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An Urban Geography of Globalisation PART 2

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This is part 2 of the lecture "An Urban Geography of Globalization". This was originally prepared for the free-choice (ellective) course "Globalization" of the department of Urbanism of the Delft of …

This is part 2 of the lecture "An Urban Geography of Globalization". This was originally prepared for the free-choice (ellective) course "Globalization" of the department of Urbanism of the Delft of Technology (TU Delft), The Netherlands. In this part I introduce the city of Sao Paulo in Brazil, its historical development and main drivers for development. At the end of the presentation, I present an empirical study on the location of Advanced Producer Services in the city and explain how global foces in oartnership with local forces are changing city structure.

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  • 1. AN URBAN GEOGRAPHY OF GLOBALISATION UNDERSTANDING SPATIAL CHANGE IN THE AGE OF HYPER-CONNECTIVITY Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning & Strategy Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) !"#$$%&'%()"%(*+)+,% !"#$%#&'&#((%() *!$+#$,)- 1Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 2. PART 2: How is globalisation impacting the ground? An illustration 2Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 3. Sao Paulo: a divided global city 3Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 4. http://www.youtube.com/ watch? v=JXSTvjQTl1A&feature= player_embeddeda 4Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 5. Sao Paulo 5Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 6. Sao Paulo 6Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 7. a m p a s Bahia Resistencia Salta San Miguel De Tucuman San Salvador De Jujuy Tarija Campo Grande Concepcion C. Oviedo Durazno Paysandu Tacuarembo Foz Do Iguacu rgentina Uruguay Paraguay > than > than > than > than São Pa Belo Horizont Rio de Jane São Paulo Curitiba Buenos Aires Montevideo Florianopolis Porto Alegre Vitoria Santos Campinas Joinville Cordoba Rosario Santa Cruz Asuncion 7Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 8. Pacific Valdes Penninsula A m a z o n B a s i n esMountains Mato Grosso Plateau A n des Moun t a i n s AtacamaDesert ia P a m p a s Macapa Antofagasta Arica Concepcion Iquique Puerto Montt Valparaiso Cucuta Mitu Puno Talara Bahia Blanca Mendoza Neuquen Rawson Resistencia Salta San Carlos de Bariloche San Miguel De Tucuman SanRafael San Salvador De Jujuy Tarija Aracaju Boa Vista Campo Grande Cuiaba Imperatriz Porto VelhoRio Branco Santarem Tarauaca Teresina Valdivia Pasto Apoteri Bluefields Concepcion C. Oviedo Arequipa Ayacucho Cerro De Pasco Cocama Cuzco Huanuco Ica Iquitos Orellana Sullana Tacna Durazno Paysandu Tacuarembo Ciudad Bolivar Maturin Puerto Ayacucho San Cristobal Foz Do Iguacu Puerto Cabezas Barquisimeto Brazil Argentina Uruguay Paraguay Bolivia Peru Chile Ecuador Colombia Venezuela Guiana Suriname French Guiana > than 10 million inh.(megalopolis) > than 5 million inh.(continental metropolis) > than 3 million inh.(metropolis) > than 1 million inh.(big city) São Paulo > than 18 million inh. Bogota Medellin Lima Cali Maracaibo Caracas Belem Sao Luis Fortaleza Recife Salvador Goiania Belo Horizonte Rio de Janeiro São Paulo Curitiba Buenos Aires Montevideo Florianopolis Porto Alegre Manaus Brasilia Vitoria Santos Campinas Natal Maceio Joinville Cordoba Rosario Santiago La Paz Santa Cruz Asuncion Barranquilla Quito Guayaquil Valencia Callao 8Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 9. 9Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 10. Buenos Aires MontevideoSantiago Lima Porto Alegre Sao Paulo Rio Salvador Brasilia Belo Horizonte Curitiba Cordoba Asuncion 10Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 11. 11Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 12. A Global Macrometropolis 12Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 13. Population (2010)  - Municipality 11.244.369  - Metro 19.672.582 Metropolitan Area: 8.051 km2 Urbanized Area: app.2.000 km2 Core Municipality: 1.500 km2 13Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 14. Different polycentricities 14Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 15. But which polycentricity are we talking about? Slide prepared by Renata Parente, MSC3 Spatial Planning & Strategy, TU Delft, 2009 15Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 16. 16Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 17. São Paulo 17Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 18. Some basic starting points • Brazil (and LA as a whole) has entered a new demographic phase. Birth rates are lower, the population is mostly urban (+80%). • Many cities must face historically produced problems, the result of decades of strong demographic pressure, poor governance and lack of effective planning strategies. • Meanwhile, a new economic scenario (globalisation?) is creating new urban form and structures. Human activity is differently distributed over the territory. • Much of the continent is now democratic. This makes an enormous difference on how cities are planned and managed. The ‘right to the city’ has become a central point of many governments agendas. 18Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 19. The content of this presentation in simple words 1. What IS São Paulo today 2. Historical origins and growth process 3. Most relevant problems today 4. How are ‘globalizing forces’ impacting the structures and infrastructures of the city 19Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 20. Utrecht Rotterdam Amsterdam SPaulo Santos Campinas 0 10 20 Den Haag 0 10 20 Nordzee S Atlantic Area: 8.313 Km2 Area: 8.051 Km2 c. 2.000 urbanised São Paulo ‘in comparison’ with the Randstad 75km 50km 20Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 21. São Paulo ‘in comparison’ with the Randstad Randstad-Holland Sao Paulo Metropolitan 21Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 22. Possible contrast? 22Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 23. Possible contrast? 23Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 24. 24Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 25. In 1494, with the seal of the Pope, Portugal and Spain modestly divided the world amongst them. Most of South and North America (then unknown) fell out of the Portuguese share. Why São Paulo is there? The Tordesillas Treaty 1494 25Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 26. An Unimportant Colonial City Sugarcane cycle c.1530- 1640 Gold Cycle c.1690- 1790 Coffee Cycle 1808-1929 Rubber cycle 1890-1945 Cacao cycle c.1820-1920 In colonial times, S Paulo had very little importance. First the sugar cane plantations in Pernambuco and then the gold digging in Minas constituted the main colonial activities, until the arrival of coffee plantations to the South East part of the country. 26Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 27. An Unimportant Colonial City Picture showing Benedictine Monastery and Church and the Faculty of Law in 1860 1750: Pop 20.000 In 1822, Brazil got independent from Portugal. SP gained some importance when the Brazilian Imperial court chose to place a Law Academy in the city in 1827. 27Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 28. Eastern central area of the city in 1892 (Largo do Bixiga). Market colonial forms. An unimportant colonial city 28Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 29. 1850:The Coffee Revolution Sao Paulo Railway Station (1892) is built with English investment. 1880: Pop 31.000 The great coffee plantations commercialise their products in the city. The coffee economy produces the development of urban activities, because it demands a complex organisation of financing, transport, commerce and export. 29Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 30. European Immigration Workers at Textile Factory around 1910. The factory belonged to Matarazzo family The Black population is small in the city. Freed slaves establish in peripheral areas (later districts of the city) Slavery abolished, it was necessary to have paid labour force. European and Japanese immigrants come to the city en masse. 1895 Pop 131.000 1900 Pop 239.820 30Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 31. European Immigration The population of the city grows enormously: 1895: pop. 130.000 (54%of which were foreigners). 1900: pop. 239.820 (growth of 84% in 5 years!) Almost half of the population speaks Italian. Others: Spanish and Portuguese. 1905: First Syrian and Lebanese (50.000 Lebanese until 1946) 1908: Fist Japanese (500.000 along the XX century) 1920: Armenians, Jewish, Germans, Polish, Russian Pop in 1920: 579.000 31Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 32. New Urban Paradigms Rua Direita. Central Core circa 1860. 32Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 33. New Urban Paradigms The capital generated by coffee was (for the first time in the history of the country) re-invested in the country itself. It meant more and more coffee plantations but also urban transformation . L. Badaro street and Dr Falcao st 1895 and 1915 c. 1895 In 1880 the population was 31.000 1915 In 1920 the population was 579.000 33Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 34. New Urban Paradigms The model for the new architecture was the French eclectic style. Even the simplest houses tried to emulate its forms. In the central core, new services are offered. European workforce provide the basis for new consumption and architectural patterns. 34Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 35. Industry and urban change Workers in front of textiles factory c. 1900. Note the large number of women and children (although the picture does not let us know whether they were employees of the factory or not. Economic progress brings changes in urban form, structure and economic bases. Small industry begins to appear in order to tend to the growing agglomeration necessities. 35Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 36. A new elite comes into view Traditional Boarding School Des Oiseaux, c. 1900 Note Art Nouveau Style. The elite is composed by rich Portuguese landowners and enriched Italian, German and Jewish families 36Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 37. A new elite comes into view 1914 Opera House The construction of a big opera house is a sign of the elite’s search for a more urban and sophisticated life style. Perhaps the biggest sign of change in mentalities. 37Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 38. A new elite comes into view Anhangabaú Valley in 1915, with Opera House and Hotel 38Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 39. The ‘European’ city Anhangabaú Valley c. 1915 39Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 40. The ‘European’ city Central Cinema, c. 1916 40Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 41. The ‘European’ city Patriarca square c. 1925 41Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 42. The ‘European’ city Patriarca square in 1925. 42Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 43. Anhangabaú Valley, 1927 The ‘European’ city 43Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 44. Anhangabaú Valley c. 1932 44Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 45. Central Business District 15 Novembro Street, c. 1915 45Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 46. Central Business District 15 de Novembro Street c. 1906 46Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 47. New urban facilities: The Central Market New City Market 1933 AE 47Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 48. New mentalities: the urban man In a country still predominantly agrarian, the surge of a metropolis represented the appearance of a new kind of mentality and life style. Sao Joao Avenue with Martinelli Building 1937 In 1940 the pop reached 1.32 million 48Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 49. The urban man Anhangabau Valley in 1929. 49Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 50. The urban man Sao Jose Cinema in 1929 50Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 51. The urban man Central Post Office Offices in 1938 51Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 52. Urban Problems Tramway at Cathedral Square in 1937 52Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 53. Wedding at Italian Family in 1940 (Bela Vista) In the 40’s, the city population reaches its first million. Thousands of refugees arrive from Eastern Europe (Poland, Ukraine), Germany (Jews, but also Germans) and Italian. After 1950, European immigration decreases. 1940: Pop 1.32 million Immigration: 2nd WW 53Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 54. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm Anhangabau Valley in 1949 The new prominence of the USA in the international arena shifts paradigms. New urban models come from the North. The belief in “progress” and the Fordist model of production asks for new Urban Form and Structure. Beginning of massive internal migration. 54Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 55. After WW II: New migration trends & new urbanity Sao Joao Avenue 1951 1950 Pop: 2.19 m 55Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 56. After WW II: New migration trends & new urbanity São João Avenue (Rua Líbero Badaró) 1952 56Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 57. Tram 55 and bus 74 in Casa Verde District, 1953 After WW II: New Urban Paradigm The adoption of more and more buses instead of tramways allows the sprawling of the city to distant peripheries. Newly arrived migrants establish themselves in those peripheries. 57Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 58. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm 58Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 59. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm Anhangabau Av Prestes Maia c1950 59Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 60. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm Anhangabau Valley and Tiradentes Ave c. 1948 60Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 61. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm São João Avenue, Down Town, 1960s 61Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 62. Immigration: 1960’s Major Internal Migrations 1960 Pop: 3.7 m 1970 Pop: 5.9 m Sugarcane cycle c.1530- 1640 Gold Cycle c.1690- 1790 Coffee Cycle 1808-1929 Rubber cycle 1890-1945 Cacao cycle c.1820-1920 Industrial Era 62Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 63. Migration from old colonized areas in the North-East of Brazil Curiously, there are not many images of Nordeste immigrants taken at that time available on the internet. These are artistic representations of immigration. Left: Immigrant family by Candido Portinari. 63Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 64. Candido Portinari 64Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 65. Population growth municipality SP 65Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 66. SP Urban Growth Source: Meyer et al. 2004 66Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 67. Slums 67Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 68. In 1964, while a social democrat was president, a military coup d’etat took place. Elections were abolished. The mayor of the city and all fist echelon staff would be indicated by the Brasilia. Institutions were shattered. Planning the city became a matter of social control. Military Rule (1964-1986) 68Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 69. 69Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 70. . Direct public investment in heavy industry and infrastructure (State owned) Unions are strong where industry is. (Workers are weak where old colonial and post colonial structures subsist) 1930- 1973: Economical Growth through import substitution policies building up an internal market: 70Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 71. 1973: The oil crisis •Explosion of External Debt (International Interest Rates Rocket) •Growth is based on increase of debt + corruption + bad management •Inflation (directly linked to the oil prices raises) •Depression of commodity prices (in Brazil: resulting in accentuation of internal migrations) 71Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 72. 1979: The Debt crisis Growth comes to a sudden halt: -25% industry -20% employment Fotos 1º de Maio de Luta. Praça da Sé. Por x 01/05/2006 às 22:35 http://www.midiaindependente.org/pt/red/2006/05/352170.shtml 72Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 73. 1980s: The “lost decade” Loss of investment capacity by the State Recurrence to increasing international DEBT Hyper inflation Chronic unemployment 73Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 74. 70 and 80’s: Bad Management Environmental Decay 74Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 75. 70s and 80s: Bad Management Social polarization 75Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 76. 70s and 80s: Bad Management Social polarisation 1970 Pop: 5.94 mi 1980 Pop: 8.49 mi 76Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 77. 80s: congestion The centre decadence 77Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 78. 1986: DEMOCRACY is back! 78Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 79. Avenida Paulista: The new centrality 79Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 80. Avenida Paulista in the beginning of the 20th century and now 80Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 81. Favelas are build on invaded land. Shacks are built by each family with improvised materials. The State was absent from the space of the ‘favela’. With time, inhabitants conquered rights. They start improving their shacks and soon the houses are built with bricks and are connected (legally or illegally) to electricity and water supply. There is usually no sewage system. There are special programmes of empowerment for the inhabitants. Some of them focus on the land rights and other on the infrastructure and services available. SLUMS 81Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 82. Human Development Compared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ednesday, 20April, 2011
  •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ednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 84. Average income (2000) Average household income (2000) (in US$ in december 2000) from 230 to 343 (relative poverty) from 347 to 448 (low income) from 452 to 616 (low middle income) from 628 to 933 (middle-income) Source: IBGE Census 2000,EMPLASA. above 1096 (high-income) 84Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 85. Blacks more affected by unemployment % of unemployed persons among blacks and whites Source: Seade, 2003 85Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 86. 90’s Emigration: Centre looses almost 20% of pop. Causes: 1. Low birth rate (national trend) 2. Deconcentration of industrial production 3. Disappointment with lifestyle/housing/ economic opportunities 4. Cost of life (plots are cheaper in outside municipalities) Population Growth per District in the period1991-2000 Lost population > 7.87% Source:IBGE 1991 and 2000 Pop.1991: 9.646.185 Pop.2000:10.405.867 Growth: 7.87 % Centre Lost 19.73% of its inhabitants Pari District lost 31.82% < 7.87% Centre Anhanguera Perus Jaragua S. Domingos Pirituba Freguesia do O Brasilandia Limao Cachoei- rinha Mandaqui Casa Verde Santana Tremembe Tucuruvi Jacana Vila Medeiros Vila Maria Vila Guilherme Cangaiba Penha Tatuape Carrao Belem Mooca Agua Rasa Vila Matilde Vila Formosa Ermelino Matarazzo Itaquera Ponte Rasa Artur Alvim Cidade Lider Parque do Carmo Jose Bonifacio Cidade Tiradentes Guaianases Lajeado Vila Curuca Itaim Paulista Jardim Helena Sao Miguel Vila Jacui Iguatemi Sao Rafael Sao MateusSapopopembaemba Aricanduva Sao LucasVila Prudente Ipiranga Sacoma Cursino Jabaquara Cidade Ademar Pedreira Cidade Dutra Grajau Socorro Campo Grande Santo Amaro Parelheiros Marsilac Jardim Angela Jardim Sao Luis Capao Redondo Campo Limpo Vila Andrade Vila Sonia MorumbiRaposo Tavares Rio Pequeno Butanta Jaguare Vila Leopoldina Lapa Jaguare Alto de Pinheiros Itaim Bibi Moema Campo Belo Saude Vila Mariana Jardim Paulista Pinheiros Perdizes Barra Funda Consolacao Santa Cecilia Bela Vista Liberdade Cambuci Bras Pari Bom Retiro Se Repu- blica 0 20km N 86Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 87. Area covered by irregular occupations is 338,8 km2, or 22,5% of the total area of the municipality (1500 km2) Irregular land occupation The Clandestine City Population:c.10.5million(estimated2000) Population Percentage Illegal or unregulated land occupation c.338 sq.km (22,5%) Population living in sub-standard dwellings (favelas,slums,tenement houses):c.1.8 million (2000) 17% of total population (source:Amaral & Pereira,2003) 0 20km N ast South-West Centre North-West North South-East East 1 East 2 South 87Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 88. Low vulnerability Middle vulnerability Very high vulnerability % of the wealth of the poorest 50% in relation to the richest 50% No serious vulnerability High vulnerability Parks, green areas, dams and inhabited places Social Vulnerability Scale 88Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 89. Empirical Research 89Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 90. GaWC 100 List of Global Enterprises 90Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 91. 100 largest APS operating in Brazil 91Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 92. 92Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 93. Main Areas for for office development in Sao Paulo (2005) 93Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 94. Old Centre (1554-1955) 94Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 95. Derelict buildings 95Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 96. Modernist heritage 96Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 97. The Centre moves: Avenida Paulista (1955-1990) 97Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 98. Avenida Paulista 98Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 99. The centre moves again: Avenida Faria Lima (1985-2005) 99Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 100. The centre moves again: Marginal Pinheiros (1990-...) 100Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 101. Marginal pinheiros 101Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 102. Social contrast 102Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 103. Location of Insurance and banks major firms 103Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 104. major firms that invested more in ICT (2007) 104Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 105. 50 largest advertising firms Source: IBOPE, 2007 105Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 106. 106Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 107. Largest firms all sectors 107Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 108. Origin of firms per region 108Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 109. Investment and land value increase 109Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 110. Large Urban Projects Agua Branca OP Espraiadas OP Centro OP Faria Lima OP 110Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 111. Total Area: 450 hectars (4,500,000 m2.) Cost: US$ 150 million (1995) US$ 120 mi for land expropriation, necessary to cut through consolidated neighbourhoods Urban Operation Faria Lima 111Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 112. Avenida Faria Lima 112Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 113. 113Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 114. 114Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 115. The New Corporate Axis 115Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 116. The New Corporate Axis does not have all functions typical to central areas. Its form is linear, an axis along the Pinheiros River, including some important transversal avenues. It concentrates command functions of the highest level, but especially computing and communication companies, as well as advertising. The New Corporate Axis 116Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 117. The New Corporate Axis 117Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 118. New Corporate Axis 118Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 119. New Corporate Axis 119Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 120. The New Corporate Axis 120Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 121. The ‘New City’New Corporate Axis 121Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 122. The New Corporate Axis 122Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 123. The New Corporate Axis 123Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 124. 124Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 125. 125Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 126. 126Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 127. 127Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 128. 128Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 129. 129Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 130. Old Centre Revitalisation 130Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 131. 131Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 132. Meanwhile in the Old Centre: Central Area Revitalisation 132Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 133. Central Core Revitalisation Revalorization of patrimony The map shows the major historical monuments that have suffered some intervention in the last decade 133Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 134. 1990s : Revitalization 134Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 135. Downtown Revitalisation 135Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 136. 136Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 137. 137Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 138. Luz Train Station 138Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 139. Pinacoteca 139Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 140. Sala Sao Paulo 140Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 141. Sala São Paulo 141Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 142. Sala São Paulo 142Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 143. Conclusions 143Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 144. The industrial city 144Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 145. The post-industrial city 145Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 146. 1. Generalisation of Technical Urban Networks 2. Suburbanisation 3. City core degradation/ inelasticity 4. Movement of firms towards new developments located in non-central areas close to ring roads in search for better interconnectivity Increasing Polycentricity 146Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 147. The Networked City 147Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 148. Open Urban Systems 148Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 149. New nodal organisations 149Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 150. Convergences The location of the business nodes over a main ring road, ensuring easy access to other business and consumption , as well as services in other areas of the metropolis 150Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 151. Convergences The close proximity of a large airport, serving a large business hinterland (North-Western Europe in the Dutch case, the vast Brazilian hinterland and part of the MERCOSUR Economic Community in the Brazilian case) 151Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 152. Convergences The existence of a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) ensuring optimal digital connectivity 152Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 153. Convergences The interest of national pension funds, who invested heavily in real estate in the 1990’s 153Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 154. Convergences The relevance of the local government as a promoter of large infrastructural works, especially related to the road and transportation systems 154Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 155. Convergences The social composition of the surrounding areas, where high skilled workers dwell and therefore can have easy access to work 155Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 156. Convergences The existence of facilities and services related to an international life style (international schools, hotels and luxury shops, for example) 156Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 157. Convergences The movement towards a better connection with the old centralities (Amsterdam Centrum and São Paulo Centro and Avenida Paulista), ensuring synergies with the traditional business and cultural nodes 157Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 158. Trends Easy access to other nodes in various networks (the ring factor) 158Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 159. Trends Easy access to large transportation nodes (the airport factor) 159Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 160. Trends Clear connection to old centralities where consumer services and producer services are concentrated (the urban ‘buzz’) 160Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 161. Trends Image is a crucial factor. Corporate image is not only associated to buildings, but to the image created by modern, daring and innovative urban milieus. 161Wednesday, 20April, 2011
  • 162. Thanks for listening Any questions? r.c.rocco@tudelft.nl Roberto Rocco Chair of Urban Planning and Strategy, Department of Urbanism Delft University of Technology TU Delft October 2008 162Wednesday, 20April, 2011