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Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design
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Spatial representation of data in Urban Planning and Design

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This a lecture of data, statistics and spatial representation and understanding of data. This is important for planners and designers who need to understand social trends in space and how to …

This a lecture of data, statistics and spatial representation and understanding of data. This is important for planners and designers who need to understand social trends in space and how to communicate them to an audience. I typically teach this lecture in 50 minutes (I skip some slides). Feel free to use material here, but do the right thing: acknowledge the source.

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  • 1. 11/29/10 Challenge the future Delft University of Technology Quantitative Methods of Research Research Methods for Urban Planners and Designers Roberto Rocco, Urbanism
  • 2. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Data, statistics and how to represent them spatially!
  • 3. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Data, statistics and how to represent them spatially! For a fact based view of the world (Hans Rosling)
  • 4. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The Science of Great Numbers Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data Understanding Society
  • 5. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Census X Statistics Data collection only is not exactly statistics. Statistics is about understanding trends and their evolution through periods of time using data. Measuring Society X Interpreting society
  • 6. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Population measures Population measures (birth and death rates) were the major preoccupation of early quantifiers of society. Measuring Society
  • 7. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The origin of the name: Statistik Although census have been around since antiquity, the science of understanding trends, foreseeing outcomes and explaining societal movements through numbers is relatively new.
  • 8. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The origin of the name: Statistik The study of ‘ social numbers’ needed a name. In 1749, the German scholar Gottfried Achenwall suggested that since this science dealt with the natural ‘states’ of society (rather than ‘laws’) , it should be called Statistik.
  • 9. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Modern sources for data • The Census (CBS): several kinds of census • Revenue (Belastingdienst) • Commercial associations (KvK) • Municipalities and ministries (former VROM, Traffic, Housing, Green , Pollution, Water, etc) • Internet is not a source: it is a means. Where in the internet? (source = institution/publisher/author)
  • 10. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The World Population in 2008 Source: CIA World Fact Book In this example, we deal with the visualization of raw numbers. No ‘trends’ are described. 6,707
 973
 4,054
 732
 577
 337
 34.3
 World
 Africa
 Asia
 Europe
 Latin
 America
 Northern
 America
 Oceania

  • 11. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Graphic representation Immediate reading Here, the same numbers are presented in a graphical, audience friendly way. Explaining these numbers is made easier by dealing with graphic representation. Excel is a good tool to achieve this. 0
 2,000
4,000
6,000
 World
 Africa
 Asia
 Europe
 Latin
America*
 Northern
America*
 Oceania
 World
 Africa
 Asia
 Europe
 Latin
America*
 Northern
America*
 Oceania

  • 12. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation World Population by Country Source: CIA World Fact Book Here, numbers are pegged to territorial units. These units are too big to give us any idea about real densities, but this map informs us about absolute numbers.
  • 13. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Evolution of World Population between 1750 and 2150 Source: World Bank, 2009. Here, the progression of world population is shown. There is a possibility to understand this progression through absolute numbers through TIME and therefore to identify possible trends and ‘project’ numbers into the future (estimating). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Population 791 978 1262 1650 2521 5978 6707 8909 9746 Year 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 1999 2008 2050 2150 791 978 1262 1650 2521 5978 6707 8909 9746 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
  • 14. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation What is the meaning of life? It is all about correlations The meaning of life is 42. Here, we show an example of uncorrelated data. The meaning of life is 14 in relation to what? But whose life are we talking about? The question was not well formulated in the first place.
  • 15. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything •  The number 42 is in the novel ‘The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy’ by Douglas Adams. •  The Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything is calculated by an enormous supercomputer over a period of 7.5 million years to be 42. Unfortunately no one knows what the correlations are (42 what?)
  • 16. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Population Growth Rates Source: CIA World Fact Book Trends and progressions can also be represented in spatial units. Here we see which countries are growing in terms of total population, which ones are stable and which are shrinking.
  • 17. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Change in city population in Northern Europe 1985-1995 Source: Nordregio
  • 18. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation NL population growth by municipality 2007-2025 (prognosis) Source: CBS
  • 19. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Population density per square mile (2.6 sq km) Interactive http://www.time.com/time/covers/20061030/where_we_live/
  • 20. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Indian Population Growth Rate GIS This is a ‘classic’ example of GIS use. Here data on population growth is pegged to Indian districts to show intensity of growth represented by colours. The legenda is there to indicate units. Source: gisdevelopment.net
  • 21. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The science of trends and probabilities The analysis of social data over extended periods of time can give us indications on trends and probabilities, but never certainties. Undersanding where society is going It is possible to measure some social processes. The science of big large numbers informs us about the behaviour of large numbers of people, but not about the behaviour of individuals. It is also not an ‘exact’ science, in the sense that results are inferred, but they are not mathematical certainties.
  • 22. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Spatializing Data One of the great ‘leaps forward’ in statistics was the pegging of data to space, generally in the form of maps. Understanding society and space
  • 23. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Spatializing Data The correlation of space with social processes has revealed behavioral patterns and social processes that are simultaneously defining and defined by space. An iterative relationship
  • 24. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation John Snow: The London Cholera Epidemic of 1854 Published by C.F. Cheffins, Lith, Southhampton Buildings, London, England, 1854 in Snow, John. On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, 2nd Ed, John Churchill, New Burlington Street, London, England, 1855. Putting data in space and making conclusions
  • 25. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Seoul Population Density per District (2000) Source: So_Jeong Park, 2008 (Graduation Project TU Delft)
  • 26. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Seoul: Residential Land Value (2006) Source: So_Jeong Park, 2008 (Graduation Project TU Delft)
  • 27. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Seoul: Residents on Social Welfare Programs (1999)
  • 28. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Correlation is not causality Source: http://www.os.amsterdam.nl/pdf/ 2007_probleemwijken_amsterdam.pdf
  • 29. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Mapping clandestine settlements in Sao Paulo Data source: IBGE, Map: Roberto Rocco
  • 30. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Mapping land value in Sao Paulo Data source: Bolsa de Imoveis 2002, Map: Roberto Rocco
  • 31. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Mapping average income in Sao Paulo Data source: Prefeitura Sao Paulo, Map: Roberto Rocco
  • 32. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Human Development Index United Nations Human Development Forum The Human Development Index (HDI) is an index used to rank countries by level of development of social indicators. This may show us whether a country is developed, developing, or underdeveloped. It combines three key indicators: •  Life expectancy at birth •  Knowledge and education, measured by the adult literacy rate (2/3) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (1/3). •  Gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP).
  • 33. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Human Development IndexThe United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) rankings for 2008, Source: UN
  • 34. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation HDI in the USA (2010) Source: The American Human Development Project (American Social Sciences Research Council)
  • 35. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation HDI in the USA (2010) Source: The American Human Development Project (American Social Sciences Research Council)
  • 36. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Using the same methodology for a city Here, smaller territorial units (districts) are used and the same indicators are measured at a very local level. The social-make up of the city is clearly outlined, though some nuances are not visible. Source: IBGE. Map: Roberto Rocco
  • 37. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Using the same methodology for a city Here, very small units of analysis are used, based on postal code areas. Remember that each postal code corresponds to a very small territorial unit, and sometimes even to one building. This gives us a very precise description of the social make-up at the very local level. Using GIS (Geographical and Information Systems), data (numbers) can be represented on geographic interface (a map)
  • 38. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Racial/ ethnic self identification Chicago (2000) Source: http://www.radicalcartography.net/index.html?chicagodots
  • 39. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Annual household income in Chicago (2000?) Source: http://www.radicalcartography.net/index.html?chicagodots
  • 40. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation But why oh why do we need statistics and its graphic representation in urbanism? •  Which country has the highest child mortality in the following pairs? •  Sri Lanka or Turkey •  Poland or South Korea •  Malaysia or Russia •  Pakistan or Vietnam •  Thailand or South Africa
  • 41. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Hans Rosling shows the best stats you've ever seen at TED Ideas worth spreading •  http://www.ted.com/talks/ hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ever_seen.html
  • 42. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Visit Hans Rosling’s site • http://www.gapminder.org/ •  And watch the BBC4 documentary: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbkSRLYSojo
  • 43. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The Randstad This map shows the percentage of low income households per municipality. The source is the Ruimtelijke Plan Bureau RPB, 2004. Map by R. Rocco
  • 44. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The Randstad This map shows the percentage of creative jobs in the total employment per municipality. The source is the Ruimtelijke Plan Bureau RPB, 2004. Map by R. Rocco
  • 45. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation The South Wing This map was extracted from the work “Looping the archipelago” . This work is the graduation work of the EMU European Masters of Urbanism Studio Mobile Strategies (Remon Rooij and Roberto Rocco). This is a conventional satellite view of the regional, but the water has been ‘enhanced’ in white. Some important info is missing, like the scale, the north arrow,etc.
  • 46. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation living / working in the southwing  source: Geographical Informa4onal System, Cluster Analysis  The South Wing This GIS analysis was extracted from the work “Looping the archipelago” . This work is the graduation work of the EMU European Masters of Urbanism Studio Mobile Strategies (Remon Rooij and Roberto Rocco). This map shows concentration of dwellings versus concentration of work posts)
  • 47. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation services / produc4on in the southwing  source: Geographical Informa4onal System, Cluster Analysis  The South Wing This GIS analysis was extracted from the work “Looping the archipelago” . This work is the graduation work of the EMU European Masters of Urbanism Studio Mobile Strategies (Remon Rooij and Roberto Rocco). This map shows concentration of services versus concentration of industrial activity.
  • 48. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation social clusters in the southwing  source: Geographical Informa4onal System, Cluster Analysis  The South Wing This GIS analysis was extracted from the work “Looping the archipelago” . This work is the graduation work of the EMU European Masters of Urbanism Studio Mobile Strategies (Remon Rooij and Roberto Rocco). This map shows concentration of non-western non-native immigrants versus concentration of western non-native immigrants.
  • 49. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation environmental balance car domina4on  71,6 % car, 14,3% public transport,  12,2% slower means of transport   modal split development 1960‐2000  car based system ...  traffic intensity (na4onal and provincial roads)  motorway oriented network  “unequal distribu4on of public  transport between main centers   and peripheries”   source: ‘Ontwikkelingen in Verkeer en Vervoer 1990 – 2020’, AVV  source: The supply, use and quality of randstad holland’s transporta4on networks in compara4ve perspec4ve, Hilbers and Wilmink, 2002 
  • 50. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation
  • 51. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation
  • 52. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation TheBigQuestionsofClimat Change Source:AdolfoArranzathttp://www.flickr.com/photos/adolfux/
  • 53. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation
  • 54. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Thank you
  • 55. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation MAPSCROLL
 http://mapscroll.blogspot.com/2009_06_01_archive.htm
 Information
is
beautiful
 http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/
 Flowing
Data
 http://flowingdata.com/
 Urban
Data
Visualization
Lab
University
of
Illinois
 http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/udv/research.html
 Design
Reviver
(for
info
graphics)
 http://designreviver.com/inspiration/30‐of‐the‐best‐infographics‐that‐effectively‐ showcase‐data/
 50
informative
and
well
design
graphics
 http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/50‐informative‐and‐well‐designed‐infographics/
 Please,
have
a
look
at
the
Statistical Literacy Guides 
of
the
British
government
for
 useful
guides
in
English
 http://www.parliament.uk/topics/Statistics‐policyArchive.htm
 For more innovative and inventive use of statistics in maps and graphic representation, go to
  • 56. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation http://flowingdata.com/2010/11/29/statistics-vs-stories/ For an analysis on the differences between individual stories and statistics go to
  • 57. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Las Vegas from '73 to '92 Source: New York Times Report on Urban Growth
  • 58. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Built area growth in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Source: MEYER, R., GROSTEIN, M. D. & BIDERMAN, C. 2004. Sao Paulo Metropole, Sao Paulo, EDUSP
  • 59. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Built area growth in the city of Sidney, Australia Source: Government of Queensland, Australia.
  • 60. Data, Statistics and Spatial Representation Questions? Answers? Please contact me at Roberto Rocco R.c.rocco@tudelft.nl

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