Useful for the development of large scale programs (higher education)
Multiple groups must be involved and agree
Continuous cycle that requires constant planning, design, development and assessment to insure effective instruction
Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.
Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.
Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.
State instructional objectives for the learner.
Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning
Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.
Plan the instructional message and delivery.
Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.
Kemp Model Jerrold Kemp
identify the needs relevant to a particular job or task, e.g. problems affecting performance
identify critical needs, e.g. significant financial, safety, etc. impact
set priorities for selecting an intervention
provide baseline data to assess effectiveness of instruction
Methods of Data Collection
Subject matter expert
Nominal group technique
DACUM (developing a curriculum)
Subject matter analysis
Dick and Carey ISD
Macro-level model useful in structuring the overall design task.
Large scale application – government/military
Small scale application – K-12 curriculum development
Stage 1. Instructional Goals
Instructional Goal: Desirable state of affairs by instruction
Needs Analysis : Analysis of a discrepancy between an instructional goal and the present state of affairs or a personal perception of needs.
Stage 2. Instructional Analysis
Purpose : To determine the skills involved in reaching a goal
Task Analysis (procedural analysis) : about the product of which would be a list of steps and the skills used at each step in the procedure
Information-Processing Analysis : about the mental operations used by a person who has learned a complex skill
Learning-Task Analysis : about the objectives of instruction that involve intellectual skills
Stage 3. Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics
Purpose : To determine which of the required enabling skills the learners bring to the learning task
Abilities such as verbal comprehension and spatial orientation
Traits of personality
Stage 4. Performance Objectives
Purpose : To translate the needs and goals into specific and detailed objectives
Functions : Determining whether the instruction related to its goals.
Focusing the lesson planning upon appropriate conditions of learning
Guiding the development of measures of learner performance
Assisting learners in their study efforts.
Stage 5. Criterion-Referenced Test Items
Purpose: To diagnose an individual possessions of the necessary prerequisites for learning new skills
To check the results of student learning during the process of a lesson
To provide document of students progress for parents or administrators
Useful in evaluating the instructional system itself (Formative/ Summative evaluation)
Early determination of performance measures before development of lesson plan and instructional materials
Stage 6. Instructional Strategy
Purpose : To outline how instructional activities will relate to the accomplishment of the objectives
The best lesson design
Demonstrating knowledge about the learners
Tasks reflected in the objectives, and effectiveness of teaching strategies
Choice of delivering system.
Teacher-led, Group-paced vs. Learner-centered, Learner-paced
Stage 7. Instructional Materials
Purpose : To select printed or other media intended to convey events of instruction .
Use of existing materials when it is possible
Need for development of new materials, otherwise
Role of teacher : It depends on the choice of delivery system
Stage 8. Formative Evaluation
Purpose : To provide data for revising and improving instructional materials
To revise the instruction so as to make it as effective as possible for larger number of students
One on One : One evaluator sitting with one learner to interview
Stage 9. Summative Evaluation
Purpose : To study the effectiveness of system as a whole
Conducted after the system has passed through its formative stage
Small scale/ Large Scale
Short period/ Long period
Gagne’s principle contributions –
(1) placed emphasis on the psychology of learning in instructional design,
(2) saw learning as categorized in terms of learning outcome or knowledge type,
(3) saw the acquisition of different outcome categories as requiring different internal and instructional processes,
(4) represented learning outcomes in terms of their component parts arranged in a predictable prerequisite relationship,
(5) identified routine instructional steps that stimulate the various stages of the learning process.
Events of Instruction
Gain attention e.g. present a good problem, a new situation, use a multimedia advertisement.
Describe the goal: e.g. describe the goal of a lesson (task,...), state what students will be able to accomplish and how they will be able to use the knowledge, give a demonstration if appropriate.
Stimulate recall of prior knowledge e.g. remind the student of prior knowledge relevant to the current lesson (facts, rules, procedures or skills). Show how knowledge is connected, provide the student with a framework that helps learning and remembering. Tests can be included.
Present the material to be learned e.g. text, graphics, simulations, figures, pictures, sound, etc. e.g. follow a consistent presentation style, chunking of information (avoid memory overload, recall information)
Provide guidance for learning e.g. presentation of content is different from instructions on how to learn. Should be simpler and easier that content. Use of different channel.
Elicit performance "practice", let the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, practice skills or apply knowledge
Provide informative feedback show correctness of the trainee's response, analyze learner's behavior (or let him do it), maybe present a good (step-by-step) solution of the problem
Assess performance test, if the lesson has been learned. also give sometimes general progress information
Enhance retention and transfer inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice. Put the learner in a transfer situation. Maybe let the learner review the lesson.
A Basic Model of Learning and Memory, Underlying Modern Cognitive Information Processing Theories
Cognitivism offers explanations of the brain's thinking processes; therefore, it provides instructional designers a useful theoretical basis for approaching instruction,
Especially instruction that teaches complex cognitive tasks or higher-order thinking skills
Critics of cognitivist strategies claim that cognitivist instructional strategies necessitate that the learner perform generic tasks that involve impersonal, sometimes inauthentic forms of communication that do not transfer into "real life" situations
Constructivism is an emerging school of thought growing out of cognitivism that pays specific attention to these issues.
Remainder of Class
Demonstrate Camtasia with pictures
Make a short video similar to what the students will do in class.