An Urban Geography of Globalisation PART 1

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This is part 1 of the lecture "An Urban Geography of Globalization". This was originally prepared for the free-choice (ellective) course "Globalization" of the department of Urbanism of the Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), The Netherlands. In this part I introduce basic notions and ideas about globalization and how it might be affecting the structure of global cities.

An Urban Geography of Globalisation PART 1

  1. 1. AN URBAN GEOGRAPHY OF GLOBALISATION UNDERSTANDING SPATIAL CHANGE IN THE AGE OF HYPER-CONNECTIVITY Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning & Strategy !"#$%#&&#((%() Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) *!$+#$,)- !"#$$%&%()"%(*+)+,%Wednesday, 20April, 2011 1
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  3. 3. contents PART 1 1.Introduction 2.Globalisation 3.Post-Fordism and increasing urban complexity PART 2 4.Case: Sao Paulo 5.Empirical research 6.FindingsWednesday, 20April, 2011 3
  4. 4. PART 1: What globalisation and why is it relevant for planners?Wednesday, 20April, 2011 4
  5. 5. A tale of global cities For the first time in history, the majority of the population lives in cities. Humanity is urban. Urbanity is opportunity. The opportunity to be connected to people, services, places and jobs. Cities are changing fast, as they have always done. In most places, cities are getting bigger, while in other places they are actually getting smaller: e.g. Detroit, New Orleans, cities in Germany and Spain. But here we are concerned with changes in urban structures and infrastructures in a special kind of city: the Global City.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 5
  6. 6. New questions are arising How to accommodate new urban dwellers? How to bridge the divide between the urban rich and the urban poor? How to keep our cities sustainable and resilient to threats like climate change? How to provide opportunities and jobs for millions of new urban dwellers? How to make urban cores vital and liveable?Wednesday, 20April, 2011 6
  7. 7. The spatial make up of global cities The spatial make-up of global cities is also changing. There are more and more gleaming business centres, industries are leaving, people are living increasingly far from the centre, sometimes in horrible conditions, other times in beautiful but unsustainable never-ending suburbs. People say it is “globalisation”. But what does globalisation mean for the spatial make-up of cities? The cliché images are misleading...Wednesday, 20April, 2011 7
  8. 8. NEW YORKWednesday, 20April, 2011 8
  9. 9. LondonWednesday, 20April, 2011 9
  10. 10. TOKYO VAmsterdamWednesday, 20April, 2011 10
  11. 11. SingaporeWednesday, 20April, 2011 11
  12. 12. Hong KongWednesday, 20April, 2011 12
  13. 13. ShanghaiWednesday, 20April, 2011 13
  14. 14. PARISWednesday, 20April, 2011 14
  15. 15. BerlinWednesday, 20April, 2011 15
  16. 16. Buenos AiresWednesday, 20April, 2011 16
  17. 17. DubaiWednesday, 20April, 2011 17
  18. 18. FrankfurtWednesday, 20April, 2011 18
  19. 19. MadridWednesday, 20April, 2011 19
  20. 20. SantiagoWednesday, 20April, 2011 20
  21. 21. AmsterdamWednesday, 20April, 2011 21
  22. 22. São PauloWednesday, 20April, 2011 22
  23. 23. Conceptualising Globalisation For Ulrich Beck (1997) Globalisation occurs at four main different levels: technological economical cultural ecologicalWednesday, 20April, 2011 23
  24. 24. Conceptualising Globalisation For SANTOS (1993) One aspect of Globalisation is the acceleration of the all spheres of life, including: rapid development of information communicational technologies (ICT) the decentralisation of production and managerial processes the expansion of trade flows, financial flows and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)Wednesday, 20April, 2011 24
  25. 25. Some people think it is greatWednesday, 20April, 2011 25
  26. 26. Some people think it is a Force of evilWednesday, 20April, 2011 26
  27. 27. We find it useful to explore the subject dispassionately, however critically. We also need to find out what ‘globalisation’ means for the management of cities.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 27
  28. 28. Is it new? Trade routes in the 16th centuryWednesday, 20April, 2011 28
  29. 29. Other Globalizations: The Globalization of TasteWednesday, 20April, 2011 29
  30. 30. Other Globalizations: drugs Source: www.pbs.org CIA/ Front Line 2000Wednesday, 20April, 2011 30
  31. 31. Other Globalizations: illegal immigration People smuggling: 145 million people per year are illegally smuggled from poor or conflict countries into rich nations Source: SF Chronicle 7 jan 2001Wednesday, 20April, 2011 31
  32. 32. Other Globalizations: conflict Source: Small arms survey, GIIS, IISSWednesday, 20April, 2011 32
  33. 33. Other Globalizations: Fear “From Australia to Zimbabwe, using new laws and old-fashioned brute force, governments are sacrificing human rights on the altar of antiterrorism” Source: Amnesty International 2004Wednesday, 20April, 2011 33
  34. 34. Other Globalisations: Disease Source: World Health Organisation 2003Wednesday, 20April, 2011 34
  35. 35. Globalisation of informationWednesday, 20April, 2011 35
  36. 36. Globalization and irrational forms of societal developments might and do coexist Source: www.cartoonwork.com. Copyright: Carol SimpsonWednesday, 20April, 2011 36
  37. 37. Global awareness: The ‘Second’ ModernityWednesday, 20April, 2011 37
  38. 38. The underlying assumption The shift towards a knowledge- based economy and the emphasis on the production trade and diffusion of knowledge is triggering spatial transformation in cities under globalisation.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 38
  39. 39. What is he talking about? Spatial urban structure refers to: •How functions are located and distributed over the urban territory •How these functions are articulated/ integrated by real networks •How are real networks changing and expanding (the city-region as a relevant unit of analysis)Wednesday, 20April, 2011 39
  40. 40. And why is that important? Life is embedded in space. Everything we do, we do ‘somewhere’, using places and services that articulated by links and infrastructures. Let’s have a look in the following model:Wednesday, 20April, 2011 40
  41. 41. Les niveaux dopération (Dupuy, 1991 + Rocco, 2008)Wednesday, 20April, 2011 41
  42. 42. But what is different now?Wednesday, 20April, 2011 42
  43. 43. AccelerationWednesday, 20April, 2011 43
  44. 44. Wednesday, 20April, 2011 44
  45. 45. Acceleration of flowsWednesday, 20April, 2011 45
  46. 46. ExtensionWednesday, 20April, 2011 46
  47. 47. Metro Paris 1911Wednesday, 20April, 2011 47
  48. 48. Paris Metro 1930Wednesday, 20April, 2011 48
  49. 49. Paris Metro 1967Wednesday, 20April, 2011 49
  50. 50. Paris MetropolitanWednesday, 20April, 2011 50
  51. 51. Reseaux Ile de FranceWednesday, 20April, 2011 51
  52. 52. Wednesday, 20April, 2011 52
  53. 53. Extension of networksThe extension of Arthur Andersen consulting around the world. The firmcollapsed in 2002, accused of fraud.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 53
  54. 54. The number of multinational corporations along time. Source: GABEL, M. Bruner, H. 2004, Global Inc. An Atlas of the Multinational Corporation, new york: Global inc.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 54
  55. 55. Increasing ComplexityWednesday, 20April, 2011 55
  56. 56. Sao Paulo, Brazil, pop. 16 million (2010)Wednesday, 20April, 2011 56
  57. 57. But THIS is not so complex... Or is it? Delft, The Netherlands, pop.: 96.000 (2008)Wednesday, 20April, 2011 57
  58. 58. Delft DelftUrbanisation in the Netherlands, 1950 Urbanisation in the Netherlands, 2010Wednesday, 20April, 2011 58
  59. 59. Delft Delft Urbanisation in the Randstad, 1950 Urbanisation in the Randstad, 2010Wednesday, 20April, 2011 59
  60. 60. Complex enough for you? Commuting patterns in The Randstad (2008), source: VROM.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 60
  61. 61. KLM Routes 1964 KLM Routes 2004Wednesday, 20April, 2011 61
  62. 62. Wednesday, 20April, 2011 62
  63. 63. Global Inc. An Atlas of the Multinational Corporation MEDARD GABEL AND HENRY BRUNER The future looks more like this Visualizing Friendships by Paul Butler on Tuesday, 14 December 2010 at 02:16Wednesday, 20April, 2011 63
  64. 64. Metropolitain de Paris 2005 Tokyo Subway system 2008Wednesday, 20April, 2011 64
  65. 65. A set of reasons Revolution in Information and Telecommunications Technologies Advances in Transportation Technologies New management of production (Toyotism substitutes Fordism) Dispersal of production (industry to developing countries/ knowledge production in developed countries) Emergence of a Knowledge-based Economy Liberalisation of the EconomyWednesday, 20April, 2011 65
  66. 66. The transition from Fordism to Post-Fordism and the rise of the KnowledgeEconomy In Post-Fordism, companies went from mass production to flexible production, adapted to a changing and segmented demand X This amplified various processes and triggered the dispersal of production and concentration of command activities in certain NODES of Command (Global Cities)Wednesday, 20April, 2011 66
  67. 67. Dispersal of ProductionWednesday, 20April, 2011 67
  68. 68. Globalizing Cities and NODES of command The dispersal of production and finance has resulted in extended networks, composed by both old and new articulation NODES OF COMMAND.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 68
  69. 69. FDI as % of total GDPWednesday, 20April, 2011 69
  70. 70. Globally integrated organization of economic activity For Sassen (1991): “The geography and the composition of the global economy changed so as to produce a complex duality: a spatially dispersed, yet globally integrated organization of Location of ADK Akatsu Advertising economic (Japan) branches activity” (p.3)Wednesday, 20April, 2011 70
  71. 71. Advanced Producer ServicesWednesday, 20April, 2011 71
  72. 72. Expanded central control and management Territorial dispersal of current economic activity creates a need for expanded central control and managementWednesday, 20April, 2011 72
  73. 73. Strategic role of global cities For Sassen (1991), major cities have acquired a strategic role in the last decades as centres of command of the organisation of world economy. Taylor, P.J. Firms and their Global Service Networks in S Sassen (ed) (2002) Global Networks, Linked Cities New York, London: Routledge, 93-115.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 73
  74. 74. Cities as key locations for Advanced Producer Services This new role is largely based on some cities being key locations for finance and for specialised service firms, which have replaced manufacturing as the leading economic sector of the an increasingly integrated world economy. GaWC Research Bulletin 23, 2001Wednesday, 20April, 2011 74
  75. 75. The architecture of the Global City Network Tokyo London NY Source: Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, Loughborough, UKWednesday, 20April, 2011 75
  76. 76. But… Discussing ‘global cities’ as loci of command seems to be insufficient from the point of view of territorial management and planning. The necessary geographical and spatial components are missing.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 76
  77. 77. But… These spatial components are essential to understand the real implications of an emerging knowledge economy for the spatial organisation of cities and regions. The intrinsic networked character of command activities and their role as producers,users and sellers of knowledge seem to require a better understanding of how they are organised in the territory.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 77
  78. 78. Levels of operationWednesday, 20April, 2011 78
  79. 79. Urban structures in the age of hyperconnectivity The sophistication, expansion and generalization of technical networks in the last decades are crucial elements for the appearance of new urban structures and new societal practices.Wednesday, 20April, 2011 79
  80. 80. Liverpool street station, LondonWednesday, 20April, 2011 80
  81. 81. Thanks for listening Any questions? r.c.rocco@tudelft.nl Roberto Rocco Chair of Urban Planning and Strategy, Department of Urbanism Delft University of Technology TU Delft October 2008Wednesday, 20April, 2011 81

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