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Introduction to Mobile Robotics

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The advent of Mobile Robotics changed the definition of robotics and brought in some very interesting technologies paving the way for cutting edge sciences like AI, Behaviour Based Systems, etc

The advent of Mobile Robotics changed the definition of robotics and brought in some very interesting technologies paving the way for cutting edge sciences like AI, Behaviour Based Systems, etc

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  • 1. “New Age” Robotics
  • 2. What is the “New Age” ?
  • 3. Where did it begin? 1962 – General Motors General Motors install a Unimate as the world's first robot on a production line Unimate then launched PUMA, the world's first 6 axis articulated robot which led to a new generation of flexible manufacturing systems and the core technology in robotics
  • 4. Where did it begin? 1966 – 1972: Stanford Research Lab “Shakey” from Stanford was the world's first mobile robot to reason about its actions Endowed with a limited ability to perceive and model its environment, Shakey could perform tasks that required planning, route-finding, and the rearranging of simple objects. In short, Shakey was the path maker to todays intelligent robots
  • 5. Robotics Timeline 1960 - 1970 1960 - 1970 1980 - 1990 1970 - 1985 1990 – 2000 1975 - 1990 1995 - 2010 2000 - 2010 1990 - 2000
  • 6. Results!
  • 7. Adding Mobility – Mobile Platforms Mobile Platforms can move freely & hence have limitless operational area These platforms however cannot manipulate objects themselves Typical tasks involve surveillance, cleaning, monitoring & analysis – no handling The platforms have different mechanisms to move – wheels, legs, wings, even jets! Has the ability to move around human presence – hence must be safe Safety measures demand embodied intelligence – hence the rise of AI Operations like obstacle avoidance, map analysis and self awareness are all parts of the overall AI of the system
  • 8. Mobile Platforms – Drive Concepts Differential Drive Two powered wheels Other wheels are passive and free (castor) Fast moving, but limited mobility 2 Degrees of freedom
  • 9. Mobile Platforms – Drive Concepts Synchro Drive All wheels are powered Steering is also powered but synchronized All wheels steer the same way simultaneously Fast moving, but limited mobility 2 Degrees of freedom Advantage over DD: Can move at an angle to heading
  • 10. Mobile Platforms – Drive Concepts Omni Drive Three / Four powered wheels Wheels are specially designed Fast moving, high mobility 3 degrees of freedom – can move at any heading and turn at the same time
  • 11. Mobile Platform – DD Kinematics Notations: Vr, Vl are right and left wheel velocities l/2 is the wheel separation W is the angular velocity of the robot (the rate at which the robot is rotating about the vertical axis) ICC is the Instantaneous center of curvature R is the distance of the robot base to ICC (x, y) is the robot position θ is the robot orientation
  • 12. Mobile Platform – DD Kinematics From basic equations of motion Vr = (R + l/2).W Vl = (R – l/2).W Solving, we get R = l/2 (Vl + Vr) / (Vr – Vl) W = (Vr – Vl) / l If Vr = Vl: We get R as infinity and the robot travels straight If Vr = -Vl: R becomes 0 (zero) and the robot turns on its ICC or the base mid point For other values, the robot will steer left or right depending on the speed difference. The value of R can be calculated
  • 13. Mobile Platform – DD Kinematics Question..... For the robot ICC to be located under the left wheel, what should be the wheel velocities?
  • 14. Mobile Platform – DD Kinematics Under the left wheel means that R = l/2 Thus substituting in R = l/2 (Vl + Vr) / (Vr – Vl) l/2 = l/2 (Vl + Vr) / (Vr – Vl) Vr - Vl = Vl + Vr ie 2Vl = 0 or Vl = 0 Thus Vl = 0 and for any Vr, the condition will be met
  • 15. Where am I? Robot Localization
  • 16. Where am I? Robot Localization If you see this.... where will you be?
  • 17. Where am I? Robot Localization If you see this.... where will you be?
  • 18. Where am I? Robot Localization If you see this.... where will you be?
  • 19. Where am I? Robot Localization Any particular object which can be uniqueliy identified and mapped to a location is called a LANDMARK Robots work on Landmarks for Localization using many different mathematical models The simplest one being triangulation P1 Landmark1 R1 Question: How many Landmarks are needed to P(?) uniquely get the robot location P P2 R2 The robot is able to identify the Landmark2 Robot landmark, landmark position & its own distance Rx from the landmark
  • 20. Where am I? Robot Localization Landmark1 Landmark2
  • 21. Where am I? Robot Localization Landmark1 Landmark2 Two Landmarks can give you a “false positive”
  • 22. Where am I? Robot Localization Landmark1 Landmark2 A third landmark will eliminate the wrong location
  • 23. (R)Evolutionary Learning Systems We have seen that Inverse Kinematics is a complex task So can we really program a robot to walk? 2 DOF = 2 solutions 4 DOF = 8 solutions 6 DOF = 16 solutions ......... 24 DOF = ???
  • 24. (R)Evolutionary Learning Systems Evolutionary techniques are used to make the robot “learn” - learn to adapt to environment - learn to avoid obstacles - learn to navigate - or even learn to walk! Video of DFKI Walking
  • 25. What is Evolution Algorithms Follows darwin principle – survival of the fittest Case Study: Walking Robots a. Take a number (100+) of robot programs which try to make the robot walk b. Run each of the programs on the given robot c. EVALUATION: Analyse the best programs – the best will make the robot walk the farthest / fastest d. SELECTION: Choose the best 10 – 20 programs d. MUTATION: Create (automatically) programs which are similar to the best but slightly modified e. Run the new batch of programs again f. Repeat the Evaluation, Selection & Mutation At the end we will get a few programs which will make the robot walk fast, stable and far!
  • 26. So what is the “New Age” ? Adaptable This walking robot developed at Fraunhofer is able to walk even if one of its legs are damaged!
  • 27. So what is the “New Age” ? Interactive Pleo – the robot dinosaur interacts with his master and actually develops his own personality
  • 28. So what is the “New Age” ? Safe Care-o-bot (left) and Justin (right) are designed to be safe in presence of humans. They are interactive and adaptable too!
  • 29. Thank You info@robots-alive.com blog.robots-alive.com www.robots-alive.com

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