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Rocco values for urbanism dec 2011 def short


This is a reshuffle of a former lecture on ‘social justice’ and ‘property’. This lecture is about fundamental values in urbanism, and it includes notions about social justice, democracy, …

This is a reshuffle of a former lecture on ‘social justice’ and ‘property’. This lecture is about fundamental values in urbanism, and it includes notions about social justice, democracy, redistribution, equality, life-chances connected to space, governance, public goods, etc. These notions are presented within the framework of urban planning and design.

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  • 1. VALUES FOR URBANISM Prepared by Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy, TU Delft !"#$%#&&#((%() *!$+#$,)- !"#$$%&%()"%(*+)+,%Wednesday, 7December, 2011 1
  • 2. !"#$%#&&#((%() *!$+#$,)-Wednesday, 7December, 2011 2
  • 3. SIR PETER HALL SAID: It is easiest to send a man to the moon than to plan and design a cityWednesday, 7December, 2011 3
  • 5. 15 HOUSING PROJECTS FROM HELL: PRUITT IGOE (1954), ST. LOUIS, U.S. For all its pretense at modernism, the fact that the Pruitt Igoe When the Pruitt Igoe was demolished, Charles Jencks declared was built in two complexes, one for white people and one for it as the death of modernism. The demolition sequence itself black, speaks volumes of its primitive ideology. features in the movie, Koyaanisqatsi. Source: http:// www.oobject.com/15-housing-projects-from-hell/Wednesday, 7December, 2011 5
  • 6. LE CORBUSIER’S PLAN VOISIN FOR PARIS (LE MARAIS) (1925). Source: http://www.oobject.com/15-housing-projects-from- hell/Wednesday, 7December, 2011 6
  • 7. THE MAIN TASK FOR URBAN PLANNERS AND DESIGNERS IS TO ACT AS ARTICULATORS OF SPATIAL VISIONS AND SOLUTIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE AND FAIR FUTURE Foster + Partners, Duisburg City Masterplan, Duisburg, Germany, 2007. The new masterplan for the inner city of Duisburg builds on the success of Foster + Partners’ Inner Harbour redevelopment and will strengthen Duisburg’s transformation into a vibrant, green and sustainable city. Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/ 1443/Default.aspxWednesday, 7December, 2011 7
  • 8. THEY DO THAT BY UNDERSTANDING HUMAN ACTIVITY ON SPACE AND BY PROPOSING INTERVENTIONS THAT MIGHT IMPROVE EXISTING CONDITIONS James Bell: Visualising Social Space, All rights reserved by jamvlog. Available at FlickrWednesday, 7December, 2011 8
  • 10. PLANNERS AND DESIGNERS DO NOT “MAKE” CITIES. THEY ARE ONE OF THE AGENTS THAT ACT IN ORDER TO STEER THE CITY Some rights reserved by tigger89. Available at FlickrWednesday, 7December, 2011 10
  • 12. WHAT’S GOVERNANCE AGAIN? Civil Private Society Sector Public SectorWednesday, 7December, 2011 12
  • 13. WHAT’S GOVERNANCE AGAIN? Civil Civil Civil Private Society Sector Civil Public Public Sector Coalitions between Public sectors and within Sector sectorsWednesday, 7December, 2011 13
  • 14. SYSTEMS OF GOVERNANCE A map of th e world, hig hlighted on a scale from light blue to based on th black, e score each country received acc ording to Th Economists e Democracy survey for 2 Index 010, from a scale of 10 to 0, with 10 being the m democratic, ost and 0 being democratic. the least Hong Kong (score 5.85) and P alestine (sco re 5.44) were also in cluded in th e survey but are not visible on th is map. The Economist Intelligence Units Democracy Index as published in December 2010. The palest blue countries get a score above 9 out of 10 (with Norway being the most democratic country at 9.80), while the black countries score below 3 (with North Korea being the least democratic at 1.08). Source: Economist Intelligent Unit, 2011. Available at http://www.eiu.com/public/Wednesday, 7December, 2011 14
  • 15. ELECTORAL DEMOCRACIES Countries highlighted in blue are designated "electoral democracies" in Freedom Houses 2010 survey Freedom in the World. Available at http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/fiw10/FIW_2010_Tables_and_Graphs.pdfWednesday, 7December, 2011 15
  • 16. DEMOCRACY ON THE RISE This graph shows Freedom Houses evaluation of the number of nations in the different categories given above for the period for which there are surveys, 1972–2005. Souce: Freedomhouse.orgWednesday, 7December, 2011 16
  • 17. NEW PARTICIPATORY TOOLS?Wednesday, 7December, 2011 17
  • 18. “THE ARAB SPRING” Available at: http://thepersonalnavigator.blogspot.com/2011/06/arab-spring-and-what-came-before.htmlWednesday, 7December, 2011 18
  • 19. “OCCUPY WALL STREET http://www.infowars.com/obama-machine-prepares-to-hijack-occupy-wall-street/Wednesday, 7December, 2011 19
  • 20. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING Facebook played an extremely important role in the uprisings throughout the Middle East. Source: theatlanticwire.comWednesday, 7December, 2011 20
  • 21. UNEQUAL ACCESS PERSISTS (BUT WE ARE GETTING THERE)Wednesday, 7December, 2011 21
  • 22. TIME FOR INCREASED PARTICIPATION IN CITY MAKING? Do you know examples of participatory planning in your country or elsewhere? How do they do it? This lecture is not about participatory planning, but we will discuss it elsewhere!!!Wednesday, 7December, 2011 22
  • 23. TOOLS FOR A MEANS Planning is one of the main tools to strengthen democracy, in order to: Increase public goods Solve conflicts Balance the powers in governance processes Achieve SOCIAL JUSTICEWednesday, 7December, 2011 23
  • 24. JUSTICEWednesday, 7December, 2011 24
  • 25. BUT WHAT IS SOCIAL JUSTICE? It is all about creating tools for the achievement of the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being. Source: http://www.buildingequality.leprosyblog.ca/2011/01/world-day-of-social-justice.htmlWednesday, 7December, 2011 25
  • 26. SOCIAL JUSTICE Social Justice stems from the democratic principle that all are born equal and deserve EQUAL ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITYWednesday, 7December, 2011 26
  • 27. SOCIAL JUSTICE KEY CONCEPTS Human rights Equality Greater degree of economic egalitarianism through progressive taxation, income redistribution, and other democratic tools of redistribution.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 27
  • 28. AIMS OF SOCIAL JUSTICE 1.more equality of opportunity than may currently exist in some societies 2.equality of outcome in democratic societiesWednesday, 7December, 2011 28
  • 29. WHAT IS JUSTICE IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT? If the inhabitants of the POLIS are the true CITIZENS, how do we distribute the benefits of the POLIS equally? How do we make the spatial benefits of the Polis accessible to all citizens? “To take no part in the running of the communitys affairs is to be either a beast or a god!” Aristotle Hansen, Mogens Herman. Polis: An Introduction to the Ancient Greek City-State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006Wednesday, 7December, 2011 29
  • 30. WHERE DOES JUSTICE COME FROM? Ethics (moral philosophy) Rationality Law Natural law ReligionWednesday, 7December, 2011 30
  • 31. OPPORTUNITY AND SPACE Because opportunity (AKA ‘life chances’) is specifically bound to space (location, accessibility, mobility) and Because ‘who owns what’/ ‘who finances what’ is a big part of urban development, we need to democratically deal with redistribution of resources and spatial advantages in creative ways.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 31
  • 32. PROPERTYWednesday, 7December, 2011 32
  • 33. A4 near DelftWednesday, 7December, 2011 33
  • 34. TRADITIONAL NOTIONS OF PROPERTY INCLUDE: Control and use of the property The right to obtain benefits from the property (to derive profit from it) The right to transfer or sell the property The right to exclude others from the use or the premisses of the propertyWednesday, 7December, 2011 34
  • 35. SOME LIMITATIONS TO PROPERTY Uses that unreasonable interfere with the property rights of others Uses that unreasonably interfere with public property rights, including externalities that jeopardise the property of others and reduce PUBLIC GOODS in an unreasonable way (health, safety, peace, convenience)Wednesday, 7December, 2011 35
  • 36. DO YOU... Know examples of properties that effectively reduce public goods?Wednesday, 7December, 2011 36
  • 37. THE CLASSIC EXAMPLE Drax Power Station near Selby, Yorkshire. Photograph: John Giles/PA Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/feb/09/pollutionwatch-uk-sparedWednesday, 7December, 2011 37
  • 38. CAN YOU THINK OF REASONS WHY THIS AIRPORT IS STILL THERE? Source: http://acertodecontas.blog.br/atualidades/congonhas-sobrevive-porque-as-pessoas-querem/Wednesday, 7December, 2011 38
  • 39. SCHIPHOL NOISE MAP http://www.geluidnieuws.nl/2005/sep2005/schiphol.htmlWednesday, 7December, 2011 39
  • 40. PRIVATE PROPERTY Directly affects the production of PUBLIC GOODS Is directly affected by PUBLIC GOODSWednesday, 7December, 2011 40
  • 41. My plot!Wednesday, 7December, 2011 41
  • 42. My plot! DinoVabec NYC to LAWednesday, 7December, 2011 42
  • 43. EXAGGERATED? ME?Wednesday, 7December, 2011 43
  • 45. www.grosvenorlondon.comWednesday, 7December, 2011 45
  • 46. PUBLIC GOODS Public goods are not only created by government action. Public goods are created by the action of all the actors present in a governance system.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 46
  • 47. HOWEVER The State is the MAIN ARTICULATOR and WARRANTOR of Public Goods (remember the function of the State as protector of property? It can limit it too and direct uses for societal gains). Public goods are maximised thanks to co-ordinated collective action (in other words: PLANNING) Therefore, the State could act as a re-distributor of GAINS to SOCIETY through democratic mechanisms of transfer and equalisation.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 47
  • 48. PUTTING PROPERTY IN CONTEXT In some cases this can mean limiting, delimitating or circumscribing property rights. Or putting property rights and profit in CONTEXT.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 48
  • 49. TOOLSWednesday, 7December, 2011 49
  • 50. THE CLASSIC EXAMPLE: ZONING http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/planen/fnp/en/historie/index.shtmlWednesday, 7December, 2011 50
  • 51. ROSCOMMON COUNTY, REP. OF IRELANDWednesday, 7December, 2011 51
  • 52. SAO PAULOWednesday, 7December, 2011 52
  • 53. SAO PAULO BORDER OF THE HAGUEWednesday, 7December, 2011 53
  • 54. BORDER OF THE HAGUEWednesday, 7December, 2011 54
  • 55. EXPROPRIATION (ONTEIGENING) Eminent domain (United States), Compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), Resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), Expropriation (South Africa and Canada) An action of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or seize a citizens rights in property with due monetary compensation, but without the owners consent.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 55
  • 56. PUBLIC UTILITY De Jure Belli et Pacis, Hugo Grotius in 1625 "... The property of subjects is under the eminent domain of the state, so that the state or he who acts for it may use and even alienate and destroy such property, not only in the case of extreme necessity, in which even private persons have a right over the property of others, but for ends of public utility, to which ends those who founded civil society must be supposed to have intended that private ends should give way. But it is to be added that when this is done the state is bound to make good the loss to those who lose their property."Wednesday, 7December, 2011 56
  • 57. EXAMPLE OF PUBLIC UTILITY: SELECTIVE FLOODING STRATEGIES (NL) Source: de Volkskrant, 2004Wednesday, 7December, 2011 57
  • 58. TRANSFER OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS Some physical rights include the rights to build, exploit natural resources, restrict access and farm. Other legally enforceable rights include the right to sell the land, subdivide it, rent it out or grant easements across it. These rights can be suspended or limited. Source: http://government.cce.cornell.edu/doc/html/Transfer%20of%20Development%20Rights%20Programs.htm#DefinitionWednesday, 7December, 2011 58
  • 59. TRANSFER OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS TDR programs allow landowners to sever the building (aka development) rights from a particular piece of property and sell them. Purchasers are usually other landowners who want to increase the density of their developments. Local governments may also buy development rights in order to control price, design details or restrict growth.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 59
  • 60. TDR Source: http://government.cce.cornell.edu/doc/html/Transfer%20of%20Development%20Rights %20Programs.htm#DefinitionWednesday, 7December, 2011 60
  • 61. TDR You can build public policies based on TDRs!Wednesday, 7December, 2011 61
  • 62. ADDITIONAL BUILDING RIGHTS The separation between the right to own and the right to build that is implicit in tolls like zoning, give us the opportunity to build on tools like TDRs and additional building rights.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 62
  • 63. ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS ADRs are useful in combination with other legislation (like ZONING) and specially in LARGE URBAN PROJECTS, where local governments have big stakes and where public money is used to improve infrastructure and public goods massively and where massive land valuation is expected as a result of the intervention. Investors in areas touched by LUPs must conform to existing ZONING regulations, which most of the times determine how much they can build in relation to the size of the plot they own (floor area index). For an example, look at http://www.cityofjerseycity.com/hedc.aspx?id=6876Wednesday, 7December, 2011 63
  • 64. ADDITIONAL BUILDING RIGHTS But if investors are willing to build BEYOND the existing zoning limitations, within the capacity to be created by large public works, they can buy a TITLE negotiable in the stock market or sealable as pubic titles. Each title will give the investor the ability to build X sq meters beyond existing regulations (within limits imposed by the planning authority). Because these titles are negotiable, their value depends on how much the market is willing to pay for them for a specific LUP at a specific time.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 64
  • 65. INCENTIVES FOR BUILDING RENEWALWednesday, 7December, 2011 65
  • 66. FURTHER REFERENCES KELLNER , D.Perspectives on Habermas, 2000, J. , the Public Sphere, and Democracy: A Critical Intervention, available at http://gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/ kellner/papers/habermas.htm LANGLOIS, J. 2009. Normative and Theoretical Foundations of Human Rights. In: GOODHART, M. (ed.) Human Rights: Politics and Practice. Oxforf: OUP.Wednesday, 7December, 2011 66
  • 67. !"#$%#&&#((%() *!$+#$,)- THANKS FOR WATCHING & LISTENING! Should you have any doubts, please contact r.c.rocco@tudelft.nl And visit our BLOG www.spatialplanningtudelft.eu !"#$$%&%()"%(*+)+,%Wednesday, 7December, 2011 67