Goals for Today Understand why having manual controlis important in Videography Understand different formats thatcameras can shoot in
Importance of ManualControl Who camcorders are built for: Consumer level cameras are built forsomeone who knows little aboutvideography They usually have little by way of manualcontrols Full control is important in order to beprofessional Caveat: The problem with Camera fan-boys
Understanding Format You need to be awareof the format you areshooting your project in SD vs. HD: what doesthis mean? What’s the deal with allthese new cameras? The quest for RAW
Camera Research Exercise Look for One or Two of the followingcameras. What are the differentspecifications of them Red Scarlet-X Phantom HD Sony FS-700 Arri Alexa Canon C500 Blackmagic Cinema Compare and Contrast
Understanding Format(cont.) Other things that you need to consider: Interlaced vs. Progressive shooting○ Videopia The frame rate of the camera○ 60i – Good for shooting broadcast○ 30p – Good for web delivery○ 24p – The film look The pixel aspect ratio of the camera○ Use if you want to shoot in a widescreen format○ Some cameras do not have the ability to do a truewidescreen format Compression○ Office Max vs. B & H Demonstration of how to set up the video signal
Setting Aperture What is aperture? Tools for Setting Aperture Zebras Light Meters What to expose for?
Focus and Depth of Field What is depth of field?How do we control Depthof Field? F-stop or Iris: the amount oflight that we let into the lens. Focal Length: What effectdoes focal length have ondepth of field? ND Filter: cuts the light levelallowing us to get a wideraperture outside
Determining Depth of FieldGreater Depth of Field Shallow Depth of FieldWide angle lens Telephoto LensHigh f-stop (small aperture) Low f-stop (large aperture)Subject far away from camera Subject close to cameraSmaller Sensor or Frame Size Larger Sensor or Frame Size
What should DOF be? What should you have it be for: Landscapes Interviews Narrative films Evaluate Depth of Field Gangs of Ballet
White Balance Why do we need towhite balance? FromLightsandCameras.com The best way toWhite Balance a Shot
Tripod UsageDemonstration Advantages and Disadvantages of usinga tripod for your project Differences between types of tripods Using the base plate on your tripod How to set-up/break-down
Other Camera Controls Focus The best method for focusing on a subject Gain
Exercise: Getting to Know yourCamera Activity: Get into a group and locate thefollowing from 4 different cameras Focus Control White Balance Iris or F-Stop ND Filter Gain Sound Control
The Sound DepartmentSound Mixer:Responsible for gettingcorrect and usable levelsfrom various sources ofdialogueBoom Operator:Responsible for holding theboom above actors heads tocapture production dialogue.Also responsible for placingwireless microphones onactors bodiesCable Puller: Back up boomoperator. Cable wrangler.
Sound Considerations The recording medium: Filmvs. Video When working with film you needto record sound onto a separatemedium such as DAT or a HardDrive. You will also be in chargeof keeping the slate in sync withthe audio. When working with video soundis usually recorded only to thevideo tape. Your job is to ensurethat the levels that the camera isreceiving are well mixed. A short film I mixed: MiltonGlaser Draws and Lectures
Working with an External Mixer Know the basics of SoundRouting Sound Starts with a Microphone ofsome kind > Travels into the Mixer > Mixer sends signal to the camera To ensure that you are getting thesame levels on your camera asyou are through your mixer, youwill want to send a reference tonefrom the mixer to the camera toset the levels Once set, be sure that the controlson the camera are not touched bythe cameraman
Boom Mics Shotgun mics are the preferredmethod of gathering sound on set Most shotgun microphones requiresome sort of power – Field mixersand professional level cameras canprovide this power Tips for handling the boom
Lavaliers Two Main types of Lavaliers: Wired andWireless Wired: Good for sit down interviews – noworries about radio interference Wireless: Good because of portability. Allowsyou to follow characters around as well as getclear sound from wide shots Watch out for: Clothing Noise Improper Placement Radio Interference
Overall Sound Advice Pay Attention to it! Avoid using the on-camera microphone If you use an external microphone, besure and monitor your sound at all times The last thing you want is to realize that youhave no audio!
Class Exercise Get into your group of 4 Take a camera, tripod, and audio setup Make up an idea for a documentary Capture at least 3 20-second interviewsin locations around the school Return to review the footage
Narrative Shot Sequencing Plan ahead Spend a few moments planning out astoryboard for your sequence. This willensure that you have story that will makesense once you edit it together Think about video sequencing: From theStoryguide
Narrative Shot Sequencing(cont.) Shoot for the edit Try to vary the framing and composition of the shotsthat you are trying to edit together It is easier to edit with locked off shots – avoidhandheld shots When a character is moving, have them leave frame– this enables you to cut to wherever you like Obey the 30° rule – two shots should be at least 30°apart from each other to avoid jump cuts The more shots that you use, the more visuallyinteresting the story will be Shoot a given action from a couple of differentangles, this will give you more options in the edit.
Discuss Project 1 Pre-production discussion Parameters of Assignment