THE PLACE OF TRANSPORT
IN GEOGRAPHY
Andrew R Goetz
Dept of Geography and the Environment
University of Denver
Hoyle Lectur...
THE PLACE OF TRANSPORT IN
GEOGRAPHY
1. Brief history of transport geography
2. Progress in contemporary transport
geograph...
Brief history of transport
geography
Source: Taaffe and Gauthier (1973) Geography of Transportation, p. 13
The quantitative
revolution, critical
responses, and pluralism
Late 1950s and 1960s—Quantitative revolution
and the rise o...
Early transport geography
Pre-1950s—part of commercial (economic)
geography
• Contribution to descriptive regional geog
Ul...
Strong role in the quantitative
revolution
• Garrison, Berry et al @Univ of Washington
• Transportation Center @Northweste...
CHAPTERS
1. Transportation and Spatial
Structure
2. Transportation and Spatial
Processes
3. The Gravity Model
4. Structura...
Rumblings of dissent
Eliot Hurst (1973) – NAS/NRC (1965) report
The Science of Geography ―raises the
spectre of having to ...
Progress in Human Geography
Reports--1970s and 80s
Rimmer (1978) Redirections in Transport
Geography
• Identity crisis
• N...
Post-70s Pluralism (Taaffe and Gauthier 1994)
• Majority of post-1970s research in transport
geography has been positivist...
Hanson commentary on state of
transport geography
Transport geography has become ―a
quiet, some might say moribund, corner...
Re-examination in the 2000s
2006—Series of viewpoints assessing
research needs in transport geography
Keeling (2007, 2008,...
Summary of Recent Suggestions
for Transport Geography
1. needs to raise its profile
2. has been constrained for too long b...
Progress in contemporary
transport geography
Productivity
Centrality and Analytical Frameworks
Productivity
• Journal of Transport Geography
• New textbooks and compilations
• Activities of transport geography groups ...
Journal of Transport
Geography (JTG)
Sharp growth in quantity, impact, and
ranking
1993 2003 2012
# of issues 4 4 6
# of p...
JTG Special Issues/Sections
1993:Transport in Canada
2003:Governance of corridors
2012:Child and youth mobility
Social imp...
JTG most prevalent subjects/topics
1993: Air transport & airports, deregulation
2003: Air transport & airports, policy &
g...
Textbooks and Compilations
Banister (2005). Unsustainable Transport: City Transport in the New
Century.
Black (2003) Trans...
Activities of transport geography
groups
Transport Geography Specialty Group
(TGSG) organized sessions at Association
of A...
Number of Co-Organized Sessions with TGSG at
AAG Meetings
Specialty Group 1997 2007 2012
Urban -- 4 16
Economic -- 6 6
Ene...
The ‗Mobilities‘ turn
Mobilities (2006- )
Interdisciplinary interface involving
transport, communications, travel, tourism...
Centrality and Analytical Frameworks
• Center and periphery in academic disciplines
• Geography in interdisciplinary trans...
Center and Periphery in Geography
Source: Fenneman, Nevin. 1919. The Circumference of Geography. Annals of the Association...
Source: Taaffe, Edward J. 1974. The Spatial View in Context. Annals of the Association of American Geographers
64(1), p. 9.
TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY
GEOGRAPHY TRANSPORTATION
GEOGRAPHY IN TRANSPORT
GEOGRAPHY TRANSPORTATION
• CIVIL ENGINEERING
• ECONOMICS
• BUSINESS
• PLANNING
• POLICY
• ETC
• TRA...
TRANSPORT IN GEOGRAPHY
GEOGRAPHY
• HUMAN
• PHYSICAL
• PEOPLE-ENVIRONMENT
• GEOGRAPHIC
INFORMATION SCIENCE
• ETC
TRANSPORT
...
Transport-oriented research in top
geography journals (1996-2006)
Journal # of articles
1. Progress in Human Geog 7
2. Tra...
Qualitative/quantitative split in
transport-oriented research in top
geography journals (1996-2006)
Journal Qual Quan
1. P...
Opportunities for Further
Advancement
Expansion of qualitative/critical
approaches in transport geography*
• Increased interaction with other geographic
subfiel...
Value of both qualitative &
quantitative approaches
Binary dualisms mask possible overlaps
―Becoming skilled in the practi...
Multiple identities of transport
geographers
Transport geographers tend to live double
(triple, etc) academic lives
• Spec...
Questions and
Discussion
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The place of transport in geography

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Hoyle Lecture in Transport Geography
This is the Hoyle lecture in transport geography, hosted by the Transport Geography Research Group (see our website). This year the invited speaker was Andrew Goetz, who talked about the history and future directions of the field. It took place on August 29th at the 2013 RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, London.

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  1. 1. THE PLACE OF TRANSPORT IN GEOGRAPHY Andrew R Goetz Dept of Geography and the Environment University of Denver Hoyle Lecture in Transport Geography 2013 RGS-IBG Annual International Conference London. August 29, 2013
  2. 2. THE PLACE OF TRANSPORT IN GEOGRAPHY 1. Brief history of transport geography 2. Progress in contemporary transport geography a. Productivity b. Centrality and analytical frameworks 3. Opportunities for further advancement
  3. 3. Brief history of transport geography Source: Taaffe and Gauthier (1973) Geography of Transportation, p. 13
  4. 4. The quantitative revolution, critical responses, and pluralism Late 1950s and 1960s—Quantitative revolution and the rise of the spatial science approach 1970s—Beginnings of criticism of positivist philosophy inherent in spatial science Post-1970s ‗theoretical pluralism‘ --Social theory and critical approaches (humanism, marxism, feminism, structuralism, st ructuration, realism, locality studies, poststructuralism, postcolonialism, post modernism)
  5. 5. Early transport geography Pre-1950s—part of commercial (economic) geography • Contribution to descriptive regional geog Ullman (& Mayer) (1954) ―Transportation Geography,‖ in American Geography: Inventory & Prospect • ―Transportation is a measure of the relations between areas and is therefore an essential part of geography‖ • Spatial interaction
  6. 6. Strong role in the quantitative revolution • Garrison, Berry et al @Univ of Washington • Transportation Center @Northwestern Univ • Haggett (1965) Locational Analysis in Human Geography. • Haggett & Chorley (1969) Network Analysis in Geography.
  7. 7. CHAPTERS 1. Transportation and Spatial Structure 2. Transportation and Spatial Processes 3. The Gravity Model 4. Structural Analysis of Transportation Networks: Aggregate Measures 5. Structural Analysis of Transportation Networks: Measures of Nodal Accessibility 6. Allocation Models Taaffe and Gauthier (1973) Geography of Transportation
  8. 8. Rumblings of dissent Eliot Hurst (1973) – NAS/NRC (1965) report The Science of Geography ―raises the spectre of having to forcibly mould a study of say the evolution of Canadian railroad networks into the Committee‘s procrustean bed of ‗location theory‘ or ‗network analysis‘ in order to gain their seal of good geography.‖ Eliot Hurst (1974) Transportation Geography: Comments and Readings
  9. 9. Progress in Human Geography Reports--1970s and 80s Rimmer (1978) Redirections in Transport Geography • Identity crisis • Need new phase to ―repair the schism‖ • Toward a more humanistic transport geog Hay (1981); Rimmer (1988)
  10. 10. Post-70s Pluralism (Taaffe and Gauthier 1994) • Majority of post-1970s research in transport geography has been positivist in orientation • Regarding marxist-social theory approaches, ―the rate of turnover has been remarkable: ‗isms‘ have become ‗wasms‘ at an impressive clip‖! Source, Taaffe, Edward J. and Howard L. Gauthier. 1994. Transportation geography and geographic thought in the United States: an overview. Journal of Transport Geography 2(3), p. 159.
  11. 11. Hanson commentary on state of transport geography Transport geography has become ―a quiet, some might say moribund, corner of our discipline‖ that ―has lost its disciplinary centrality, largely because it has remained within the analytical framework of the 1960s‖ (Hanson 2003)
  12. 12. Re-examination in the 2000s 2006—Series of viewpoints assessing research needs in transport geography Keeling (2007, 2008, 2009) Reports in Progress in Human Geography Preston (2001), Goetz et al (2004); Knowles (2006); Shaw, Knowles, & Docherty (2008); Preston & O‘Connor (2008); Schwanen & Kwan (2009); Goetz, Vowles, & Tierney (2009); Hall (2010); Shaw & Sidaway (2011)
  13. 13. Summary of Recent Suggestions for Transport Geography 1. needs to raise its profile 2. has been constrained for too long by its technocratic and positivist traditions 3. needs to better engage with the ‗cultural‘ and ‗mobility turns‘ within geography and related disciplines 4. needs to more explicitly embrace the (social) impacts of information and communication technologies (ICTs) 5. would benefit from greater inter- and intra-disciplinary collaboration Source: Hall 2010
  14. 14. Progress in contemporary transport geography Productivity Centrality and Analytical Frameworks
  15. 15. Productivity • Journal of Transport Geography • New textbooks and compilations • Activities of transport geography groups in AAG, RGS-IBG, IGU, and other associations • The ‗Mobilities‘ turn
  16. 16. Journal of Transport Geography (JTG) Sharp growth in quantity, impact, and ranking 1993 2003 2012 # of issues 4 4 6 # of papers 25 25 123 # of special issues 1 1 6 5-yr impact factor -- -- 2.52 Ranking in Geog -- -- 12/72
  17. 17. JTG Special Issues/Sections 1993:Transport in Canada 2003:Governance of corridors 2012:Child and youth mobility Social impacts and equity issues Rail transit systems and high-speed rail Time geography Climate change mitigation Accessibility & socio-economic activities
  18. 18. JTG most prevalent subjects/topics 1993: Air transport & airports, deregulation 2003: Air transport & airports, policy & governance 2012: Social equity & immobility, high-speed rail, environmental assessment & sustainability, public transit, air transport & airports, land use & TOD, time geography, pedestrians & bicycles, urban commuting, children & youth, car use, logistics & freight
  19. 19. Textbooks and Compilations Banister (2005). Unsustainable Transport: City Transport in the New Century. Black (2003) Transportation: A Geographical Analysis. Black (2010) Sustainable Transportation. Hanson and Giuliano, eds. (2004) The Geography of Urban Transportation, 3rd edition. Hanson and Kwan, eds. (2008) Transport: Critical Essays in Human Geography. Hensher, Button, Haynes, and Stopher, eds. (2004) Handbook of Transport Geography and Spatial Systems. Knowles, Shaw, and Docherty, eds. (2008) Transport Geographies: Mobilities, Flows and Spaces. Rodrigue, Comtois, and Slack. (2013) The Geography of Transport Systems, 3rd edition. Taaffe, Gauthier, and O‘Kelly. (1996) Geography of Transportation, 2nd edition.
  20. 20. Activities of transport geography groups Transport Geography Specialty Group (TGSG) organized sessions at Association of American Geographers (AAG) annual meetings 1997 2007 2013 6 22 39
  21. 21. Number of Co-Organized Sessions with TGSG at AAG Meetings Specialty Group 1997 2007 2012 Urban -- 4 16 Economic -- 6 6 Energy & Environment -- 2 6 Spatial Analysis & Modeling -- 3 5 Global Urbanization -- -- 4 GI Science & Systems -- 3 3 Cyberinfrastructure -- -- 2 Asian -- -- 1 Climate -- -- 1 Cultural -- -- 1 Health & Medical -- -- 1 Recreation, Tourism & Sport 1 -- 1 Applied -- 3 -- Historical -- 3 -- Political -- 1 -- Regional Development & Planning -- 1 -- Russian, Central Asian, & East European -- 1 -- Total 1 24 47
  22. 22. The ‗Mobilities‘ turn Mobilities (2006- ) Interdisciplinary interface involving transport, communications, travel, tourism, migration The human experience of mobility Intersection of social science and transport science • ―recasting ‗societal‘ studies, as ‗transport‘ comes out of the ghetto and enters mainstream social science‖ (Grieco & Urry
  23. 23. Centrality and Analytical Frameworks • Center and periphery in academic disciplines • Geography in interdisciplinary transportation studies • Transport in geography
  24. 24. Center and Periphery in Geography Source: Fenneman, Nevin. 1919. The Circumference of Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 9(1), p.4.
  25. 25. Source: Taaffe, Edward J. 1974. The Spatial View in Context. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 64(1), p. 9.
  26. 26. TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY GEOGRAPHY TRANSPORTATION
  27. 27. GEOGRAPHY IN TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY TRANSPORTATION • CIVIL ENGINEERING • ECONOMICS • BUSINESS • PLANNING • POLICY • ETC • TRANSPORT IN SOCIETY • TRANSPORT IN ACADEMIA TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY
  28. 28. TRANSPORT IN GEOGRAPHY GEOGRAPHY • HUMAN • PHYSICAL • PEOPLE-ENVIRONMENT • GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE • ETC TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY To what extent is transport represented in ‗mainstream‘ geography? TRANSPORTATION
  29. 29. Transport-oriented research in top geography journals (1996-2006) Journal # of articles 1. Progress in Human Geog 7 2. Transactions, IBG 5 3. Environment & Planning D 6 4. Political Geog 5 5. Annals, AAG 13 6. Antipode 4 7. Economic Geog 14 8. Environment & Planning A 91 9. Area 13 10. Professional Geographer 30 11. Geoforum 18 12. Urban Geography 19 Total 225 (4.5% of capacity) Source: Goetz, Vowles, and Tierney (2009)
  30. 30. Qualitative/quantitative split in transport-oriented research in top geography journals (1996-2006) Journal Qual Quan 1. Progress in Human Geog 7 0 2. Transactions, IBG 5 0 3. Environment & Planning D 6 0 4. Political Geog 4 1 5. Annals, AAG 4 9 6. Antipode 4 0 7. Economic Geog 9 5 8. Environment & Planning A 22 69 9. Area 12 1 10. Professional Geographer 13 17 11. Geoforum 9 9 12. Urban Geography 7 12 Total 102 123Source: Goetz, Vowles, and Tierney (2009)
  31. 31. Opportunities for Further Advancement
  32. 32. Expansion of qualitative/critical approaches in transport geography* • Increased interaction with other geographic subfields, especially urban, economic, cultural, historical, developme nt, and political • The ‗New Mobilities‘ paradigm • Relational geographies • Environment and Sustainability • Social and environmental justice • Global health • Impacts of information technology • Public policy
  33. 33. Value of both qualitative & quantitative approaches Binary dualisms mask possible overlaps ―Becoming skilled in the practice of quantitative as well as qualitative geography can only strengthen the influence of critical thought, within the academy and without‖ (Sheppard 2001)
  34. 34. Multiple identities of transport geographers Transport geographers tend to live double (triple, etc) academic lives • Specialization in one or more other geographic subfields • Specialization in one or more other transport areas
  35. 35. Questions and Discussion
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