KEY POINTS Culture and language work together to generate meaning We can analyse media messages to discern mediated presentation Media analysis helps uncover bias, power sites, persuasion, identity and non-identity
SPORT MEDIA Sport has general presenters, non-sport specialists, sport specialists Dominated by male sport Shape perceptions of what sport is, how it is run, who is important, what is newsworthy...
CONTENT ANALYSIS Common method of analysis Can use a historical approach Can use a comparative approach Need to define terms operationally
Have measurable scoring units Measuring instruments include: number of words, column inches (space), number of minutes Need consistency in analytical methods
QUESTIONS TO ASSIST Where does the message come from? How does it get attention? Where is it located? What is its purpose? What values and attitudes are in this?
Why are the images, words, headings used? How does the headline link with content? Who writes the by-lines? Which section of the media is the item in?
OPERATIONAL TERMS Be consistent and clear e.g. sport violence. individual (to/from) verbal violence violence against authorities penalised violence
violence in play & out of play violence by players or staff or spectators racial violence violence by the sport’s laws
ONE TOPIC – TWO MEDIA Headlines? Approach? Key words? Emotion generated? What do you expect in content?
ANOTHER MODE OF ANALYSIS SITUATED WHERE? SEQUENCE? STRUCTURE? SCOPE?
STYLE? SLANT? SPONSOR? SPOKESPERSON?
COMMERCIAL ANALYSTS Press Clippings Broadcast Monitoring Internet Monitoring News Summaries Match analysts
MEDIA RESEARCH FIRMS Outline media approach & presentation to issues Help prepare for interviews, press releases, media conferences and interaction Monitor frequency, volume, rival organisation images Monitor strength of organisation media campaign
WOMEN & THE MEDIA Exploited in sport media Symbolic annihilation Marginalised Infantilised
Presented in personal terms Compounded for minority groups Honey shots or beauty shots Unrepresentative of population
ANALYSING NEWSPAPER SPORT 1. Which sport (ARL, NRL, Super 14) had the most pictures? Which sport had the most column inches for articles and reports? Which sport had the most photographs? Compare the number of male and female sport photos
ANALYSING NEWSPAPER SPORT 2. What sponsor names are evident? How much space is given to horse racing? If there is a results summary section, which sports have results from overseas? Compare space for male and female sports
SUMMARY 1. What do you want to find out? 2. Why? What is the value of the findings? 3. Operational definitions? 4. Basis for selecting samples? 5. What unit of analysis?
6. Classification system (categories) 7. Coding system 8. Analyse sample(s) 9. Check consistency. 10. Interpret and compare