Buiding a south american metropolis
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This is a presentation about the city of Sao Paulo in Brazil. It shows some aspects of the city development and outlook. ...

This is a presentation about the city of Sao Paulo in Brazil. It shows some aspects of the city development and outlook.

*Several pictures in this presentation are not credited, for which I apologise in advance. Should you know who the authors are, please let me know and I will include their names ASAP.

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  • Paulista Gal Oppido 2002

Buiding a south american metropolis Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Building a South-American Metropolis Roberto Rocco TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urbanism and Urban Renewal
  • 2. Introduction
    • Brazil (and LA as a whole) has entered a new demographic phase. Birth rates are lower, the population is mostly urban (+88%).
    • Many cities must face historically produced problems, the result of decades of strong demographic pressure, poor governance and lack of effective planning strategies.
    • Meanwhile, a new economic scenario (globalisation?) is creating new urban form and structures. Human activity is differently distributed over the territory.
    • Here I try to describe some urban processes occurring in the region of Sao Paulo, which are shaping a large polycentric and fragmented macro-metropolis
  • 3. In simple words
    • What IS São Paulo today
    • Historical origins and growth process
    • Most relevant problems today
    • Sites we MAY visit and why
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Buenos Aires Montevideo Santiago Lima Porto Alegre Sao Paulo Rio Salvador Brasilia Belo Horizonte Curitiba Cordoba Asuncion
  • 7. GDP per country PPP World Bank (2006) Rank Country GDP (PPP) $m — World 61,006,604 — European Union 12,626,921 1 United States 12,409,465 2 China 8,572,666a 3 Japan 3,943,754 4 India 3,815,553b 5 Germany 2,417,537 6 United Kingdom 1,926,809 7 France 1,829,559 8 Italy 1,667,753 9 Brazil 1,627,262 10 Russia 1,559,934 11 Spain 1,133,539 12 Canada 1,061,236 13 South Korea 1,056,094 14 Mexico 1,052,443 15 Indonesia 847,415 16 Australia 643,066 17 Turkey 612,312 18 Argentina 558,755 19 South Africa 557,971b 20 Thailand 549,265 21 Iran 540,207 22 Netherlands 537,675 23 Poland 533,552 24 Philippines 408,637 25 Pakistan 374,313
  • 8. GDP per capita PPP IMF (2005) 41 Estonia 16,414 2004 42 Kuwait 16,301 2004 43 Slovakia 16,041 2004 44 Saudi Arabia 15,229 2004 45 Saint Kitts and Nevis 14,649 2003 46 Trinidad and Tobago 14,258 2002 47 Lithuania 14,158 2004 48 Argentina 14,109 2001 49 Poland 12,994 2003 50 Mauritius 12,895 2004 51 Latvia 12,666 2004 52 Croatia 12,324 2004 53 South Africa 12,161 2004 54 Seychelles 12,059 2003 55 Chile 11,937 2004 56 Libya 11,624 2003 57 Antigua and Barbuda 11,523 2004 58 Botswana 11,41 2003 59 Malaysia 11,201 2004 60 Russia 11,041 2004 61 Uruguay 10,72 2004 62 Costa Rica 10,434 2000 63 Mexico 10,186 2000 64 Bulgaria 9,223 2004 65 Romania 8,785 2004 66 Brazil 8,561 2004 67 Thailand 8,368 2004
  • 9. GDP PPP compared
  • 10. GDP Per Capita PPP compared
  • 11. FDI inflow 2000 source: UNCTAD, 2004 Top ten FDI host economies in 2000 (US$ mi)
  • 12. Composition of the economy     Agriculture Industry Services USA   0.9% 20.4% 78.6% Netherlands   2.1% 23.9% 73.9% Germany   0.9% 29.1% 70% Argentina   9.5% 35.8% 54.7% Brazil   8% 38% 54% China   11.9% 48.1% 40%
  • 13. GDP per metropolitan PPP (2005) State of British Cities (2006) 21 Randstad: 216
  • 14. São Paulo ‘in comparison’ Utrecht Rotterdam Amsterdam SPaulo Santos Campinas Den Haag Nordzee S Atlantic Area: 8.313 Km2 Area: 8.051 Km2 c. 2.000 urbanised 0 10 20 0 10 20 75km 50km
  • 15.  
  • 16. Metropolitan Area: 8.051 km2 Urbanised Area: app. 2.000 km2 Main Municipality: 1.500 km2
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. São Paulo ‘in comparison Randstad-Holland Sao Paulo Metropolitan
  • 20. Possible contrast?
  • 21. Possible contrast?
  • 22.  
  • 23. Possible contrast? Amsterdam Centrum Sao Paulo Centrum Amsterdam Zuidas Sao Paulo Berrini Marginal
  • 24. The Tordesillas Treaty 1494 In 1494, with the seal of the Pope, Portugal and Spain modestly divided the world amongst them. Most of South and North America (then unknown) fell out of the Portuguese share.
  • 25. An Unimportant Colonial City In colonial times, S Paulo had very little importance. First the sugar cane plantations in Pernambuco and then the gold digging in Minas constituted the main colonial activities, until the arrival of coffee plantations to the South East part of the country. Sugarcane cycle c.1530- 1640 Gold Cycle c.1690- 1790 Coffee Cycle 1808-1929 Rubber cycle 1890-1945 Cacao cycle c.1820-1920
  • 26. Estimate number of Indians in 1500 Number of Indians in 2000 2007: c.175 million
  • 27. African population Sugarcane cycle c.1530- 1640 Gold Cycle c.1690- 1790 Coffee Cycle 1808-1929 Cacao cycle c.1820-1920 1531: First sugar cane “engenho” (‘factory’) 1537: The Church declares Amerindians “human beings” 1550: First African slaves 1559: Significant traffic of slaves 1720: Prohibition of Amerindian Slavery Sugar cane cycle: 1.350.000 slaves Gold cycle: 650.000 Coffee cycle: 250.000 Other activities (cotton, tobacco, domestic labour: 1.100.000 Slavery abolition: 1888 (700.000 slaves) TOTAL: c. 3.300.000
  • 28. Total immigration of Europeans (estimate after 1850): >5-7 million European Immigration
  • 29.  
  • 30. Brazil Total Population (2000 Census): 169.872.856
  • 31. An Unimportant Colonial City Picture showing Benedictine Monastery and Church and the Faculty of Law in 1860 1750: Pop 20.000 In 1822, Brazil got independent from Portugal. SP gained some importance when the Brazilian Imperial court chose to place a Law Academy in the city in 1827.
  • 32. BOSS
  • 33. An unimportant Colonial city
  • 34. An unimportant colonial city Eastern central area of the city in 1892 (Largo do Bixiga). Market colonial forms.
  • 35. 1850:The Coffee Revolution Sao Paulo Railway Station (1892) is built with English capitals. 1880: Pop 31.000 The great coffee plantations commercialise their products in the city. The coffee economy produces the development of urban activities, because it demands a complex organization of financing, transport, commerce and export.
  • 36. European Immigration
    • Slavery abolished, it was necessary to have paid labour force. European and Japanese immigrants come to the city en masse.
    Workers at Textile Factory around 1910. The factory belonged to Matarazzo family The Black population is small in the city. Freed slaves establish in peripheral areas (later districts of the city) 1895 Pop 131.000 1900 Pop 239.820
  • 37. European Immigration
    • The population of the city grows enormously :
    • 1895: pop. 130.000
    • (54%of which were foreigners).
    • 1900: pop. 239.820
    • (growth of 84% in 5 years!)
    • 1900: Almost half of the population speaks Italian. Other: Spanish and Portuguese.
    • 1905: First Syrian and Lebanese (50.000 Lebanese until 1946)
    • 1908: Fist Japanese (500.000 along the XX century)
    • 1920: Armenians, Jewish, Germans, Polish, Russian
    • Pop in 1920: 579.000
  • 38. New Urban Paradigms Rua Direita. Central Core circa 1860.
  • 39. New Urban Paradigms
    • The capital generated by coffee was (for the first time in the history of the country) re-invested in the country itself. It meant more and more coffee plantations but also urban transformation.
    L. Badaro street and Dr Falcao st 1895 and 1915 c. 1895 In 1880 the population was 31.000 1915 In 1920 the population was 579.000
  • 40. New Urban Paradigms
    • The model for the new architecture was the French eclectic style. Even the simplest houses tried to emulate its forms. In the central core, new services are offered.
    • European workforce provide the basis for new consumption and architectural patterns.
  • 41. Industry and urban change
    • Economic progress brings changes in urban form, structure and economic bases. Small industry begins to appear in order to tend to the growing agglomeration necessities.
    Workers in front of textiles factory c. 1900
  • 42. A new elite comes into view Traditional Boarding School Des Oiseaux, c. 1900 Note Art Nouveau Style. The elite is composed by rich Portuguese landowners and enriched Italian, German and Jewish families
  • 43. A new elite comes into view
    • The construction of a big opera house is a sign of the elite’s search for a more urban and sophisticated life style. Perhaps the biggest sign of change in mentalities.
    Anhangabau 1914 Opera House
  • 44. A new elite comes into view Anhangabaú Valley in 1915, with Opera House and Hotel
  • 45. The elite seeks new spaces
    • The opening of Aveninda Paulista, some kilometers away from the central core, signified a major change in urban structure. At the time of its inauguration, it was considered a “faraway” refuge for the wealthy. The names of families who owned houses in the Avenue shows not only Portuguese landowners (The Coffee Barons) but also Italian, German and Jewish industrialists, lawyers and traders.
    Avenida Paulista c. 1902
  • 46. The ‘European’ city Anhangabaú Valley c. 1915
  • 47. The ‘European’ city Central Cinema, c. 1916
  • 48. The ‘European’ city Patriarch Place c. 1925
  • 49. The ‘European’ city Patriarch Place in 1925.
  • 50. Anhangabaú Valley, 1927 The ‘European’ city
  • 51. Anhangabaú Valley c. 1932 The ‘European’ City
  • 52. Central Business District 15 Novembro Street, c. 1915
  • 53. Central Busin ess District 15 de Novembro Street c. 1906
  • 54. Ne w urb an equipment: The Central Mark et New City Market 1933 AE
  • 55. New mentalities: the urban man
    • In a country still predominantly agrarian, the surge of a metropolis represented the appearance of a new kind of mentality and life style.
    Sao Joao Avenue with Martinelli Building 1937 In 1940 the pop reached 1.32 million
  • 56. The urban man Anhangabau Valley in 1929.
  • 57. The urban man Sao Jose Cinema in 1929
  • 58. The urban man Central Post Office Agency in 1938
  • 59. Urban Problems Tramway at Cathedral Square in 1937
  • 60.
    • In the 40’s, the city population reaches its first million. Thousands of refugees arrive from Eastern Europe (Poland, Ukraine), Germany (Jews, but also Germans) and Italian.
    • After 1950, European immigration decreases.
    Immigration: 2 nd WW Wedding at Italian Family in 1940 (Bela Vista) 1940: Pop 1.32 million
  • 61. After WW II: New Urban Para dig m
    • The new prominence of the USA in the international arena shifts paradigms. New urban models come from the North. The belief in “progress” and the Fordist model of production asks for new Urban Form and Structure.
    • Beginning of massive internal migration.
    Anhangabau Valley in 1949
  • 62. After WW II: New migration trends & new urbanity
    • 1950
    • Pop: 2.19 m
    Sao Joao Avenue 1951
  • 63. After WW II: New migration trends & new urbanity São João Avenue (Rua Líbero Badaró) 1952
  • 64. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm
    • The adoption of more and more buses instead of tramways allows the sprawling of the city to distant peripheries.
    • Newly arrived migrants establish themselves in those peripheries.
    Tram 55 and bus 74 in Casa Verde District, 1953
  • 65. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm
  • 66. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm Anhangabau Av Prestes Maia c1950
  • 67. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm Anhangabau Valley and Tiradentes Ave c. 1948
  • 68. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm São João Avenue 60’s
  • 69. Consequences of Rapid Growth
  • 70. Immigration: 1960’s Major Internal Migrations 1960 Pop: 3.7 m 1970 Pop: 5.9 m Sugarcane cycle c.1530- 1640 Gold Cycle c.1690- 1790 Coffee Cycle 1808-1929 Rubber cycle 1890-1945 Cacao cycle c.1820-1920 Industrial Era
  • 71.  
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74.  
  • 75. Population growth municipality SP
  • 76.  
  • 77. Slums
    • Paraisopolis, the second biggest favela in Sao Paulo, houses approximately 60.000 people (Delft= 120.000).
  • 78.
    • The State is absent from the space of the ‘favela’.
    • Its inhabitants have their own laws. The community is controlled by one drug dealer who uses many of the dwellers as his “employees”.
    • He himself lives in a luxury condominium. Drugs must not be used inside the space of the ‘favela’. They are mainly sold to the rich dwellers of the buildings. They come from Bolivia and Colombia, in their way to USA and Europe. Notice parabolic antennas.
    SLUMS
  • 79.
    • In 1964, while a social democrat was president, a military coup d’etat took place. Elections were abolished. The mayor of the city and all fist echelon staff would be indicated by the Brasilia. Institutions were shattered.
    • Planning the city became a matter of social control.
    Military Rule (1964-1986) Cathedral Square in 1969
  • 80. . Direct public investment in heavy industry and infrastructure (State owned) + 1930- 1973 : Economical Growth through import substitution policies building up an internal market through: . subsidies for strategic sectors + (Workers are weak where old colonial and post colonial structures subsist) . strong labour: workers are protected: Unions are strong where industry is.
  • 81. 1973 : The oil crisis
    • 1980 ’s: The “lost decade”
    • Lost of investment capacity by the State
    • Recurrence to increasing international DEBT
    • Hyperinflation
    • Chronic unemployment
    Explosion of External Debt (International Interest Rates Rocket) Growth is based on increase of debt + corruption + bad management Inflation (directly linked to the oil prices raises) Depression of commodity prices (in Brazil: resulted in internal migrations) 1979 : The Debt Interest Rates crisis Growth comes to a sudden hault. : -25% industry -20% unemployment
  • 82. 70 and 80’s: Bad Management Environmental Decay
  • 83. 70 and 80’s: Bad Management Social polarization
  • 84. 70 and 80’s: Bad Management Social polarization 1970 Pop: 5.94 mi 1980 Pop: 8.49 mi
  • 85. 80’s: congestion The centre decadence
  • 86. Avenida Paulista: The new centrality
  • 87. Avenida Paulista: Elites go West
  • 88. Paulista Avenue
  • 89. MASP Art Museum of Sao Paulo
  • 90.  
  • 91.  
  • 92.  
  • 93.  
  • 94.  
  • 95. Decaying living conditions and squatting in the Centre
  • 96. Meanwhile in the old centre: Sao Vito Building
  • 97. Sao Vito Building
    • The building houses 510 families or 1200 people
    • Floors: 28
    • (25 type-floors, auditorium and grand salon in the last floor, 15 commercial units in the first floor and 13 in the second floor)
    • 624 apartments
    • Only 30% of dwellers pay administration costs monthly
    • 423 apartments are illegaly occupied
    • 201 apartments are occupied by owners
  • 98. Typical Floor Plan 28 m2 1.2 m
  • 99. Sao Vito Building
  • 100. Sao Vito Building
  • 101. Sao Vito Building " Sao Vito “, May 2003, a vertical condominium occupied by 1200 poor people. External View. (c) Contrasto
  • 102. Sao Vito Building Internal View of an apartment. May 2003.
  • 103. Sao Vito Building Internal View of an apartment. May 2003.
  • 104. Sao Vito Building
  • 105. Sao Vito Building
  • 106. Some Social-Spatial Indicators
  • 107. Homogeneous Zones
  • 108. 90’s Emigration: Centre looses almost 20% of pop.
    • In the 90’s, the population of the city decreased in 600.000
    • Causes:
    • Low birth rate (national trend)
    • Deconcentration of industrial production
    • Disappointment with lifestyle/housing/economic opportunities
    • Cost of life (plots are cheaper in outside municipalities)
  • 109. Human Development Compared
  • 110.  
  • 111. Area covered by irregular occupations is 338,8 km2, or 22,5% of the total area of the municipality (1500 km2) Irregular land occupation
  • 112. Low vulnerability Middle vulnerability Very high vulnerability % of the wealth of the poorest 50% in relation to the richest 50% No serious vulnerability High vulnerability Parks, green areas, dams and inhabited places Social Vulnerability Scale
  • 113. Favela Paraisopolis
  • 114.  
  • 115. Favelas Paraisopolis
  • 116. Other Favelas: Human and Ecological Hazard
  • 117.  
  • 118.  
  • 119. Old and New Centralities
  • 120. Large Urban Projects Sao Paulo Master Plan: Urban Operations Agua Branca OP Berrini OP Centro OP Faria Lima OP
  • 121. Urban Operation Faria Lima Total Area: 450 hectars (4,500,000 m2.) Cost: US$ 150 million (1995) US$ 120 mi for land expropriation, necessary to cut through consolidated neighbourhoods
  • 122. Avenida Faria Lima
  • 123.  
  • 124.  
  • 125.  
  • 126. 50+ Insurance Comanies Operating in Brazil
  • 127. The New Corporate Axis
  • 128.
    • The New Corporate Axis does not have all functions typical to central areas. Its form is linear, an axis along the Pinheiros River, including some important transversal avenues.
    The New Corporate Axis
  • 129. The New Corporate Axis
  • 130. The New Corporate Axis
  • 131.  
  • 132. New Corporate Axis
  • 133. New Corporate Axis
  • 134. New Corporate Axis
  • 135. Corporate Axis
  • 136. New Corporate Axis
  • 137.  
  • 138.  
  • 139.  
  • 140.  
  • 141.  
  • 142.  
  • 143. FAU USP Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism University of Sao Paulo
  • 144.  
  • 145.  
  • 146.  
  • 147.  
  • 148.  
  • 149.  
  • 150. New Solutions for the Periphery
  • 151.
    • The Municipality PT-Labour Party), tries to intervene in the peripheries by installing massive education, culture and sports equipment, all gathered in large complexes known as CEU. There are about 12 of them already.
    New solutions for peripheries
  • 152. New solutions for peripheries
  • 153. Jardim Pantanal, Tiete River Bassin. Meyer: 267 New solutions for peripheries
  • 154. Old Centre Revitalisation
  • 155. Meanwhile in the Old Centre: Central Area Revitalisation
  • 156. Downtown Revitalisation
  • 157. Downtown Revitalisation COPAN building, designed by Oscar Niemeyer in the late 50`s
  • 158.  
  • 159.  
  • 160.  
  • 161. Fabrica Pompeia Architect Lina Bo Bardi
  • 162.  
  • 163.  
  • 164.  
  • 165.  
  • 166.  
  • 167.  
  • 168. Pinacoteca Architect Paulo Mendes da Rocha
  • 169.  
  • 170. Pinacoteca
  • 171. Pinacoteca
  • 172. Pinacoteca
  • 173. Pinacoteca
  • 174.  
  • 175.  
  • 176.  
  • 177. Sala Sao Paulo Architects Nelson Dupré & Ismael Solé
  • 178. Downtown Revitalisation
  • 179. Centro Viejo
  • 180. Centro Viejo
  • 181. New Peripheral Centralities Guarulhos Centre (International Airport of Sao Paulo)
  • 182. New Peripheral Centralities Alphaville (Edge City Development)
  • 183. New internal migrations: Conformation of a macro-metropolis
  • 184. A Global Macrometropolis
  • 185.  
  • 186.  
  • 187. Ha v e a nic e t r ip ! [email_address]