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Introduction to Strategic Planning


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This is a short introduction on Strategic Planning.

This is a short introduction on Strategic Planning.

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  • 1. Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy TU Delft Brief Introduction to Strategic Planning !"#$$%&'%()"%(*+)+,% !"#$%#&'&#((%() *!$+#$,)- 1
  • 2. !"#$%#&'&#((%() *!$+#$,)- 2
  • 3. Introduction to general concepts of contemporary strategic planning 3
  • 4. This lecture is composed of two parts 1 The shift in urban planning and design 4
  • 5. This lecture is composed of two parts 2 A brief description of strategic planning 5
  • 6. The shift in urban planning and design 6
  • 7. Point of Departure: Space is Socially Produced Spatial planning deals with ‘inhabited’ space: a space of frictions but also a space of shared societal goals 7
  • 8. Roots of Urbanism: Main concerns Hygiene/ Health Separation of activities Beauty/ grandeur/ monumentality/ representation of power Circulation/ accessibility (first connected to control and military purposes) Mobility (car/tram/train) and the Fordist mode of production 8
  • 9. Evolution of the object of urbanism according to different ideologies, technologies and modes of production 9
  • 10. Urbanism of Monumentality, Hygiene and Military Strategy Haussmann Renovations : Paris1852-1870 10
  • 11. Haussmann: Urbanisme Militariste et Higieniste New road system in Paris under the Second Empire (Histoire de la France urbaine, tome 4, p. 90) 11
  • 12. Haussmanization 12
  • 13. Haussmanization 13
  • 14. The Urbanism of Technical Networks: Cerda: Barcelona 1897 14
  • 15. The Cerda block 15
  • 16. The Urbanism of Technical Networks: Cerda: Barcelona 1897 16
  • 17. The Urbanism of Technical Networks: Barcelona Blocks 17
  • 18. The Urbanism of Technical Networks: Cerda: Barcelona 1897 18
  • 19. The messiah charles- Édouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier, October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) 19
  • 20. Le Plan Voisin Le Corbusier: Paris 1925 Modernism: Rationality, order and the motorcar 20
  • 21. The modulor The Modulor is an anthropometric scale of proportions devised by the Swiss-born French architect Le Corbusier (1887–1965). It was developed as a visual bridge between two incompatible scales, the Imperial system and the Metric system. It is based on the height of an English man with his arm raised. Source: wikipedia. 21
  • 22. Le Plan Voisin Le Corbusier: Paris 1925 22
  • 23. Brasilia: brazil, 1956-1960 23
  • 24. Brasilia: brazil, 1956-1960 24
  • 25. Bijlmermeer, Amsterdam, 1966-1970 Siegfried Nassuth, urban designer 25
  • 26. Bijlmermeer, Amsterdam, 1966-1970 26
  • 27. But lately, there is a radical change in how we approach urban development 27
  • 28. URBANISM Broadly, urbanism focuses on INHABITED SPACES. It focuses on how people, structures and activities are distributed over space (a territory) and how they are articulated by spaces, structures and infrastructures, as well as rules. Because the task of URBANISM is very complex, the SCOPE of the discipline is very wide. 28
  • 29. A very wide scope Mind map on urbanism, MSC2 students, TU Delft 29
  • 30. This is incredibly important for our well being 30
  • 31. And this is a real challenge for planners and designers Amsterdam street scene, Photograph by the genial Arlette H.. 31
  • 32. So? Spatial planning deals with ‘inhabited’ space This is a space of social friction but also a space of shared societal goals 32
  • 33. Cities in Civilization: Culture, Technology, and Urban Order, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998; New York, Pantheon Books, 1998 Peter Hall (UCL) said… 33
  • 34. Planning and design a city is more complex than sending a man to the moon. Peter Hall’s sending a man to the moon X planning and designing a city 34
  • 35. Governance: positive tension creates some kind of equilibrium in society Notice: this is a stupidly SIMPLIFIED model of forces operating in society 35
  • 36. In liberal democracies: there is friction and negotiation 36
  • 37. Because it is all about people and how they use space, we need to have an ethical attitude (social responsibility) X 37
  • 38. Ethics The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematising, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behaviour. See more about ethics at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy at http:// (this is a peer-reviewed resource, not Wikipedia. But the article at Wikipedia is not bad! If you want to understand the point being made at the lecture, albeit in a very simplified way, please have a look at “applied ethics”) 38
  • 39. Increasing complexity ✤ The increasing complexity of living environments results in increasingly complex research paradigms. ✤ After all, there are new tools for analysis, new combinations of disciplines and new QUESTIONS that need to be answered. 39
  • 40. Increasing complexity The increasing complexity of research paradigms in planning results in the perception that a practical education on design skills alone is insufficient to deal with the broader task at hand: 40
  • 41. The broader task at hand To understand the context, the role and wishes of stakeholders and the socio- political forces that ultimately produce ‘real world’ space in order to be able to intervene effectively. 41
  • 42. Increasing complexity? 42
  • 43. Sao Paulo, Brazil, pop. 16 million (2010) 43
  • 44. But THIS is not so complex... Or is it? Delft, The Netherlands, pop.: 96.000 (2008) 44
  • 45. Urbanisation in the Netherlands, 1950 Urbanisation in the Netherlands, 2010 Delft Delft 45
  • 46. Urbanisation in the Randstad, 1950 Urbanisation in the Randstad, 2010 Delft Delft 46
  • 47. Complex enough for you? Commuting patterns in The Randstad (2008), source: VROM. 47
  • 48. KLM Routes 1964 KLM Routes 2004 48
  • 49. 49
  • 50. The future looks more like this Visualizing Friendships by Paul Butler on Tuesday, 14 December 2010 at 02:16 50
  • 51. Metropolitain de Paris 2005 Tokyo Subway system 2008 51
  • 52. The nature of Urbanism The stretched scope of urbanism, with its large range of inputs drawn from various disciplines, demands another approach by urban planners and designers, where communication and negotiation have a more central role. 52
  • 53. A brief description of strategic planning 53
  • 54. Introduction on Strategic Planning 54
  • 55. Let us start with a Metaphor 55
  • 56. STRATEGY Military origins: Strategos in ancient Greek means “General of the Army”: The Strategos formulated the strategy to win the war 56
  • 57. A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. Strategy applies to many different fields, such as: *Military strategy*Marketing strategies*Strategic management*Football strategy*Game theoretical strategy*Economic strategy* etc. In many fields 57
  • 58. Origins of Strategic Planning WAR + BUSINESS = COMPETITION (M. Porter: Competitive Advantages) 58
  • 59. 1920: Harvard Business School: New Policy Model for Businesses: emphasis on organisational policy and structure 1950s: emphasis on risk, growth and competitiveness: strategic decisions derive from analyses of competitive power relationships Mid 1980s: leakage into the public sector and public management ▶ “run the government like business” ► city competitiveness ▶strategic planning Origins of Strategic Planning 59
  • 60. In the 1980s and 90s Rapid Transition From Land Use Planning to Strategic Planning & From Hard Planning to ‘Soft Planning’ & From ‘Planning’ to ‘Competitive Strategic Planning’ & From ‘Zones’ to ‘Networks’ 60
  • 61. Le Plan Voisin Le Corbusier: Paris 1925 61
  • 62. Bijlmermeer, Amsterdam, 1966-1970 Siegfried Nassuth, urban designer 62
  • 63. 63
  • 64. Today: A new Paradigm ✤Strategic Planning today is based on social and environmental sustainability and global awareness ✤Planning is an instrument to increase participation and strengthen societal cohesion. 64
  • 65. People Planet Profit Prosperity! Today: A new Paradigm The Three Ps 65
  • 66. New Emphasis in Strategic Planning SYNERGY + PARTICIPATION Strategic urban planning is a process that allows the articulation of the initiatives of public and private stakeholders which seek synergies for the development of a city. (Source: Steinberg, 2003) 66
  • 67. Strategic Planning is about… 1. A tool for local development which conceives strategic interventions that guarantee the quality of life, and economic and social progress 2. A mechanism to promote progressive forms of governance, substantially improving local democracy through collaboration between public and private urban stakeholders 3. A modern, participatory and democratic form of thinking about urban development which allows the establishment of references for all economic and social actors 4. A new instrument which facilitates the management of a city in a period of frequent and substantial changes (various sources) 67
  • 68. So what is ‘Strategic Planning’? Long-term plans based on overall objectives. Strategic plans are typically long term plans that use Scenarios (Visions) in order to: ✤ Test Assumptions ✤ Set Specific Goals ✤ Investigate Strengths ✤ Examine Weaknesses ✤ Check Risks Generally, strategic planning involves continuous/ periodical/reassessment of these aspects 68
  • 69. A quick overview Generally, the state is in charge of planning Government programme: set of goals and objectives 69
  • 70. A quick overview Several secretaries/ departments Multi- sectoral approach Spatial plan (many forms) 70
  • 71. Spatial strategy 71
  • 72. National spatial structure 72
  • 73. Swansea bay strategic plan 73
  • 74. National spatial strategy 74
  • 75. A quick overview Based on socio economic trends understands the role and the wishes of stakeholders Importance of research 75
  • 76. The spatial plan Based on socio economic trends understands the role and the wishes of stakeholders Alternative or desirable scenarios Probable scenario Desirable scenario Possible scenario 76
  • 77. Scenarios (a metaphor) Today In 2 weeks 77
  • 78. Divergent scenarios (but I eliminated already several possibilities!) Scheveningen Shopping TV! Most desirable Most probable 78
  • 79. SUNNY!RAINY  OUTSIDE INSIDE Active in the water scenario The perfect tan scenario Cozy and cuddly scenario Cozy and sticky scenario 79
  • 80. Active in the water 80
  • 81. Cosy and cuddly 81
  • 82. The Perfect Tan 82
  • 83. VISION: Active and healthy in all weather scenario 83
  • 84. But what do I need to do to get there? The STRATEGY! 84
  • 85. A strategy 85
  • 86. The STRATEGY is... . a flexible set of steps and actions taken over a certain time frame, within the framework of a desirable VISION, used in order to fulfil the achievement of societal goals connected to the organisation of space 86
  • 87. In other words, A strategy is... composed by several actions and interventions laid down in a time frame (short term/ middle term/ long term) which will probably lead you to the most desirable outcome within the constraints given 87
  • 88. But… But the vision (the objectives) is likely to change over time. Moreover, we cannot control all factors, so the role of the strategy is to STEER towards a desirable overall outcome, rather than FIX a precise objective. 88
  • 89. In spatial planning The steps are represented by ACTIONS and INTERVENTIONS, many times in the form of PROJECTS or DESIGNS, but also in the form of policies 89
  • 90. Not all steps are the same Some steps (projects) are more important than others. Some steps are ESSENTIAL for the strategy, other support the strategy but are not ESSENTIAL One or more steps are the TRIGGERS of change (after all, you need to give the first step. If it is a good one, others will follow and you will mobilize support 90
  • 91. Bilbao Ria 2000 project: The trigger All rights reserved by johnjohn1974 at FLICKR 91
  • 92. Bilbao 1992 2009 92
  • 93. Bilbao: Aban 1992 2009 93
  • 94. Bilbao 1992 2009 94
  • 95. Please visit! Bilbao Ria 2000 95
  • 96. Randstad Key projects Den Haag centraal Utrecht centraal Rotterdam centraal 96
  • 97. Amsterdam Zuidas 97
  • 98. 98
  • 99. 99
  • 100. The scenario The ‘scenario’ (perspective) is “a plausible description of how the future may develop, based on a coherent and internally consistent set of assumptions about key relationships and driving forces” (Watson et al., 1996) 100
  • 101. The VISION In the Dutch language, the use of the word ‘visie’ (vision) refers to a mental visualization of one or various desirable ‘scenarios’. The ‘vision’ is an ‘image of the future’ which articulates an individual’s or group's values, ideals, and goals. 101
  • 102. Steps or Co-ordinated Actions These steps and actions must have ‘strategic value’; they must be part of a systematic plan. In other words, each step or action must be part of a coherent and co-ordinated strategy designed to achieve those goals. 102
  • 103. Flexible sequence of steps Therefore, strategic planning involves a flexible sequence of steps and co-ordinated processes, rather than a rigid set of actions towards a strict target. In strategic planning, once each step is completed, the whole strategy is re-evaluated and the targets are readjusted. 103
  • 104. STEP 1: Analysis/ Research: Problem Statement 1. Analysis: The analysis of the political, social, economic and technical environment and The consideration of various driving forces in the environment considered (for example, increasing complexity of flows, technological advancements, changing demographics, etc.). 104
  • 105. STEP 1: Analysis/ Research: Problem Statement Planners also look at the various Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (the SWOT analysis) regarding the position of a region or a city (McNamara, 2000). The analysis helps building up possible ‘scenarios’ (a description of possible developments) which will ground the ‘vision’ (the societal aspirations). 105
  • 106. STEP 3: SCENARIOS► Vision 1. Planners come to conclusions about possible scenarios and desirable visions. 2. Typically, scenarios can be very different from one another. Sometimes, planners make use of opposite scenarios or extreme scenarios in order to establish strategic goals. 106
  • 107. STEP 2: SCENARIOS► Vision 1. Planners work with various possible and desirable scenarios in order to talk to several stakeholders and find out what are their wishes and objectives and to ENGAGE them in the process. 2. By engaging stakeholders you warrant support (political/economic/) to your strategy later on. 3. You also deal with real world forces that will effectively support or benefit from your strategy. 107
  • 108. The ‘vision statement’ should be designed and explained in full detail. It is usually an inspiring and compelling description of the benefits society will draw from the overall plan, and it is often used to engage support and participation among different actors in society. In order to be effective, the vision statement must be specific, measurable and realistic; and it must contain a detailed explanation of the strategic goals (steps) used in order to achieve it. STEP 4: VISION▶Strategy 108
  • 109. Setting a clear vision is important to engage different stakeholders in a process called ‘participatory planning’. Very shortly put, participatory planning concerns the participation of various stakeholders at the establishment or reformulation of the vision and the elaboration of the strategy. STEP 4: VISION▶ Strategy 109
  • 110. Rotterdam Feijnoord (gebiedsvisie) 110
  • 111. Rotterdam Feijnoord (gebiedsvisie) 111
  • 112. The Olympic legacy, London 112
  • 113. 113
  • 114. London Olympic legacy Olympic Legacy LondonKCAP Architects&Planners The Olympic Legacy Masterplan can be considered as one of the biggest London’s redevelopment projects from the last decades; it consists on the redevelopment of the Olympic Park and Lea Vally, after the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. KCAP’s vision for the Legacy is based on an urban mo- saic structure that develops on a flexible way, from time to time. The mosaic will become an organism, con- centrations of social groups and functional differen- tiations, an overlapping archipelago of social and urban islands. The ‘open city’ will emerge through the interaction, cross-fertilization and friction among these groups and networks, which leads to the emer- gence of new architecture, networks and urban cul- tures. Client London Development Agency Program Vision for the structural development of the Lower Lea Valley following the Olympic games; 7 ha Time 2007 - present Role Masterplanner Olympic Legacy London [UK] 114
  • 115. STEP 5: Strategic goals Strategic goals are overall accomplishments or steps in a general plan that must be accomplished in order to arrive at the VISION (but the vision changes along the way!) 115
  • 116. STEP 6 : Spatial Interventions Spatial Planning means laying out how the strategic goals will be accomplished in order to arrive at the ‘vision’ using spatial interventions. Spatial interventions can be part of a broader strategy which involves other tools (non- spatial strategies and interventions) for the achievement of the vision. However, it is the specific task of spatial planners to plan and design space. Spatial interventions are therefore a crucial part of any spatial planning strategy. 116
  • 117. 117
  • 118. 118
  • 119. 119
  • 120. 120
  • 121. STEP 7 : Repositioning Assessment and Repositioning Strategic planning often includes specifying intermediate objectives, which will produce specific midway results. These midway results typically imply an assessment and a repositioning of the strategy and sometimes also the vision itself. 121
  • 122. STEP 7 : Repositioning Assessment and Repositioning Thus, reaching a strategic goal involves accomplishing a set of objectives along the way. Once the strategic goal is reached, the whole strategy is assessed, re-evaluated and then adjusted. Spatial interventions must be coherent and coordinated within the framework of the overall strategy and the vision. 122
  • 123. But: What about Governance? Planning also includes specifying responsibilities and timelines for each objective. In other words: who needs to do what and by when? It should also include methods to monitor and evaluate the plan: [1] how society will control the process [2] how different stakeholders can participate, influence and adjust the plan (adapted from McNamara, 2000) 123
  • 124. Governance 124
  • 125. Thanks for listening Any questions? 125
  • 126. Prepared by Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy, TU Delft 126