Video Production: Manual Camera Controls


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Video Production: Manual Camera Controls

  1. 1. Manual Camera Controls
  2. 2. Goals for Today Understand why having manual controlis important in Videography Understand different formats thatcameras can shoot in
  3. 3. Importance of ManualControl Who camcorders are built for: Consumer level cameras are built forsomeone who knows little aboutvideography They usually have little by way of manualcontrols Full control is important in order to beprofessional Caveat: The problem with Camera fan-boys
  4. 4. Understanding Format You need to be awareof the format you areshooting your project in SD vs. HD: what doesthis mean? What’s the deal with allthese new cameras? The quest for RAW
  5. 5. Camera Research Exercise Look for One or Two of the followingcameras. What are the differentspecifications of them Red Scarlet-X Phantom HD Sony FS-700 Arri Alexa Canon C500 Blackmagic Cinema Compare and Contrast
  6. 6. Understanding Format(cont.) Other things that you need to consider: Interlaced vs. Progressive shooting○ Videopia The frame rate of the camera○ 60i – Good for shooting broadcast○ 30p – Good for web delivery○ 24p – The film look The pixel aspect ratio of the camera○ Use if you want to shoot in a widescreen format○ Some cameras do not have the ability to do a truewidescreen format Compression○ Office Max vs. B & H Demonstration of how to set up the video signal
  7. 7. Setting Aperture What is aperture? Tools for Setting Aperture Zebras Light Meters What to expose for?
  8. 8. The Exposure Triangle
  9. 9. Focus and Depth of Field What is depth of field?How do we control Depthof Field? F-stop or Iris: the amount oflight that we let into the lens. Focal Length: What effectdoes focal length have ondepth of field? ND Filter: cuts the light levelallowing us to get a wideraperture outside
  10. 10. Determining Depth of FieldGreater Depth of Field Shallow Depth of FieldWide angle lens Telephoto LensHigh f-stop (small aperture) Low f-stop (large aperture)Subject far away from camera Subject close to cameraSmaller Sensor or Frame Size Larger Sensor or Frame Size
  11. 11. What should DOF be? What should you have it be for: Landscapes Interviews Narrative films Evaluate Depth of Field Gangs of Ballet
  12. 12. White Balance Why do we need towhite balance? The best way toWhite Balance a Shot
  13. 13. Tripod UsageDemonstration Advantages and Disadvantages of usinga tripod for your project Differences between types of tripods Using the base plate on your tripod How to set-up/break-down
  14. 14. Other Camera Controls Focus The best method for focusing on a subject Gain
  15. 15. Exercise: Getting to Know yourCamera Activity: Get into a group and locate thefollowing from 4 different cameras Focus Control White Balance Iris or F-Stop ND Filter Gain Sound Control
  16. 16. The Sound DepartmentSound Mixer:Responsible for gettingcorrect and usable levelsfrom various sources ofdialogueBoom Operator:Responsible for holding theboom above actors heads tocapture production dialogue.Also responsible for placingwireless microphones onactors bodiesCable Puller: Back up boomoperator. Cable wrangler.
  17. 17. Sound Considerations The recording medium: Filmvs. Video When working with film you needto record sound onto a separatemedium such as DAT or a HardDrive. You will also be in chargeof keeping the slate in sync withthe audio. When working with video soundis usually recorded only to thevideo tape. Your job is to ensurethat the levels that the camera isreceiving are well mixed. A short film I mixed: MiltonGlaser Draws and Lectures
  18. 18. Working with an External Mixer Know the basics of SoundRouting Sound Starts with a Microphone ofsome kind > Travels into the Mixer > Mixer sends signal to the camera To ensure that you are getting thesame levels on your camera asyou are through your mixer, youwill want to send a reference tonefrom the mixer to the camera toset the levels Once set, be sure that the controlson the camera are not touched bythe cameraman
  19. 19. Boom Mics Shotgun mics are the preferredmethod of gathering sound on set Most shotgun microphones requiresome sort of power – Field mixersand professional level cameras canprovide this power Tips for handling the boom
  20. 20. Lavaliers Two Main types of Lavaliers: Wired andWireless Wired: Good for sit down interviews – noworries about radio interference Wireless: Good because of portability. Allowsyou to follow characters around as well as getclear sound from wide shots Watch out for: Clothing Noise Improper Placement Radio Interference
  21. 21. Overall Sound Advice Pay Attention to it! Avoid using the on-camera microphone If you use an external microphone, besure and monitor your sound at all times The last thing you want is to realize that youhave no audio!
  22. 22. Class Exercise Get into your group of 4 Take a camera, tripod, and audio setup Make up an idea for a documentary Capture at least 3 20-second interviewsin locations around the school Return to review the footage
  23. 23. Narrative Shot Sequencing Plan ahead Spend a few moments planning out astoryboard for your sequence. This willensure that you have story that will makesense once you edit it together Think about video sequencing: From theStoryguide
  24. 24. Narrative Shot Sequencing(cont.) Shoot for the edit Try to vary the framing and composition of the shotsthat you are trying to edit together It is easier to edit with locked off shots – avoidhandheld shots When a character is moving, have them leave frame– this enables you to cut to wherever you like Obey the 30° rule – two shots should be at least 30°apart from each other to avoid jump cuts The more shots that you use, the more visuallyinteresting the story will be Shoot a given action from a couple of differentangles, this will give you more options in the edit.
  25. 25. Discuss Project 1 Pre-production discussion Parameters of Assignment