake (nonvenomous)
  • 97. Eastern coral snake (venomous) 97
  • 98. South Carolina North Carolina Key Scarlet kingsnake (nonvenomous) Scarlet kingsnake (nonvenomous) Eastern coral snake (venomous) Range of scarlet kingsnake only Overlapping ranges of scarlet kingsnake & eastern coral snake 98
  • 99. (a) Artificial kingsnake (b) Brown artificial snake that has been attacked 99
  • 100. Artificial kingsnakes Brown artificial snakes 83% 84% 17% 16% Coral snakes absent Coral snakes present Percent of total attacks on artificial snakes 100 80 60 40 20 0 RESULTS 100
  • 101. 101
  • 102. 102 What is a Theory? Broad and general Supported by lots of evidence Generates new testable hypotheses
  • 103. 103 Models 3-D objects Diagrams Math equations Computer programs
  • 104. The Culture of Science: Creativity The Culture of Science: Communication 104 Teamwork

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