MIT Talk: What are plans and planners for?

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Talk at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on March 13th 2014, at the International Development Planning Section. Part of the Spring Speakers Series, Stella Room.

In this lecture I make a strong case for state intervention in informal urbanisation, within the framework of positive rights, in order to promote access to increased life chances.

Lecture based on co-authored paper with Jan van Ballegooijen.

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MIT Talk: What are plans and planners for?

  1. 1. What are plans and planners for? Discussing aims of spatial planning in informal urbanization SpatialPlanning &Strategy Delft University of Technology URBANISM
  2. 2. This presentation claims that... THE RIGHT TO THE CITY RIGHT to RIGHTS RIGHT TO THE CITY POSITIVE RIGHTS NEGATIVE RIGHTS
  3. 3. PUBLIC GOODS COLLECTIVE UNDERTAKINGS POLITICALLY, INSTITUTIONALLY PROCEDURALLY MAIN TOOLS SPATIAL JUSTICE RIGHT TO THE CITY
  4. 4. This presentation
  5. 5. shifting paradigms: from criminals to entrepreneurs
  6. 6. • hope • entrepreneurship • affirmation of the right to BE in the city • the possibility to access a much larger and diversified labour market • access to improved health care, educational opportunities and cultural opportunities What do you see?
  7. 7. INCREASED LIFE CHANCES
  8. 8. Mumbai
  9. 9. SaoPauloPoor official responses
  10. 10. Mexico
  11. 11. Mumbai
  12. 12. Mumbai
  13. 13. MumbaiHow can those compare to this? University of California, Berkeley
  14. 14. slums have come to be seen as...
  15. 15. Slums lack:
  16. 16. +-900 million people in slums (UN Habitat)
  17. 17. Text Lagos
  18. 18. Some problems
  19. 19. Aestheticization of poverty
  20. 20. TurnerNot a new idea
  21. 21. Turn to neoliberalism Caracas
  22. 22. What I see ENORMOUS LACK OF ACCESS TO PUBLIC GOODS Paraisopolis
  23. 23. ‘Let the poor take their future in their own hands’ SaoPaulo
  24. 24. SaoPaulo
  25. 25. SaoPaulo
  26. 26. SaoPaulo
  27. 27. SaoPaulo
  28. 28. SaoPaulo
  29. 29. The Right to the City
  30. 30. Negative rights
  31. 31. Positive rights
  32. 32. Positive rights are deeply connected to access to public goods
  33. 33. Positive rights are deeply connected to access to public goods
  34. 34. Role of planning? material/spatial support inclusion access to negative AND positive rights public goods
  35. 35. PUBLIC GOODS
  36. 36. Intangible assets that can be enjoyed by all
  37. 37. Intangible assets that can be enjoyed by all
  38. 38. A bridge is not a public good but it promotes one
  39. 39. ‘green’SaoPaulo
  40. 40. Green Heart of the Randstad Holland
  41. 41. Public goods and collective action
  42. 42. Exclusionary spaces
  43. 43. The just city
  44. 44. lack of access to public goods SaoPaul
  45. 45. Role of the State and of planning SaoPaulo
  46. 46. Different models of democratic societies
  47. 47. Models of society
  48. 48. Tne European experience TheHague
  49. 49. TheHague
  50. 50. Amsterdam
  51. 51. Amsterdam
  52. 52. Consequences for the role of governments (and planners)
  53. 53. Interconnections positive rights and the right to the city
  54. 54. Sao Paulo
  55. 55. SaoPaulo
  56. 56. 0 20km N Anhanguera Perus Jaragua S. Domingos Pirituba Freguesia do O Brasilandia Limao Cachoei- rinha Mandaqui Casa Verde Santana Trememb e Tucuruvi Jacana Vila Medeiros Vila Maria Vila Guilherme Cangaiba Penha Tatuape Carrao Belem Mooca Agua Rasa Vila Matilde Vila Formosa Ermelino Matarazzo Itaquera Ponte Rasa Artur Alvim Cidade Lider Parque do Carmo Jose Bonifacio Cidade Tiradentes Guaianases Lajeado Vila Curuca Itaim Paulista Jardim Helena Sao Miguel Vila Jacui Iguatemi Sao Rafael Sao MateusSapopopembaemba Aricanduva Sao LucasVila Pruden te Ipiranga Sacoma Cursino Jabaquara Cidade Ademar Pedreira Cidade D utra Grajau Socorro Camp o Grande Santo Amaro Parelheiros Marsilac Jardim A ngela Jardim Sao Luis Capao Redondo Camp o Limpo Vila Andrade Vila Sonia MorumbiRaposo Tavares Rio Pequeno Butanta Jaguare Vila Leopoldina Lapa Jaragua Alto de Pinheiros Itaim Bibi Moema Camp o Belo Saude Vila Mariana Jardim Paulista Pinheiros Perdizes Barra Funda Consolacao Santa Cecilia Bela Vista Lib erdade Cambuci Bras Pari Bom Retiro Se republica Norway Norway Iceland Iceland Australia Australia SWEDEN SWEDEN Netherlands Japan Denmark Finland FRance Austria Austria New Zealand germany spain spain Hong kong Hong kong singapore singapore slovenia s.Korea kyrgyztan Dominican Rep. S. Korea S.KOrea Cyprus cyprus cyprus cyprus cyprus cyprus cyprus Czech Rep. Malta MALTA MALTA Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina poland poland chile chile estonia slovakia qatar bahrain bahrain croatia cyprus uruguay latvia st kitts bahamas bahamas bahamas seychelles seychelles cuba cuba cuba mexico bulgaria Panama Panama lybia lybia lybia Malaysia Malaysia Russia mauritius bosnia oman Albania thailand venezuela saudi arabia ukraine ukraine ukraine ukraine peru kazakhstan Dominican republic China sri lanka sri lanka turkey bulgaria Sky high: SWEDEN Very high: Spain high: Czech republic moderately high: mexico Medium: thailand Medium to low: kyrgystan HDI Human development index (2007( city of sao paulo districts compared data source: PMSP and IBGE/PNUD 2007 there are no districts that score less than 0.7, therefore no district with low HDI the lowest HDI index belongs to marsilac (0.701 SaoPaulo
  57. 57. Anhanguera Jaragua S. Domingos Pirituba Freguesia do O Brasilandia Limao Cachoei- rinha Mandaqui Casa Verde Santana Trememb e Tucuruvi Jacana Vila Medeiros Vila Maria Vila Guilherme Cangaiba Penha Tatuape Carrao Belem Mooca Agua Rasa Vila Matilde Vila Formosa Ermelino Matarazzo Itaquera Ponte Rasa Artur Alvim Cidade Lider Parque do Carmo Jose Bonifacio Cidade Tiradentes Guaianases Lajeado Vila Curuca Itaim Paulista Jardim Helena Sao Miguel Vila Jacui Iguatemi Sao Rafael Sao MateusSapopopembaemba Aricanduva Sao LucasVila Pruden te Ipiranga Sacoma Cursino Jabaquara Cidade Ademar Pedreira Cidade D utra Socorro Camp o Grande Santo Amaro Jardim A ngela Jardim Sao Luis Capao Redondo Camp o Limpo Vila Andrade Vila Sonia MorumbiRaposo Tavares Rio Pequeno Butanta Jaguare Vila Leopoldina Lapa Jaragua Alto de Pinheiros Itaim Bibi Moema Camp o Belo Saude Vila Mariana Jardim Paulista Pinheiros Perdizes Barra Funda Consolacao Santa Cecilia Bela Vista Lib erdade Cambuci Bras Pari Bom Retiro Se republica Norway Norway Iceland Iceland Australia Australia SWEDEN SWEDEN Netherlands Japan Denmark Finland FRance Austria Austria New Zealand germany spain spain Hong kong Hong kong singapore singapore slovenia s.Korea Dominican Rep. S. Korea S.KOrea Cyprus cyprus cyprus cyprus cyprus cyprus cyprus Czech Rep. Malta MALTA MALTA Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina poland poland chile chile estonia slovakia qatar bahrain bahrain croatia cyprus uruguay latvia st kitts bahamas bahamas seychelles seychelles cuba cuba cuba mexico bulgaria Panama Panama lybia lybia lybia Malaysia Malaysia Russia mauritius bosnia oman Albania thailand venezuela ukraine ukraine ukraine ukraine peru kazakhstan sri lanka sri lanka turkey bulgaria Sky high: SWEDEN Very high: Spain high: Czech republic SaoPaulo
  58. 58. 22.5% middle or high vulnerability (2.5 million people) SaoPaulo
  59. 59. SaoPaulo votedistribution mayoralelections2012
  60. 60. SaoPaulo ethnicdistribution
  61. 61. SaoPaulo
  62. 62. SaoPaulo
  63. 63. favelaSaoPaulo
  64. 64. favela: initial stages SaoPaulo
  65. 65. favela: ‘consolidated’ SaoPaulo
  66. 66. Ocupação clandestina SaoPaulo
  67. 67. Ocupação clandestina SaoPaulo
  68. 68. Loteamento irregular SaoPaulo
  69. 69. Ocupação as political action
  70. 70. SaoPaulo
  71. 71. Civil and political consequences of illegality
  72. 72. subversion of the rule of law Pinheirinho
  73. 73. PinheirinhoIf housing is a priviledge, then occupying is a right.
  74. 74. Pinheirinho
  75. 75. Pinheirinho
  76. 76. Pinheirinho
  77. 77. Pinheirinho
  78. 78. But how did we get there? 1964
  79. 79. Militaryrule
  80. 80. Militaryrule
  81. 81. Militaryrule
  82. 82. S. Paulo: Explosive Growth
  83. 83. Massruralmigratio
  84. 84. ABC strikes
  85. 85. Social movements
  86. 86. Christian (catholic) Base Communities
  87. 87. Diretas Ja Direct Elections Now
  88. 88. 1988 Constitution
  89. 89. Statute of the City (2001): 37 X ‘right to the city’
  90. 90. SaoPauloCDHU Lapa
  91. 91. SaoPaulo Mutirao: Self Help
  92. 92. SaoPaulo Mutirao
  93. 93. SaoPaulo Mutirao “the medicine against corruption: self-help and self-management”
  94. 94. Loteamento irregular SaoPaulo Projeto Cingapura
  95. 95. SaoPaulo Projeto Cingapura
  96. 96. Unified Educational Centres CEU
  97. 97. CEU
  98. 98. CEU
  99. 99. recently Paraisopolis
  100. 100. recently Paraisopolis
  101. 101. recently Heliopolis
  102. 102. recently Heliopolis
  103. 103. recently
  104. 104. JardimPantanal recently
  105. 105. recently ParquedoGato
  106. 106. FaveladoMoinho
  107. 107. Pinheirinho
  108. 108. Estaiadinha2013
  109. 109. base for the constitution of legitimate demands
  110. 110. Integration of the right to the city with urban development
  111. 111. role of planning?
  112. 112. Any questions?

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