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Motivation
 
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This will help to learn about Motivation..

This will help to learn about Motivation..

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    Motivation Motivation Presentation Transcript

    • MOTIVATION
    • Overview
      Critical Concepts Of Motivation
      What is Motivation?
      Elements Of Work Motivation
      Four General Approaches to Motivation
      Early Theories Of Motivation
      Theories Of Motivation
      Case Study
    • Behavior- INFER motivation
      Performance- evaluation of behavior
      – Typing speed
      Ability- Determines behavior
      Situational Constraints -impact behavior
      Motivation- What you will do (rather
      than what you can do)
      Critical concepts in motivation
    • Motivating
      Motivation is very much a function of the context of a person’s work and personal life. That context is greatly influenced by cultural variables, which affect the attitudes and behaviors of individuals (and groups) on the job
    • Elements of Work Motivation
      Which behaviors does a
      person choose to perform
      In an organization?
      Direction of Behavior
      How hard does a person
      work to perform a
      chosen behavior?
      Level of Effort
      When faced with obstacles
      how hard does a person keep
      trying to perform a
      chosen behavior successfully?
      Level of Persistence
    • The Motivation Equation
      Inputs:
      Effort
      Time
      Education
      Experience
      Skills
      Knowledge
      Job behaviors
      Performance:
      Quantity
      Quality
      Level of
      customer
      service
      Outcomes:
      Pay
      Job security
      Benefits
      Vacation
      Satisfaction
      Pleasure
    • Motivation
      Intrinsic
      actually performing the behavior
      Behavior performed for its own sake
      Extrinsic
      Based on acquisition of material or social rewards or
    • The Intrinsic-Extrinsic Dichotomy
      Two sets of needs that motivate workers
      Motivational Factors (Intrinsic)
      Maintenance Factors (Extrinsic)
      Research on managers in Greece found that:
      People are motivated more by the nature of the work
      Dissatisfactions resulted from conditions surrounding the work
    • Motivating people
      An important role of a manager is to motivate the people working on a project.
      Motivation is a complex issue but it appears that their are different types of motivation based on:
      Basic needs (e.g. food, sleep, etc.);
      Personal needs (e.g. respect, self-esteem);
      Social needs (e.g. to be accepted as part of a group).
    • Four General Approaches to Motivation
      Behavioral
      Humanistic
      Cognitive
      Sociocultural
    • Behavioral Approach
      Rewards are consequences of behaviors
      Incentives encourage or discourage behaviors
    • Humanistic Approaches
      Third force psychology
      Emphasis on personal choice
      Needs
      Self-actualization/Self-determination
      Maslow’s hierarchy
    • Cognitive Perspective
      Focus on thinking
      Emphasizes intrinsic motivation
      People are active and curious
      Plans, goals, schemas, and expectations
    • Cognitive Perspective
      Attribution theory
      Perceived cause of successes or failures
      Locus
      Stability
      Responsibility
      Attributions in the classroom
      Teacher actions influence student attributions
      Expectancy X Value Theory
    • Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon
      Sociocultural Conceptions of Motivation
      Emphasizes participation in communities of practice
      Legitimate peripheral participation
      Relate to authentic tasks
      See table 10.2, Woolfolk, p. 358 for a comparison of all four approaches
    • Early Theories of Motivation
      Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
      McGregor’s theory X and theory Y
      Herzberg’ motivation-hygiene theory
    • Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs
      Self-
      actualization
      self-development
      and realization
      5
      Esteem needs
      self-esteem, recognition
      4
      Social needs
      sense of belonging, love
      3
      Safety need
      security, protection
      2
      Physiological needs
      food, water, shelter
      1
    • Need satisfaction
      Social
      Provide communal facilities;
      Allow informal communications.
      Esteem
      Recognition of achievements;
      Appropriate rewards.
      Self-realization
      Training - people want to learn more;
      Responsibility.
    • The Needs Hierarchy in the International Context
      How applicable are motivation theories proposed by Maslow and Herzberg in the international context?
      Haire, Ghiselli and Porter’s survey concluded that Maslow’s needs, in particular the upper-level ones, are important at the managerial level, although the managers reported that the degree to which their needs were fulfilled did not live up to their expectations.
      Ronen concluded that need clusters are constant across nationalities and that Maslow’s need hierarchy is confirmed by these clusters. Also, Herzberg’s categories are confirmed by the cross-national need clusters..
    • The Needs Hierarchy in the International Context
      Ronen’s need clusters
      Job goals, such as working area, work time, physical working conditions, fringe benefits, and job security;
      Relationships with co-workers and supervisors; and
      Work challenges and opportunities for using skills.
    • Alderfer’sERG Theory
    • Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory
      Motivation-hygiene Theory assumes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction.
    • Motivators
      Hygiene factors
      Achievement
      Recognition
      Work itself
      Responsibility
      Advancement
      Growth
      Supervision
      Company policy
      Relationship with supervisor
      Working conditions
      Salary
      Relationship with peers
      Personal life
      Relationship with subordinates
      Status
      Security
      Extremely
      Satisfied
      Neutral
      Extremely
      Dissatisfied
      Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory
    • Traditional view
      Satisfaction
      Dissatisfaction
      Hygiene factors
      Motivators
      Satisfaction
      No satisfaction
      No dissatisfaction
      Dissatisfaction
      Herzberg’s View
      contrasting views of satisfaction-dissatisfaction
    • Theory X
      Theory X offered by McGregor assumes that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. It is a negative view about people.
    • A manager who view employees from a Theory X perspective believes:
      Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.
      Because employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals.
      Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.
      Most works place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.
    • Theory Y
      Theory Y assumes that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. It is a positive view about people.
    • A manager who view employees from a Theory Y perspective believes:
      Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play
      Men and women will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives
      The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility
      The ability to make good decisions widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of managers.
    • Theories of Motivation
      Need Theory
      Expectancy Theory
      Equity Theory
      Procedural Justice Theory
    • Three-needs theory recognizes that the need for achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives in work.
    • Need for achievement: The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
      Need for power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
      Need for affiliation: The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
    • Equity Theory
      Outcomes
      Pay
      Fringe benefits
      Job satisfaction
      Status
      Opportunities for advancement
      Job security
      Inputs
      Special skills
      Training
      Education
      Work experience
      Effort on the job
      Time
    • Equity Theory
      Inputs lead to outcomes
      Objective level of outcomes does not determine work motivation
      Outcome/input ratio compared to ratio of referent others leads to work motivation
    • Table 6.4 Conditions of Equity and Inequity
    • Equity Theory Propositions
      If paid according to time, overrewarded employees will produce more than equitably paid employees.
      If paid according to quantity of production, overrewarded employees will produce fewer but higher-quality units than equitably paid employees.
    • If paid according to time, underrewarded employees will produce less or poorer-quality output.
      If paid according to quantity of production, underrewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees.
    • Expectancy theory states that an individual tends to act in a certain way on the basis of the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
    • Figure 6.3 Expectancy Theory
    • Individual
      performance
      Individual
      effort
      A
      B
      Individual
      goals
      Organizational
      reward
      C
      A
      =Effort-performance linkage
      =Performance-reward linkage
      B
      =Attractive
      C
      Simplified Expectancy Theory
    • JCM—five Core Job Dimensions
      Skill variety:the degree to which the job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talents
      Task identity:the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
      Task significance:the degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people.
    • Autonomy: the degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.
      Feedback: the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
      Motivating Potential Score(MPS)
      ╳autonomy ╳feedback
    • Critical
      Psychological
      states
      Personal
      and work
      outcomes
      Core job
      dimensions
      High internal
      work motivation
      Skill variety
      Task identity
      Task significant
      Experienced
      Meaningfulness of
      the work
      High-quality
      work performance
      Experienced
      responsibility for
      outcomes of the work
      Autonomy
      High-satisfaction
      with the work
      Low absenteeism
      and turnover
      Knowledge of the
      actual results of the
      work activities
      Feedback
      Employee growth-need
      strength
      the Job Characteristics Model
    • High nAch
      Equity
      Comparison
      Performance
      Evaluation
      criteria
      Ability
      Individual
      effort
      Task
      complexity
      Individual
      performance
      Organizational
      rewards
      Individual
      goals
      Objective
      performance
      evaluation
      system
      Dominant
      needs
      Reinforcement
      Goals direct behavior
      Integrating Theories of Motivation
    • Procedural Justice Theory
      Higher motivation occurs when procedures used to make decisions are perceived as fair
      Factors for determination of fairness
      Interpersonal treatment of employees
      Extent to which managers explain decisions to employees
      • Locke & Latham
      • Goals are the focus of our motivation, and the
      • direct our behavior
      • 2 conditions must be met:
      • • Must be aware of the goal and know how to accomplish it
      • • Must accept the goal and be willing to work for it
      • Difficult = higher performance
      • Specific = better for motivation
      • Feedback = guides level of effort
      Goal Setting Theory
    • Social Learning Theory – Albert Bandura
      • Learn by observation of others seeing the consequences and rewards of actions
      Self-Efficacy Theory
      –Performance is influenced by 2 things:
      •Self-efficacy Expectancy – Can I do this
      •Outcome Expectancy – Performance desired results
      Social Learning Theory &Self-Efficacy Theory
      • Stems from Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
      • “An action is strengthened/weakened by its own
      consequence”
      • Three Key Variables
      • Stimulus – condition that elicits a behavioral resp.
      • Response – performance
      • Reward – value given based on that response
      • Reinforcement classification:
      • Reinforcer increase likelihood of behavior
      • Primary – innate reinforcement properties
      • Secondary – allows acquisition of primary reinforce
      • Positive – presented when the behavior occurs
      • Negative – something negative is removed
      • (Punishment – decrease likelihood of behavior)
      Reinforcement Theory
      • Can have different reinforcement schedules:
      • Continuous – reinforce every desired response
      • Partial – reinforce some desired responses
      • Fixed Interval – after a fixed amount of time
      • Fixed Ratio – after a fixed number of behaviors
      • Variable Interval – after an interval of time that varies
      • Variable Ratio – after a number of behaviors that varies
      • Extinction & Habituation
      • Other issues with reinforcement
      Reinforcement Theory (2)
    • Opening Case: Motivating Employees at SAS Institute
      How can organizations continue to grow and have satisfied employees in the hard times as well as the good times?
      SAS – the largest privately owned software company in the world
      9,000 employees
      1 of the 100 Best Companies to Work for in America and 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers
      • SAS has always strived to ensure that its employees enjoy and are motivated by the work they perform as part of their jobs. Managers are also concerned with fairly and equitably rewarding employees for a job well done. Pay and bonuses are linked to performance. A founding and enduring principle of the company is that managers should treat employees the way the managers want to be treated themselves.
      • SAS offers benefits beyond equitable financial rewards including a beautiful work environment, 35-hour work weeks, two on-site and low-cost child care facilities, a fitness and recreation center, on-site medical care, a putting green, and a cafeteria.
    • THANK YOU
      By: Robin Smith
      Email-robinsmith1985@gmail.com
      9035699161