PowerPoint by
                        Milton M. Pressley
                       Creative Assistance by
                   ...
Chapter 1
Defining Marketing for the
21st Century
by




                             PowerPoint by
                      ...
Kotler on
Marketing
The future is not ahead
 of us. It has already
 happened.
 Unfortunately, it is
 unequally distributed...
Chapter Objectives
In this chapter we will address the following
questions:
  What is the new economy like?
  What are the...
The New Economy
Substantial increase in buying power
A greater variety of goods and services
A greater amount of informati...
The New Economy
Websites can provide companies with
powerful new information and sales
channels.
Companies can collect ful...
The New Economy
Companies can send ads, coupons,
samples, information to targeted
customers.
Companies can customize offer...
The three major challenges faced by
businesses today are globalization,
advances in technology, and deregulation.
Which of...
Marketing Task
Ten rules of radical marketing
  The CEO must own the marketing function.
  Make sure the marketing departm...
Marketing Task
  Love and respect your customers.
  Create a community of consumers.
  Rethink the marketing mix.
  Celebr...
The Scope of Marketing

 Marketing: typically seen as the
 task of creating, promoting, and
 delivering goods and services...
1. Negative          A major part of the market dislikes the
             demand               product and may even pay a ...
Can you name a category of
products for which your negative
feelings have softened?
What precipitated
this change?



    ...
The Scope of Marketing
Places                 Goods
Properties             Services
Organizations          Experiences
Inf...
The Decisions
Marketers Make
Consumer Markets
Business Markets
Global Markets
Nonprofit and
Governmental Markets



      ...
Marketing Concepts
    and Tools
 Defining Marketing
   Marketing
   Marketing management
 Core Marketing Concepts
   Targ...
Figure 1-1: A Simple Marketing System




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Marketing Concepts
    and Tools
  Marketplace,
  Marketspace,
  and
  Metamarket




                              1-18
 ...
Marketing Concepts
    and Tools
Marketers and Prospects
Needs, Wants, and Demands
Product, Offering, and Brand
Value and ...
Marketing Concepts
    and Tools
 Exchange and Transactions
   Exchange
   Transaction
   Barter
   Transfer
   Behavioral...
Marketing Concepts
    and Tools
  Relationships and Networks
    Relationship marketing
    Marketing network
  Marketing...
Marketing Concepts
    and Tools
  Brand competition
  Industry competition
  Form competition
  Generic competition
Marke...
Company Orientations
Toward the Marketplace
     Production Concept
     Product concept
     Selling Concept
     Marketi...
Company Orientations
Toward the Marketplace
    Target Market
    Customer Needs
      Stated needs
      Real needs
     ...
Company Orientations
Toward the Marketplace
    Integrated Marketing
      External marketing
      Internal marketing



...
Company Orientations
Toward the Marketplace
    Profitability
      Sales decline
      Slow growth
      Changing buying ...
Company Orientations
Toward the Marketplace
  Societal Marketing Concept
    Cause-
    Cause-related marketing




      ...
Can you identify the trends that have
made the marketing concept, the
customer concept, and the societal
marketing concept...
How Business and
Marketing are Changing
    Customers
    Brand manufacturers
    Store-
    Store-based retailers




   ...
How Business and
 Marketing are Changing
Company responses and adjustments
  Reengineering       Partner-
                ...
How Business and
 Marketing are Changing
Marketer Responses
and Adjustments
  Customer relationship          Integrated ma...
Chapter 2
Adapting Marketing To The
New Economy
by




                            PowerPoint by
                       Mi...
Kotler on
Marketing
The Internet will
create new winners
and bury the
laggards.




                                      ...
Chapter Objectives
In this chapter, we will address the
following questions:
  What are the major forces driving the New
 ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
 Major Drivers of the New Economy
   Digitization and Connectivity
   Disinterm...
Procter & Gamble’s Reflect.com site allows customers
         to design their own beauty products




                    ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
  Industry Convergence
How Business Practices are Changing
  Organize by produc...
Table 2-1: Old Economy vs. New Economy
Old Economy                          New Economy
Organize by product units         ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
  Everyone does the marketing
  Build brands through performance,
  not just ad...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
How Marketing Practices
are Changing: E-Business
              E-
  E-business
...
Customers can shop online at Calyx and Corolla or
      ask for a catalog and shop by phone




                          ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
  Internet Domains: B2B
  (Business to Business)




                          ...
Figure 2-1:
The Supplier-
Customer
Relationship:
Traditional and
New Economy
Structures




                              ...
www.transora.com: global online marketplace for
   the consumer packaged goods industry




                              ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
 Internet Domains: C2C
 (Consumer to Consumer)
 Internet Domains: C2B
 (Custome...
CarPoint, leading metamediary for car buying, is a pure
      click company: It exists only on the Web.




              ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
   Brick and Click companies




                                     1-47
    ...
Which is more important for
developing an e-presence: the agility
               e-
of a pure click company, or the well
d...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
How Marketing Practices are Changing:
Setting Up Web Sites
  Designing an Attra...
Would you be willing to give up one or
more of the seven elements of an effective
web site in order to speed the deploymen...
Attracting and Keeping Visitors
Table 2-2:
      2-
             How can we get more prospects to know and visit our site?...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
    Context factors
    Content factors
    Getting feedback




              ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
  Placing Ads and Promotions Online
    Banner ads
    Sponsorships
    Microsi...
Infogate.com “pushes” targeted content and ads to those
   who are interested in a product or product category




       ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
  Building a Revenue and Profit Model
    Advertising income
    Sponsorship in...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
How Marketing Practices are Changing:
Customer Relationship Marketing
  Reduce ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
  Focus disproportionate effort
  on high value customers




                 ...
Table 2-3: Mass Marketing vs.
           One-to-One Marketing
Mass Marketing             One-to-One Marketing
            ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
 Four steps for One-to-One Marketing
                One-to-
   Don’t go after ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
   Customer Databases and
   Database Marketing
     Customer mailing list
    ...
Adapting Marketing to the
     New Economy
Data Warehouses and Data Mining
  Using the database
     To identify prospects...
Chapter 3
Building Customer
Satisfaction, Value, and
Retention
by



                             PowerPoint by
          ...
Kotler on
Marketing
It is no longer
enough to satisfy
customers. You must
delight them.




                              ...
Chapter Objectives
In this chapter, we will address the
following questions:
  What are customer value and satisfaction,
 ...
Defining Customer Value
    and Satisfaction
  Customer Perceived Value (CPV)
    Total customer value
    Total customer ...
Figure 3-1:
Determinants
of Customer
Delivered
Value




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Defining Customer Value
    and Satisfaction
  Total Customer Satisfaction
    Satisfaction
  Customer Expectations
  Deli...
Table 3-1: Tools for Tracking and Measuring
                Customer Satisfaction
Complaint      A customer-centered organ...
Would you feel more brand loyalty for a
company that tried to immediately resolve
a complaint via E-mail, or a company tha...
Premier Dell.com is a special business-oriented part of the
                               business-
Dell Web site that al...
The Nature of High
Performance Business
  High-
  High-performance business




                               1-71
      ...
Figure 3-2: The High Performance Business




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The Nature of High
Performance Business
Stakeholders
Processes
Resources
  Core competency
  Distinctive capabilities
Orga...
Can you name a company that has
changed the public’s perception of
their corporate culture? Has this
effectively rehabilit...
Delivering Customer Value
     and Satisfaction
    Value Chain
      Value chain




                                  1-...
Figure 3-3: The Generic Value Chain




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Delivering Customer Value
     and Satisfaction
  Benchmarks
Core Business Processes
  The market sensing process
  The ne...
Delivering Customer Value
     and Satisfaction
  The Value Delivery Network
  (Supply Chain)




                        ...
Figure 3-4:
Levi
Strauss’s
Value-
Delivery
Network




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Attracting and Retaining
       Customers
  Partner relationship
  management (PRM)
  Customer relationship
  management (...
Saturn has gained a customer loyalty rate
of more than 60% by fundamentally
changing the buyer-seller relationship.
      ...
Attracting and Retaining
       Customers
  Attracting Customers
  Computing the Cost of
  Lost Customers
    Customer chu...
On the Lands’ End Web site, customers can click a
button to talk with a customer service representative




              ...
Attracting and Retaining
       Customers
The Need for Customer Retention
Measuring Customer
Lifetime Value (CLV)
Customer...
Figure 3-5:
The
Customer-
Development
Process




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Attracting and Retaining
       Customers
  Five levels of investment in
  customer relationship building
    Basic market...
Figure 3-6: Levels of Relationship Marketing




                                               1-87
               www.bo...
Attracting and Retaining
       Customers
 Forming Strong Customer Bonds:
 The Basics
   Cross-
   Cross-departmental part...
Attracting and Retaining
       Customers
    Organize and make accessible a
    database of customer information
    Make...
The H.O.G. Web site presents the benefits of joining.




                                                        1-90
   ...
Attracting and Retaining
       Customers
    Adding Social Benefits




                                1-91
         www...
Good Things                      Bad Things
Table 3-2:       Initiate positive phone calls    Make only callbacks
Social A...
Attracting and Retaining
       Customers
    Adding Structural Ties
      Create long-term contracts
             long-
 ...
Customer Profitability,
Company Profitability, and
Total Quality Management
  Measuring Profitability
    Profitable custo...
Figure 3-7: Customer-Product Profitability Analysis




                                                      1-95
       ...
Figure 3-8: Allocating marketing investment
        according to customer value




                                      ...
Customer Profitability,
Company Profitability, and
Total Quality Management
  Increasing Company Profitability
    Competi...
Chapter 4
Winning Markets Through
Market-
Market-Oriented Strategic
Planning
by



                            PowerPoint ...
Kotler on
Marketing
It is more important
to do what is
strategically right
than what is
immediately
profitable.



       ...
Chapter Objectives
In this chapter, we examine the
following questions:
  How is strategic planning carried out at
  the c...
Strategic Planning: Three Key Areas
   and Four Organization Levels
 Strategic marketing plan
 Tactical marketing plan
 Ma...
Corporate and Division
   Strategic Planning
All corporate headquarters undertake
four planning activities
  Defining the ...
Corporate and Division
    Strategic Planning
Defining the Corporate Mission
  Mission statements define which competitive...
Can you name a company that has
recently changed its product scope
or market segment scope in a very
public way? Was this ...
Corporate and Division
  Strategic Planning
Establishing Strategic Business Units
(SBUs)




                             ...
Table 4.1: Product-Oriented versus Market-Oriented
                Definitions of a Business
Company             Product D...
Corporate and Division
    Strategic Planning
Three characteristics of SBUs
  Single business or collection of related
  b...
The Growth-Share Matrix
    Growth-
  Relative market share
  Four Cells
    Question Marks
    Stars
    Cash Cows
    Do...
Can you give an example of a “Star”
that skipped “Cash Cow”, and went
straight to “Dog” status?




                      ...
Corporate and Division
  Strategic Planning
  The General Electric Model




                               1-110
        ...
Table 4-2: Factors underlying Market Attractiveness and Competitive
  Position in GE Multifactor Portfolio Model: Hydrauli...
Corporate and Division
  Strategic Planning
  Critique of Portfolio Models
  Planning New Businesses,
  Downsizing Older B...
Corporate and Division
  Strategic Planning
      Intensive Growth




                              1-113
       www.book...
Starbucks’ home page: Customers can request a
 catalog of Starbucks products, subscribe to a
          newsletter, and sho...
Corporate and Division
  Strategic Planning
  Integrative Growth
  Diversification Growth
  Downsizing Older Businesses


...
Give an example of a market
segment where integrative growth
would be preferable to growth
through diversification. Explai...
Business Unit
 Strategic Planning
Business Mission
SWOT Analysis
  External Environment Analysis
  (Opportunity and Threat...
Give some examples of companies
that have grown to dominate their
market segment by using technology
to make buying opport...
Business Unit
  Strategic Planning
Marketing Opportunity Analysis (MOA)
  Can the benefits be articulated to a target
  ma...
Figure 4-7: Opportunity and Threat Matrices




                                              1-120
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Business Unit
 Strategic Planning
Internal Environmental Analysis
(Strength/Weakness Analysis)
Goal Formation
Strategic
Fo...
Business Unit
 Strategic Planning
Porter’s Generic Strategies
  Overall cost leadership
  Differentiation
  Focus




    ...
Travelocity’s Web site helps the consumer plan the
whole vacation – flights, lodging, and car rental.com




             ...
Business Unit
     Strategic Planning
Operational Effectiveness and Strategy
  Strategic group
  Strategic alliances




 ...
Business Unit
     Strategic Planning
Marketing Alliances
  Product or service alliances
  Promotional alliances
  Logisti...
Business Unit
Strategic Planning
  Feedback and Control




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The Marketing Process
 Steps in the Planning Process
   The marketing process
 Analyzing Market Opportunities
 Developing ...
Figure 4-10:
Factors
Influencing
Company
Marketing
Strategy




                                      1-128
              ...
Product Planning: The Nature and
  Contents of a Marketing Plan
   Contents of the Marketing Plan
     Executive Summary
 ...
Product Planning: The Nature and
  Contents of a Marketing Plan
  Sample Marketing Plan: Sonic Personal
  Digital Assistan...
Product Planning: The Nature and
  Contents of a Marketing Plan
    Implementation Controls
    Marketing Strategy
      P...
Chapter 5
Gathering Information and
Measuring Market Demand
by




                            PowerPoint by
             ...
Kotler on
Marketing
Marketing is
 becoming a battle
 based more on
 information than
 on sales power.




                ...
Chapter Objectives
In this chapter, we focus on the following
questions:
  What are the components of a modern
  marketing...
The Components of a Modern
Marketing Information System
  Marketing Information System (MIS)
  10 useful questions for det...
The Components of a Modern
Marketing Information System
   What information would you want that you are not
   getting now...
Internal Record Systems

  The Order-to-Payment Cycle
      Order-to-
  Sales Information Systems
  Databases, Data Wareho...
Can you name a company that uses
targeted mailings to promote new
products, or regional offerings?




                   ...
The Marketing
Intelligence System
A Marketing Intelligence System
is a set of procedures and sources
used by managers to o...
What are some of the potential
hazards a company might face by
relying too heavily on distributors,
retailers, or other
in...
The Marriott Vacation Club International Web site
gives interested customers the opportunity to sell
       themselves on ...
CEOExpress.com is a portal to information–a user
                                  information–
clicks on a listing and is...
Table 5-1: Secondary-Data Sources
Secondary-
Secondary-     A.   Internal Sources
Data Sources         Company profit-loss...
Marketing Research System
   Marketing Research
   Suppliers of Marketing Research
     Engaging students or professors to...
Figure 5-1:
The Marketing
  Research
  Process




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Marketing Research System
   The Marketing Research Process
     Step 1: Define the Problem, the
     Decision Alternative...
Marketing Research System
         Survey research
         Behavioral data
         Experimental research

  Research Ins...
Table 5-2: Types of Questions
                                                  A. Closed-end Questions
                  ...
Marketing Research System
  Sampling Plan
    Sampling unit
    Sample size
    Sampling procedure




                   ...
www.wansink.com is a consumer psychology
 Web site set up by Dr. Brian Wansink of the
            University of Illinois

...
Table 5-3: Probability and Nonprobability Samples
A. Probability Sample

Simple random sample    Every member of the popul...
Table 5-3: Probability and Nonprobability Samples
                       (Continued)
B. Nonprobability
   Sample
Convenien...
Marketing Research System
   Contact Methods
     Mail questionnaire
     Personal interviewing
       Arranged interviews...
Marketing Research System
    Step 3: Collect the
    Information
    Step 4: Analyze the
    Information
    Step 5: Pres...
Table 5-4: The Seven Characteristics of Good
                       Marketing Research
1. Scientific   Effective marketing...
Marketing Research System
 Overcoming Barriers to the Use of
 Marketing Research
   A narrow conception of the research
  ...
Marketing Decision Support
         System
  Marketing Decision Support
  System (MDSS)
    Marketing and sales
    softwa...
Table 5-5: Quantitative Tools Used in Marketing Decision
                         Support Systems
Statistical Tools
1. Mul...
Forecasting and
  Demand Measurement
The Measures of Market Demand


Figure 5-3: Ninety
Types of Demand
Measurement
(6X5X3...
Forecasting and
Demand Measurement
  Which Market to
  Measure?
    Market
    Potential market
    Available market
    T...
Forecasting and
Demand Measurement
Figure 5-4: Market Demand Functions




                                      1-161
   ...
Can you name a market segment
with a low penetration index? A
high penetration index? Can you
think of a market where the ...
Forecasting and Demand
     Measurement
   Market Forecast
   Market Potential
     Product penetration
     percentage
  ...
Forecasting and Demand
     Measurement
Estimating Current demand
  Total Market Potential
  Area Market Potential
    Mar...
Table 5-6: Market-Buildup Method Using SIC Codes
                                            (c)
          (a)            ...
Forecasting and Demand
     Measurement

    Multiple-Factor Index
    Method
       Brand development
       index (BDI)
...
Table 5-7: Calculating the Brand
             Development Index (BDI)
                    (a)              (b)
           ...
Forecasting and Demand
     Measurement
   Industry Sales and Market Shares
 Estimating Future Demand
 Survey of Buyers’ I...
Forecasting and Demand
     Measurement
  Composite of Sales Force Opinions
  Expert Opinion
    Group discussion method
 ...
Chapter 6
Scanning the Marketing
Environment
by




                            PowerPoint by
                       Milto...
Kotler on
Marketing
Today you
 have to run
 faster to stay
 in place.




                                     1-171
     ...
Chapter Objectives
In this chapter, we focus on two
questions:
  What are the key methods for tracking and
  identifying o...
Analyzing Needs and Trends in
    the Macroenvironment
     Trend
     Fad
     Megatrends




                           ...
Given the definitions for fads,
trends, and megatrends presented in
the text, how would you define your
online activities?...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  The substantial speedup of international
  transportati...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  The severe debt problems of a number of countries,
  al...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  The increasing tendency of multinationals to transcend
...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  Demographic Environment
    Worldwide Population
    Gr...
Can you identify one or more
nations whose populations hold the
promise of huge potential markets
for consumer goods? How ...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
    Educational Groups
    Household Patterns
    Geograp...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  Economic Environment
    Income Distribution
    Saving...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  Natural Environment
    Shortage of Raw Materials
    I...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  Technological Environment
    Accelerating Pace of Chan...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
    Varying R&D Budgets
    Increased Regulation of
    T...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  Social-
  Social-Cultural
  Environment
      Views of ...
Identifying and Responding to the
 Major Macroenvironment Forces
  High Persistence of Core
  Cultural Values
  Existence ...
Chapter 7
Analyzing Consumer
Markets and Buyer Behavior
by




                               PowerPoint by
              ...
Kotler on
Marketing
The most
 important
 thing is to
 forecast where
 customers are
 moving, and
 be in front of
 them.
  ...
Chapter Objectives

In this chapter, we focus on two questions:
  How do the buyers’ characteristics – cultural,
  social,...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
  Consumer Behavior
Cultural Factors
  Culture
    Subcultures
    Diversity marketing
    Soci...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
  Social Factors
    Reference Groups
      Reference groups
      Membership groups
      Prim...
Table 7.1: Characteristics of Major U.S. Social Classes
1. Upper Uppers The social elite who live on inherited wealth. The...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
     Secondary groups
     Aspirational groups
     Dissociative groups
     Opinion leader



...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
     Family
        Family of orientation
        Family of procreation
     Roles and Statuses...
With the “graying” of the American populace,
marketers have begun to shift images and
cultural references in advertising f...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
  Personal Factors
    Age and Stage in the Life Cycle
      Family life cycle
    Occupation a...
In recent years, many organizations have
“provided” televisions with limited programming
access for use in K-12 classrooms...
Table 7.2: Stages in the Family Life Cycle
1. Bachelor stage:        Few financial burdens. Fashion opinion
Young, single,...
Figure 7.2: The VALS segmentation system:
             An 8-part typology
Groups with High
Resources
1. Actualizers
2. Ful...
SRI Consulting Business Intelligence’s Web site




                                             1-200
                 ww...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
    Personality and Self-Concept
                    Self-
      Personality
      Brand person...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
  Psychological Factors
    Motivation
      Motive
    Freud’s Theory
      Laddering
      Pr...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
  Ernest Dichter’s research found:
    Consumers resist prunes because prunes are
    wrinkled ...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
   Maslow’s Theory



  Figure 7.3:
  Maslow’s
  Hierarchy of
  Needs




                     ...
Influencing Buyer Behavior

    Herzberg’s Theory
      Dissatisfiers
      Satisfiers




                               ...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
  Perception
    Selective attention
      People are more likely to notice stimuli than
      ...
Influencing Buyer Behavior
    Learning
      Drive
      Cues
      Discrimination
    Beliefs and Attitudes
      Belief...
The purchase of a product from a Company A
turns out to be a positive experience. You are
looking for a loosely related pr...
The Buying Decision Process
   Buying Roles
     Initiator
     Influencer
     Decider
     Buyer
     User
   Buying beh...
Table 7.3: Four Types of Buying Behavior
                           High Involvement      Low Involvement
Significant Diff...
The Buying Decision Process
    Complex Buying Behavior
    Dissonance-
    Dissonance-Reducing Buyer Behavior
    Habitua...
Stages in the Buying
   Decision Process
How marketers learn about the stages:
  Introspective method
  Retrospective meth...
The Edmunds.com home page shows the variety of
services this Web company offers those shopping
for a car.




            ...
Stages of the Buying
 Decision Process
Problem recognition
Information search
  Personal sources                Figure 7.4...
Figure 7.5: Successive Sets Involved in Customer
                Decision Making




                                     ...
The Buying Decision Process
   Evaluation of Alternatives
     Potential Attributes of interest
       Cameras
       Hote...
Table 7.4: A Consumer’s Brand Beliefs
                  about Computers
Computer                                 Attribute...
The Buying Decision Process
     Strategies designed to stimulate interest in a
     computer
        Redesign the compute...
The Buying Decision Process
   Purchase Decision

      Figure 7.6: Steps Between Evaluation of
       Alternatives and a ...
The Buying Decision Process
    Informediaries
       Consumer Reports
       Zagats
    Unanticipated situational factors...
The Buying Decision Process
  Postpurchase Behavior
    Postpurchase Satisfaction
      Disappointed
      Satisfied
     ...
Figure 7.7: How Customers Dispose of Products




                                                1-222
                ww...
The Buying Decision Process
  Other Models of the Buying Decision
  Process
    Health Model
      Stages of Change Model
...
Figure 7.8:
Activity cycle
for IBM
customers in
the global
electronic
networking
capability
market space




             ...
Figure 7.9:
Value adds
for IBM
customers in
the global
electronic
networking
capability
market space




                 ...
Chapter 8
Analyzing Business Markets
and Business Buying
Behavior
by


                            PowerPoint by
         ...
Kotler on
Marketing
Many businesses
 are wisely
 turning their
 suppliers and
 distributors into
 valued partners.


     ...
Chapter Objectives
In this chapter, we focus on six questions:
  What is the business market, and how does it
  differ fro...
What is Organizational
         Buying?
  Organizational buying
The business market versus the consumer
market
  Business ...
What is Organizational
       Buying?

 Derived demand
 Inelastic demand
 Fluctuating demand
 Professional purchasing




...
Blue Shield of California’s mylifepath




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What is Organizational
       Buying?
 Several buying influences
 Multiple sales calls
 Directed purchasing
 Reciprocity
 ...
If you were tasked with marketing a
product or service to an organization,
would you attempt to initially contact the
purc...
What is Organizational
       Buying?
  Buying Situations
    Straight rebuy
    Modified rebuy
    New Task
  Systems Buy...
What are some of the benefits to an
organization that can be derived
from a single source solution, or a
                 ...
Participants in the Business
      Buying Process
    The Buying Center
      Initiators
      Users
      Influencers
   ...
Figure 8-1: Major Influences on
  Industrial Buying Behavior




                                  1-237
        www.bookf...
Major Influences on Buying
         Decisions
Environmental Factors
Organizational Factors
  Purchasing-
  Purchasing-Depa...
The e-hub Plastics.com home page offers buyers and
     e-
sellers of plastics a marketplace plus news and
information



...
Covisint’s Web site offers both services and
information




                                               1-240
        ...
Major Influences on Buying
         Decisions
  Other Organizational Factors
    Long-
    Long-Term Contracts
       Vend...
Major Influences on Buying
         Decisions
Interpersonal and Individual Factors
Cultural Factors
  France
  Germany
  J...
The Purchasing/
Procurement Process
  Incentive to purchase
Three Company Purchasing Orientations
  Buying Orientation
   ...
The Purchasing/
Procurement Process
Types of Purchasing Processes
  Routine products
  Leverage products
  Strategic produ...
The Purchasing/
Procurement Process
 Stages in the Buying Process
   Problem Recognition
   General Need Description and
 ...
Table 8.1: Buygrid Framework: Major Stages (Buyphases) of the
Industrial Buying Process in Relation to Major Buying Situat...
The Purchasing/
Procurement Process
General Need Description and
Product Specification
  Product value analysis
Supplier S...
The Purchasing/
 Procurement Process
Proposal Solicitation
Supplier Selection




                                    1-24...
Table 8-2: An Example of Vendor Analysis
Attributes                                             Rating Scale
             ...
The Purchasing/
 Procurement Process
  Customer value assessment
  Routine-
  Routine-order products
  Procedural-
  Proce...
Figure 8-2: Major Influences on
  Industrial Buying Behavior




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Institutional and
Government Markets
Institutional market




                                   1-252
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Chapter 9
Dealing with the
Competition
by




                             PowerPoint by
                        Milton M....
Kotler on
Marketing
Poor firms ignore
 their competitors;
 average firms copy
 their competitors;
 winning firms lead
 the...
Chapter Objectives
In this chapter, we focus on five things
companies need to know about their
competition:
  Who the prim...
Competitive Forces
                          Figure 9-1: Five Forces Determining
                           Segment Struct...
Figure 9-2: Barriers and Profitability




                                         1-257
            www.bookfiesta4u.com
GetThere.com, launched as the Internet Travel Network
in 1995, was the first company to book trips over the
Web




      ...
Identifying Competitors
Industry Concept of Competition
    Industry
  Number of Sellers and
  Degree of Differentiation
 ...
Identifying Competitors
  Entry, Mobility, Exit Barriers
    Entry barriers
    Mobility barriers
    Exit barriers
  Cost...
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  1. 1. PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley Creative Assistance by D. Carter and S. Koger 1-1 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Defining Marketing for the 21st Century by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-2 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  3. 3. Kotler on Marketing The future is not ahead of us. It has already happened. Unfortunately, it is unequally distributed among companies, industries and nations. 1-3 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  4. 4. Chapter Objectives In this chapter we will address the following questions: What is the new economy like? What are the tasks of marketing? What are the major concepts and tools of marketing? What orientations do companies exhibit in the marketplace? How are companies and marketers responding to the new challenges? 1-4 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  5. 5. The New Economy Substantial increase in buying power A greater variety of goods and services A greater amount of information about practically anything A greater ease in interacting and placing and receiving orders An ability to compare notes on products and services 1-5 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  6. 6. The New Economy Websites can provide companies with powerful new information and sales channels. Companies can collect fuller and richer information about markets, customers, prospects and competitors. Companies can facilitate and speed up communications among employees. Companies can have 2-way 2- communication with customers and prospects 1-6 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  7. 7. The New Economy Companies can send ads, coupons, samples, information to targeted customers. Companies can customize offerings and services to individual customers. The Internet can be used as a communication channel for purchasing, training, and recruiting. Companies can improve logistics and operations for cost savings while improving accuracy and service quality. 1-7 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  8. 8. The three major challenges faced by businesses today are globalization, advances in technology, and deregulation. Which of these affords the greatest opportunity for established businesses? Which affords the greatest opportunities for new businesses? Why? 1-8 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  9. 9. Marketing Task Ten rules of radical marketing The CEO must own the marketing function. Make sure the marketing department starts small and flat and stays small and flat. Get face to face with the people who matter most – the customers. Use market research cautiously. Hire only passionate missionaries. 1-9 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  10. 10. Marketing Task Love and respect your customers. Create a community of consumers. Rethink the marketing mix. Celebrate common sense. Be true to the brand. Three stages of marketing practice Entrepreneurial Marketing Formulated Marketing Intrepreneurial Marketing 1-10 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  11. 11. The Scope of Marketing Marketing: typically seen as the task of creating, promoting, and delivering goods and services to consumers and businesses. 1-11 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  12. 12. 1. Negative A major part of the market dislikes the demand product and may even pay a price to Table 1.1 avoid it—vaccinations, dental work, it— Demand vasectomies, and gallbladder operations, for instance. Employers have States and a negative demand for ex-convicts and ex- Marketing alcoholics as employees. The marketing task is to analyze why the market Tasks dislikes the product and whether a marketing program consisting of product redesign, lower prices, and more positive promotion can change beliefs and attitudes. 2. No demand Target consumers may be unaware of or uninterested in the product. Farmers may not be interested in a new farming method, and college students may not be interested in foreign-language foreign- courses. The marketing task is to find ways to connect the benefits of the product with people’s natural needs and interests. See text for complete table 1-12 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  13. 13. Can you name a category of products for which your negative feelings have softened? What precipitated this change? 1-13 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  14. 14. The Scope of Marketing Places Goods Properties Services Organizations Experiences Information Events Ideas Persons 1-14 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  15. 15. The Decisions Marketers Make Consumer Markets Business Markets Global Markets Nonprofit and Governmental Markets 1-15 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  16. 16. Marketing Concepts and Tools Defining Marketing Marketing Marketing management Core Marketing Concepts Target Markets and Segmentation 1-16 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  17. 17. Figure 1-1: A Simple Marketing System 1-17 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  18. 18. Marketing Concepts and Tools Marketplace, Marketspace, and Metamarket 1-18 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  19. 19. Marketing Concepts and Tools Marketers and Prospects Needs, Wants, and Demands Product, Offering, and Brand Value and Satisfaction Customer value triad Value Value = Benefits / Costs = (Functional benefits + Emotional benefits) / (Monetary costs + Time costs + Energy costs + Psychic costs) 1-19 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  20. 20. Marketing Concepts and Tools Exchange and Transactions Exchange Transaction Barter Transfer Behavioral response 1-20 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  21. 21. Marketing Concepts and Tools Relationships and Networks Relationship marketing Marketing network Marketing Channels Supply Chain Competition 1-21 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  22. 22. Marketing Concepts and Tools Brand competition Industry competition Form competition Generic competition Marketing environment Task environment Broad environment Marketing Program Marketing program Marketing mix 1-22 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  23. 23. Company Orientations Toward the Marketplace Production Concept Product concept Selling Concept Marketing Concept 1-23 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  24. 24. Company Orientations Toward the Marketplace Target Market Customer Needs Stated needs Real needs Unstated needs Delight needs Secret needs 1-24 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  25. 25. Company Orientations Toward the Marketplace Integrated Marketing External marketing Internal marketing 1-25 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  26. 26. Company Orientations Toward the Marketplace Profitability Sales decline Slow growth Changing buying patterns Increasing competition Increasing marketing expenditures 1-26 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  27. 27. Company Orientations Toward the Marketplace Societal Marketing Concept Cause- Cause-related marketing 1-27 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  28. 28. Can you identify the trends that have made the marketing concept, the customer concept, and the societal marketing concept more attractive models for contemporary marketing managers? 1-28 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  29. 29. How Business and Marketing are Changing Customers Brand manufacturers Store- Store-based retailers 1-29 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  30. 30. How Business and Marketing are Changing Company responses and adjustments Reengineering Partner- Partner-suppliers Outsourcing Market- Market-centered E-commerce Global and local Benchmarking Decentralized Alliances 1-30 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  31. 31. How Business and Marketing are Changing Marketer Responses and Adjustments Customer relationship Integrated marketing marketing communications Customer lifetime value Channels as partners Customer share Every employee a Target marketing marketer Customization Model- Model-based decision Customer database making 1-31 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  32. 32. Chapter 2 Adapting Marketing To The New Economy by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-32 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  33. 33. Kotler on Marketing The Internet will create new winners and bury the laggards. 1-33 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  34. 34. Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What are the major forces driving the New Economy? How are business and marketing practices changing as a result of the New Economy? How are marketers using the Internet, customer databases, and customer relationship management in the New Economy? 1-34 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  35. 35. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Major Drivers of the New Economy Digitization and Connectivity Disintermediation and Reintermediation Customization and Customerization 1-35 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  36. 36. Procter & Gamble’s Reflect.com site allows customers to design their own beauty products 1-36 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  37. 37. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Industry Convergence How Business Practices are Changing Organize by product units to organize by customer segments Shift focus from profitable transactions to customer lifetime value Shift focus from financial scorecard to also focusing on the marketing scorecard Shift focus from shareholders to stakeholders 1-37 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  38. 38. Table 2-1: Old Economy vs. New Economy Old Economy New Economy Organize by product units Organize by customer segments Focus on profitable transactions Focus on customer lifetime value Look primarily at financial Look also at marketing scorecard scorecard Focus on stakeholders Focus on shareholders Everyone does the marketing Marketing does the marketing Build brands through behavior Build brands through advertising Focus on customer retention and Focus on customer acquisition growth No customer satisfaction Measure customer satisfaction and measurement retention rate Overpromise, underdeliver Underpromise, overdeliver 1-38 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  39. 39. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Everyone does the marketing Build brands through performance, not just advertising Customer retention rather than customer acquisition From none to in-depth customer in- satisfaction measurement From over-promise, under-deliver to over- under- under- under-promise, over-deliver over- The New Hybrid 1-39 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  40. 40. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy How Marketing Practices are Changing: E-Business E- E-business E-commerce E-purchasing E-marketing Internet Domains: B2C (Business to Customer) 1-40 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  41. 41. Customers can shop online at Calyx and Corolla or ask for a catalog and shop by phone 1-41 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  42. 42. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Internet Domains: B2B (Business to Business) 1-42 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  43. 43. Figure 2-1: The Supplier- Customer Relationship: Traditional and New Economy Structures 1-43 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  44. 44. www.transora.com: global online marketplace for the consumer packaged goods industry 1-44 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  45. 45. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Internet Domains: C2C (Consumer to Consumer) Internet Domains: C2B (Customer to Business) Pure Click vs. Brick and Click Companies Pure- Pure-click companies 1-45 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  46. 46. CarPoint, leading metamediary for car buying, is a pure click company: It exists only on the Web. 1-46 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  47. 47. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Brick and Click companies 1-47 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  48. 48. Which is more important for developing an e-presence: the agility e- of a pure click company, or the well defined and readily identifiable resources of a traditional brick and mortar company? 1-48 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  49. 49. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy How Marketing Practices are Changing: Setting Up Web Sites Designing an Attractive Website Seven elements of effective sites Context Content Community Customization Communication Connection Commerce 1-49 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  50. 50. Would you be willing to give up one or more of the seven elements of an effective web site in order to speed the deployment of a new company e-commerce site? e- What would the expected trade-offs be trade- between an effective site and an early web presence? 1-50 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  51. 51. Attracting and Keeping Visitors Table 2-2: 2- How can we get more prospects to know and visit our site? Setting How can we use marketing to spread word-of-mouth? word-of- Up a How can we convert visitors into repeaters? Dot- Dot-com How do we make our site more experiential and real? Presence How can we build a strong relationship with our customers? How can we build a customer community? How can we capture and exploit customer data for up-selling up- and cross-selling? cross- How much should we spend on building and marketing our site? Advertising on the Internet What are the various ways that we can advertise on the Internet? How do we choose the right sites for placing our ads or sponsorship? See text for complete table 1-51 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  52. 52. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Context factors Content factors Getting feedback 1-52 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  53. 53. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Placing Ads and Promotions Online Banner ads Sponsorships Microsite Interstitials Browser ads Alliances and affiliate programs Push 1-53 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  54. 54. Infogate.com “pushes” targeted content and ads to those who are interested in a product or product category 1-54 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  55. 55. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Building a Revenue and Profit Model Advertising income Sponsorship income Membership and subscriptions Profile income Product and service sales Transaction commission and fees Market research/information Referral income 1-55 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  56. 56. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy How Marketing Practices are Changing: Customer Relationship Marketing Reduce rate of customer defection Increase longevity of customer relationship Enhance growth potential through cross-selling and up-selling cross- up- Make low profit customers more profitable or terminate them 1-56 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  57. 57. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Focus disproportionate effort on high value customers 1-57 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  58. 58. Table 2-3: Mass Marketing vs. One-to-One Marketing Mass Marketing One-to-One Marketing One-to- Average customer Individual customer Customer anonymity Customer profile Standard product Customized market Mass production offering Mass distribution Customized production Mass advertising Individualized distribution Mass promotion Individualized message One- One-way message Individualized incentives Economies of scale Two- Two-way messages Share of market Economies of scope All customers Share of customer Customer attraction Profitable customers Customer retention 1-58 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  59. 59. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Four steps for One-to-One Marketing One-to- Don’t go after everyone, identify prospects. Define customers by their needs and their value to the company. Individual interaction with customers builds stronger relationships. Customize messages, services, and products for each customer. 1-59 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  60. 60. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Customer Databases and Database Marketing Customer mailing list Business database 1-60 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  61. 61. Adapting Marketing to the New Economy Data Warehouses and Data Mining Using the database To identify prospects To determine target market To deepen customer loyalty To reactivate customer purchases To avoid serious customer mistakes The Downside of Database Marketing 1-61 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  62. 62. Chapter 3 Building Customer Satisfaction, Value, and Retention by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-62 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  63. 63. Kotler on Marketing It is no longer enough to satisfy customers. You must delight them. 1-63 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  64. 64. Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What are customer value and satisfaction, and how can companies deliver them? What makes a high-performance business? high- How can companies both attract and retain customers? How can companies improve both customer and company profitability? How can companies deliver total quality? 1-64 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  65. 65. Defining Customer Value and Satisfaction Customer Perceived Value (CPV) Total customer value Total customer cost 1-65 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  66. 66. Figure 3-1: Determinants of Customer Delivered Value 1-66 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  67. 67. Defining Customer Value and Satisfaction Total Customer Satisfaction Satisfaction Customer Expectations Delivering High Customer Value Value proposition Value- Value-delivery system Measuring Satisfaction 1-67 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  68. 68. Table 3-1: Tools for Tracking and Measuring Customer Satisfaction Complaint A customer-centered organization makes it easy for customer- and customers to register suggestions and complaints. suggestion Some customer-centered companies-P&G, General customer- companies- Electric, Whirlpool—establish hot lines with toll-free Whirlpool— toll- systems: numbers. Companies are also using Web sites and e-mail for quick, two-way communication. two- Studies show that although customers are dissatisfied Customer with one out of every four purchases, less than 5 percent will complain. Most customers will buy less or satisfaction switch suppliers. Responsive companies measure surveys: customer satisfaction directly by conducting periodic surveys. While collecting customer satisfaction data, it is also useful to ask additional questions to measure repurchase intention and to measure the likelihood or willingness to recommend the company and brand to others. See text for complete table 1-68 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  69. 69. Would you feel more brand loyalty for a company that tried to immediately resolve a complaint via E-mail, or a company that E- had a customer service representative call within two business days to resolve the problem over the phone? 1-69 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  70. 70. Premier Dell.com is a special business-oriented part of the business- Dell Web site that allows customers to interact with Dell and customize all phases of doing business with Dell. 1-70 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  71. 71. The Nature of High Performance Business High- High-performance business 1-71 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  72. 72. Figure 3-2: The High Performance Business 1-72 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  73. 73. The Nature of High Performance Business Stakeholders Processes Resources Core competency Distinctive capabilities Organization and Organizational Culture Organization Corporate culture Scenario analysis 1-73 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  74. 74. Can you name a company that has changed the public’s perception of their corporate culture? Has this effectively rehabilitated that company’s image? 1-74 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  75. 75. Delivering Customer Value and Satisfaction Value Chain Value chain 1-75 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  76. 76. Figure 3-3: The Generic Value Chain 1-76 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  77. 77. Delivering Customer Value and Satisfaction Benchmarks Core Business Processes The market sensing process The new offering realization process The customer acquisition process The customer relationship management process The fulfillment management process 1-77 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  78. 78. Delivering Customer Value and Satisfaction The Value Delivery Network (Supply Chain) 1-78 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  79. 79. Figure 3-4: Levi Strauss’s Value- Delivery Network 1-79 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  80. 80. Attracting and Retaining Customers Partner relationship management (PRM) Customer relationship management (CRM) 1-80 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  81. 81. Saturn has gained a customer loyalty rate of more than 60% by fundamentally changing the buyer-seller relationship. buyer- Can you think of another company that has made a change of similar magnitude? Have they had similar results? 1-81 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  82. 82. Attracting and Retaining Customers Attracting Customers Computing the Cost of Lost Customers Customer churn Lifetime value 1-82 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  83. 83. On the Lands’ End Web site, customers can click a button to talk with a customer service representative 1-83 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  84. 84. Attracting and Retaining Customers The Need for Customer Retention Measuring Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) Customer Relationship Management (CRM): The Key Customer equity Three drivers of customer equity Value equity Brand equity Relationship equity 1-84 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  85. 85. Figure 3-5: The Customer- Development Process 1-85 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  86. 86. Attracting and Retaining Customers Five levels of investment in customer relationship building Basic marketing Reactive marketing Accountable marketing Proactive marketing Partnership marketing 1-86 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  87. 87. Figure 3-6: Levels of Relationship Marketing 1-87 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  88. 88. Attracting and Retaining Customers Forming Strong Customer Bonds: The Basics Cross- Cross-departmental participation Integrate the Voice of the Customer into all business decisions Create superior offering for the target market 1-88 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  89. 89. Attracting and Retaining Customers Organize and make accessible a database of customer information Make it easy for customers to reach the appropriate personnel Reward outstanding employees Adding Financial Benefits Frequency programs (FPs) 1-89 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  90. 90. The H.O.G. Web site presents the benefits of joining. 1-90 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  91. 91. Attracting and Retaining Customers Adding Social Benefits 1-91 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  92. 92. Good Things Bad Things Table 3-2: Initiate positive phone calls Make only callbacks Social Actions Make recommendations Make justifications Affecting Candor in language Accommodative language Buyer-Seller Use phone Use correspondence Relationships Show appreciation Wait for misunderstandings Make service suggestions Wait for service requests Use “we” problem-solving problem- Use “owe-us” legal language “owe- language Only respond to problems Get to problems Use long-winded long- Use jargon or shorthand communications Personality problems aired Personality problems hidden Talk of “our future together” Talk about making good on Routinize responses the past Accept responsibility Fire drill and emergency Plan the future responsiveness Shift blame Rehash the past 1-92 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  93. 93. Attracting and Retaining Customers Adding Structural Ties Create long-term contracts long- Charge lower price to high volume customers Turn product into long- long-term service 1-93 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  94. 94. Customer Profitability, Company Profitability, and Total Quality Management Measuring Profitability Profitable customer 1-94 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  95. 95. Figure 3-7: Customer-Product Profitability Analysis 1-95 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  96. 96. Figure 3-8: Allocating marketing investment according to customer value 1-96 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  97. 97. Customer Profitability, Company Profitability, and Total Quality Management Increasing Company Profitability Competitive advantage Implementing TQM Total Quality Management Quality 1-97 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  98. 98. Chapter 4 Winning Markets Through Market- Market-Oriented Strategic Planning by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-98 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  99. 99. Kotler on Marketing It is more important to do what is strategically right than what is immediately profitable. 1-99 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  100. 100. Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we examine the following questions: How is strategic planning carried out at the corporate and division levels? How is planning carried out at the business unit level? What are the major steps in the marketing process? How is planning carried out at the product level? What does a marketing plan include? 1-100 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  101. 101. Strategic Planning: Three Key Areas and Four Organization Levels Strategic marketing plan Tactical marketing plan Marketing plan 1-101 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  102. 102. Corporate and Division Strategic Planning All corporate headquarters undertake four planning activities Defining the Corporate Mission Establishing Strategic Business Units (SBUs) Assigning resources to each SBU Planning new businesses, downsizing, or terminating older businesses 1-102 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  103. 103. Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Defining the Corporate Mission Mission statements define which competitive scopes the company will operate in Industry scope Products and applications scope Competence scope Market- Market-segment scope Vertical scope Geographical scope 1-103 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  104. 104. Can you name a company that has recently changed its product scope or market segment scope in a very public way? Was this an expansion or contraction of scope? 1-104 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  105. 105. Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Establishing Strategic Business Units (SBUs) 1-105 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  106. 106. Table 4.1: Product-Oriented versus Market-Oriented Definitions of a Business Company Product Definition Market Definition Missouri- Missouri-Pacific We run a railroad We are a people-and- people-and- Railroad goods mover Xerox We make copying We help improve office equipment productivity Standard Oil We sell gasoline We supply energy Columbia Pictures We make movies We market entertainment Encyclopaedia We sell encyclopedias We distribute Information Carrier We make air We provide climate conditioners and control in the home furnaces 1-106 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  107. 107. Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Three characteristics of SBUs Single business or collection of related businesses that can be planned for separately Has its own set of competitors Has a manager who is responsible for strategic planning and profit 1-107 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  108. 108. The Growth-Share Matrix Growth- Relative market share Four Cells Question Marks Stars Cash Cows Dogs SBU Strategies SBU Lifecycle 1-108 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  109. 109. Can you give an example of a “Star” that skipped “Cash Cow”, and went straight to “Dog” status? 1-109 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  110. 110. Corporate and Division Strategic Planning The General Electric Model 1-110 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  111. 111. Table 4-2: Factors underlying Market Attractiveness and Competitive Position in GE Multifactor Portfolio Model: Hydraulic-Pumps Market Rating = Weight (1-5) (1- Value Overall market size 0.20 4 0.80 Annual market growth rate 0.20 5 1. Historical profit margin 0.15 4 0.60 Competitive intensity 0.15 2 0.30 Market Technological requirements 0.15 4 0.60 Attractiveness Inflationary vulnerability 0.05 3 0.15 Energy requirements 0.05 2 0.10 Environmental impact 0.05 3 0.15 Social-political- Social-political-legal Must be acceptable 1.0 3.70 Market share 0.10 4 0.40 Share growth 0.15 2 0.30 Business Product quality 0.10 4 0.40 Strength Brand reputation 0.10 5 0.50 Distribution network 0.05 4 0.20 See text for complete table 1-111 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  112. 112. Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Critique of Portfolio Models Planning New Businesses, Downsizing Older Businesses 1-112 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  113. 113. Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Intensive Growth 1-113 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  114. 114. Starbucks’ home page: Customers can request a catalog of Starbucks products, subscribe to a newsletter, and shop online 1-114 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  115. 115. Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Integrative Growth Diversification Growth Downsizing Older Businesses 1-115 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  116. 116. Give an example of a market segment where integrative growth would be preferable to growth through diversification. Explain why one approach is better than the other. 1-116 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  117. 117. Business Unit Strategic Planning Business Mission SWOT Analysis External Environment Analysis (Opportunity and Threat Analysis) Marketing Opportunity Buying opportunity more convenient or efficient Meet the need for more information and advice Customize an offering that was previously only available in standard form 1-117 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  118. 118. Give some examples of companies that have grown to dominate their market segment by using technology to make buying opportunities more convenient and efficient. 1-118 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  119. 119. Business Unit Strategic Planning Marketing Opportunity Analysis (MOA) Can the benefits be articulated to a target market? Can the target market be reached with cost- cost- effective media and trade channels? Does the company have the critical capabilities to deliver the customer benefits? Can the company deliver these benefits better than any actual or potential competitors? Will the rate of return meet the required threshold of investment? 1-119 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  120. 120. Figure 4-7: Opportunity and Threat Matrices 1-120 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  121. 121. Business Unit Strategic Planning Internal Environmental Analysis (Strength/Weakness Analysis) Goal Formation Strategic Formulation Strategy 1-121 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  122. 122. Business Unit Strategic Planning Porter’s Generic Strategies Overall cost leadership Differentiation Focus 1-122 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  123. 123. Travelocity’s Web site helps the consumer plan the whole vacation – flights, lodging, and car rental.com 1-123 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  124. 124. Business Unit Strategic Planning Operational Effectiveness and Strategy Strategic group Strategic alliances 1-124 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  125. 125. Business Unit Strategic Planning Marketing Alliances Product or service alliances Promotional alliances Logistical alliances Pricing collaborations Partner Relationship Management, PRM Program Formulation and Implementation 1-125 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  126. 126. Business Unit Strategic Planning Feedback and Control 1-126 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  127. 127. The Marketing Process Steps in the Planning Process The marketing process Analyzing Market Opportunities Developing Marketing Strategies Planning Marketing Programs Managing the Marketing Effort Annual- Annual-plan control Profitability control Strategic control 1-127 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  128. 128. Figure 4-10: Factors Influencing Company Marketing Strategy 1-128 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  129. 129. Product Planning: The Nature and Contents of a Marketing Plan Contents of the Marketing Plan Executive Summary Current Marketing Situation Opportunity and issue analysis Objectives Marketing strategy Action programs Financial projections Implementation controls 1-129 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  130. 130. Product Planning: The Nature and Contents of a Marketing Plan Sample Marketing Plan: Sonic Personal Digital Assistant Current Marketing Situation Opportunity and Issue Analysis Objectives Action Programs Financial Projections 1-130 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  131. 131. Product Planning: The Nature and Contents of a Marketing Plan Implementation Controls Marketing Strategy Positioning Product Management Pricing Distribution Marketing Communications Marketing Research 1-131 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  132. 132. Chapter 5 Gathering Information and Measuring Market Demand by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-132 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  133. 133. Kotler on Marketing Marketing is becoming a battle based more on information than on sales power. 1-133 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  134. 134. Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we focus on the following questions: What are the components of a modern marketing information system? What constitutes good marketing research? How can marketing decision support systems help marketing managers make better decisions? How can demand be more accurately measured and forecasted? 1-134 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  135. 135. The Components of a Modern Marketing Information System Marketing Information System (MIS) 10 useful questions for determining the information needs of marketing managers. What decisions do you regularly make? What information do you need to make these decisions? What information do you regularly get? What special studies do you periodically request? 1-135 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  136. 136. The Components of a Modern Marketing Information System What information would you want that you are not getting now? What information would you want daily? Weekly? Monthly? Yearly? What magazines and trade reports would you like to see on a regular basis? What topics would you like to be kept informed of? What data analysis programs would you want? What are the four most helpful improvements that could be made in the present marketing information system? 1-136 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  137. 137. Internal Record Systems The Order-to-Payment Cycle Order-to- Sales Information Systems Databases, Data Warehouses And Data-Mining Data- 1-137 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  138. 138. Can you name a company that uses targeted mailings to promote new products, or regional offerings? 1-138 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  139. 139. The Marketing Intelligence System A Marketing Intelligence System is a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain everyday information about developments in the marketing environment. 1-139 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  140. 140. What are some of the potential hazards a company might face by relying too heavily on distributors, retailers, or other intermediaries for market intelligence? 1-140 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  141. 141. The Marriott Vacation Club International Web site gives interested customers the opportunity to sell themselves on the Marriott offerings 1-141 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  142. 142. CEOExpress.com is a portal to information–a user information– clicks on a listing and is then connected to that site 1-142 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  143. 143. Table 5-1: Secondary-Data Sources Secondary- Secondary- A. Internal Sources Data Sources Company profit-loss statements, balance profit- sheets, sales figures, sales-call reports, sales- invoices, inventory records, and prior research reports. B. Government Publications • Statistical Abstract of the United States • County and City Data Book • Industrial Outlook • Marketing Information Guide C. Periodicals and Books • Business Periodicals Index • Standard and Poor’s Industry See text for complete table 1-143 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  144. 144. Marketing Research System Marketing Research Suppliers of Marketing Research Engaging students or professors to design and carry out projects Using the Internet Checking out rivals Syndicated- Syndicated-service research firms Custom marketing research firms Specialty- Specialty-line marketing research firms 1-144 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  145. 145. Figure 5-1: The Marketing Research Process 1-145 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  146. 146. Marketing Research System The Marketing Research Process Step 1: Define the Problem, the Decision Alternatives, and the Research Objectives Step 2: Develop the Research Plan Data Sources Research Approaches Observational research Focus group research 1-146 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  147. 147. Marketing Research System Survey research Behavioral data Experimental research Research Instruments Questionnaires Psychological tools Mechanical devices Quantitative measures 1-147 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  148. 148. Table 5-2: Types of Questions A. Closed-end Questions Closed- Name Description Example Dichotomous A question with two possible answers. In arranging this trip, did you personally phone American? Yes No Multiple Choice A question with three or more answers. With whom are you traveling on this flight? No one Children only Spouse Business associates/friends/relatives Spouse and An organized tour group children Likert scale A statement with which the respondent Small airlines generally give better service than large ones. shows the amount of agreement/ Strongly Disagree Neither agree Agree Strongly disagreement. disagree nor disagree agree 1_____ 2 _____ 3_____ 4_____ 5_____ See text for complete table 1-148 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  149. 149. Marketing Research System Sampling Plan Sampling unit Sample size Sampling procedure 1-149 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  150. 150. www.wansink.com is a consumer psychology Web site set up by Dr. Brian Wansink of the University of Illinois 1-150 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  151. 151. Table 5-3: Probability and Nonprobability Samples A. Probability Sample Simple random sample Every member of the population has an equal chance of selection Stratified random The population is divided into mutually sample exclusive groups (such as age groups), and random samples are drawn from each group Cluster (area) sample The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as city blocks), and the researcher draws a sample of the groups to interview Continued on next slide . . . 1-151 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  152. 152. Table 5-3: Probability and Nonprobability Samples (Continued) B. Nonprobability Sample Convenience sample The researcher selects the most accessible population members Judgment sample The researcher selects population members who are good prospects for accurate information Quota sample The researcher finds and interviews a prescribed number of people in each of several categories 1-152 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  153. 153. Marketing Research System Contact Methods Mail questionnaire Personal interviewing Arranged interviews Intercept interviews Online methods Click-stream Cookies Automated telephone surveys 1-153 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  154. 154. Marketing Research System Step 3: Collect the Information Step 4: Analyze the Information Step 5: Present the Findings Step 6: Make the Decision 1-154 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  155. 155. Table 5-4: The Seven Characteristics of Good Marketing Research 1. Scientific Effective marketing research uses the principles method of the scientific method: careful observation, formulation of hypotheses, prediction, and testing. 2. Research At its best, marketing research develops creativity innovative ways to solve a problem: a clothing company catering to teenagers gave several young men video cameras, then used the videos for focus groups held in restaurants and other places teens frequent. 3. Multiple Marketing researchers shy away from overreliance methods on any one method. They also recognize the value of using two or three methods to increase confidence in the results. See text for complete table 1-155 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  156. 156. Marketing Research System Overcoming Barriers to the Use of Marketing Research A narrow conception of the research Uneven caliber of researchers Poor framing of the problem Late and occasionally erroneous findings Personality and presentational differences 1-156 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  157. 157. Marketing Decision Support System Marketing Decision Support System (MDSS) Marketing and sales software programs BRANDAID CALLPLAN DETAILER GEOLINE MEDIAC PROMOTER ADCAD CONVERSTORY 1-157 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  158. 158. Table 5-5: Quantitative Tools Used in Marketing Decision Support Systems Statistical Tools 1. Multiple A statistical technique for estimating a “best fitting” regression: equation showing how the value of a dependent variable varies with changing values in a number of independent variables. Example: A company can estimate how unit Example: sales are influenced by changes in the level of company advertising expenditures, sales force size, and price. 2. Discriminant A statistical technique for classifying an object or analysis: persons into two or more categories. Example: A large Example: retail chain store can determine the variables that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful store locations. 3. Factor A statistical technique used to determine the few analysis: underlying dimensions of a larger set of intercorrelated variables. Example: A broadcast network can reduce a Example: large set of TV programs down to a small set of basic program types. See text for complete table 1-158 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  159. 159. Forecasting and Demand Measurement The Measures of Market Demand Figure 5-3: Ninety Types of Demand Measurement (6X5X3) 1-159 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  160. 160. Forecasting and Demand Measurement Which Market to Measure? Market Potential market Available market Target market (severed market) Penetrated market A Vocabulary for Demand Measurement Market Demand Market share Market penetration index Share penetration index 1-160 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  161. 161. Forecasting and Demand Measurement Figure 5-4: Market Demand Functions 1-161 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  162. 162. Can you name a market segment with a low penetration index? A high penetration index? Can you think of a market where the high penetration index might be a misleading indicator? 1-162 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  163. 163. Forecasting and Demand Measurement Market Forecast Market Potential Product penetration percentage Company Demand Company Sales Forecast Sales quota Sales budget Company Sales Potential 1-163 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  164. 164. Forecasting and Demand Measurement Estimating Current demand Total Market Potential Area Market Potential Market- Market-Buildup Method 1-164 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  165. 165. Table 5-6: Market-Buildup Method Using SIC Codes (c) (a) Potential Annual Number Sales in (b) of Lathe Sales Market Millions Number of Per $1 Million Potential SIC of $ Establishments Customer Sales (a x b x c) 2511 1 6 10 60 5 2 10 100 2521 1 3 5 15 5 1 5 25 30 200 1-165 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  166. 166. Forecasting and Demand Measurement Multiple-Factor Index Method Brand development index (BDI) 1-166 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  167. 167. Table 5-7: Calculating the Brand Development Index (BDI) (a) (b) Percent of Percent of U.S. Brand U.S. Category BDI Territory Sales Sales (a ÷ b) x 100 Seattle 3.09 2.71 114 Portland 6.74 10.41 65 Boston 3.49 3.85 91 Toledo .97 .81 120 Chicago 1.13 .81 140 Baltimore 3.12 3.00 104 1-167 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  168. 168. Forecasting and Demand Measurement Industry Sales and Market Shares Estimating Future Demand Survey of Buyers’ Intentions Forecasting Purchase probability scale 1-168 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  169. 169. Forecasting and Demand Measurement Composite of Sales Force Opinions Expert Opinion Group discussion method Pooling of individual estimates Past-Sales Analysis Time-series analysis Exponential smoothing Statistical demand analysis Econometric analysis Market-Test Method 1-169 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  170. 170. Chapter 6 Scanning the Marketing Environment by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-170 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  171. 171. Kotler on Marketing Today you have to run faster to stay in place. 1-171 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  172. 172. Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we focus on two questions: What are the key methods for tracking and identifying opportunities in the macroenvironment? What are the key demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and cultural developments? 1-172 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  173. 173. Analyzing Needs and Trends in the Macroenvironment Trend Fad Megatrends 1-173 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  174. 174. Given the definitions for fads, trends, and megatrends presented in the text, how would you define your online activities? Can you identify an online trend that is likely to grow into a megatrend? 1-174 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  175. 175. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces The substantial speedup of international transportation, communication, and financial transactions, leading to the rapid growth of world trade and investment, especially tripolar trade (North America, Western Europe, Far East) The movement of manufacturing capacity and skills to lower cost countries. The rising economic power of several Asian countries in world markets. The rise of trade blocks such as the European Union and NAFTA signatories. 1-175 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  176. 176. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces The severe debt problems of a number of countries, along with the increasing fragility of the international financial system. The increasing use of barter and countertrade to support international transactions. The move toward market economies in formerly socialist countries along with rapid privatization of publicly owned companies. The rapid dissemination of global lifestyles. The gradual opening of major new markets, namely China, India, eastern Europe, the Arab countries, and Latin America. 1-176 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  177. 177. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces The increasing tendency of multinationals to transcend their locational and national characteristics and become transnational firms. The increasing number of cross-border corporate cross- strategic alliances–for example, MCI and British alliances– Telecom, and Texas Instruments and Hitachi. The increasing ethnic and religious conflicts in certain countries and regions. The growth of global brands in autos, food, clothing, electronics. 1-177 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  178. 178. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces Demographic Environment Worldwide Population Growth Population Age Mix Ethnic and Other Markets 1-178 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  179. 179. Can you identify one or more nations whose populations hold the promise of huge potential markets for consumer goods? How have pressures from potential marketers to these untapped consumer groups driven the political discussion on a national and international level? 1-179 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  180. 180. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces Educational Groups Household Patterns Geographical Shifts in Population From a Mass Market to Micromarkets 1-180 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  181. 181. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces Economic Environment Income Distribution Savings, Debt, and Credit Availability 1-181 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  182. 182. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces Natural Environment Shortage of Raw Materials Increased Energy Cost Anti- Anti-Pollution Pressures Changing Role of Governments 1-182 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  183. 183. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces Technological Environment Accelerating Pace of Change Unlimited Opportunities for Innovation 1-183 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  184. 184. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces Varying R&D Budgets Increased Regulation of Technological Change Political- Political-Legal Environment Legislation Regulating Business Growth of Special-Interest Special- Groups Consumerist movement 1-184 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  185. 185. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces Social- Social-Cultural Environment Views of themselves Views of others Views of organizations Views of society Views of nature Views of universe 1-185 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  186. 186. Identifying and Responding to the Major Macroenvironment Forces High Persistence of Core Cultural Values Existence of subcultures Subcultures Shifts of Secondary Cultural Values Through Time 1-186 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  187. 187. Chapter 7 Analyzing Consumer Markets and Buyer Behavior by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-187 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  188. 188. Kotler on Marketing The most important thing is to forecast where customers are moving, and be in front of them. 1-188 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  189. 189. Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we focus on two questions: How do the buyers’ characteristics – cultural, social, personal, and psychological – influence buying behavior? How does the buyer make purchasing decisions? 1-189 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  190. 190. Influencing Buyer Behavior Consumer Behavior Cultural Factors Culture Subcultures Diversity marketing Social class 1-190 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  191. 191. Influencing Buyer Behavior Social Factors Reference Groups Reference groups Membership groups Primary groups Secondary groups Aspirational groups Dissociative groups Opinion leader 1-191 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  192. 192. Table 7.1: Characteristics of Major U.S. Social Classes 1. Upper Uppers The social elite who live on inherited wealth. They (less than 1%) give large sums to charity, run the debutante balls, maintain more than one home, and send their children to the finest schools. They are a market for jewelry, antiques, homes, and vacations. They often buy and dress conservatively. Although small as a group, they serve as a reference group to the extent that their consumption decisions are imitated by the other social classes. 2. Lower Uppers Persons, usually from the middle class, who have (about 2%) earned high income or wealth through exceptional ability in the professions or business. They tend to be active in social and civic affairs and to buy the symbols of status for themselves and their children. They include the nouveau riche, whose pattern of conspicuous consumption is designed to impress those below them. See text for complete table 1-192 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  193. 193. Influencing Buyer Behavior Secondary groups Aspirational groups Dissociative groups Opinion leader 1-193 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  194. 194. Influencing Buyer Behavior Family Family of orientation Family of procreation Roles and Statuses Role Status 1-194 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  195. 195. With the “graying” of the American populace, marketers have begun to shift images and cultural references in advertising from things that are relevant to the twenty-somethings to twenty- images of active seniors, and soundtracks from the sixties and seventies. Can you identify any particular ad campaigns that fit this pattern? 1-195 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  196. 196. Influencing Buyer Behavior Personal Factors Age and Stage in the Life Cycle Family life cycle Occupation and Economic Circumstances 1-196 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  197. 197. In recent years, many organizations have “provided” televisions with limited programming access for use in K-12 classrooms. Do these K- entities have a moral obligation to avoid overt marketing to their captive audiences, or is this a valid tool for introducing offerings to future consumers? What should the responsibilities of the educators be in these situations? 1-197 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  198. 198. Table 7.2: Stages in the Family Life Cycle 1. Bachelor stage: Few financial burdens. Fashion opinion Young, single, not living leaders. Recreation oriented. Buy: basic home at home equipment, furniture, cars, equipment for the mating game; vacations. 2. Newly married Highest purchase rate and highest average couples: purchase of durables: cars, appliances, Young, no children furniture, vacations. 3. Full nest I: Home purchasing at peak. Liquid assets low. Youngest child under Interested in new products, advertised six products. Buy: washers, dryers, TV, baby food, chest rubs and cough medicines, vitamins, dolls, wagons, sleds, skates. 4. Full nest II: Financial position better. Less influenced by Youngest child six or advertising. Buy larger-size packages, larger- over multiple- multiple-unit deals. Buy: many foods, cleaning materials, bicycles, music lessons, pianos. See text for complete table 1-198 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  199. 199. Figure 7.2: The VALS segmentation system: An 8-part typology Groups with High Resources 1. Actualizers 2. Fulfilleds 3. Achievers 4. Experiencers Groups with Lower Resources 1. Believers 2. Strivers 3. Makers 4. Strugglers 1-199 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  200. 200. SRI Consulting Business Intelligence’s Web site 1-200 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  201. 201. Influencing Buyer Behavior Personality and Self-Concept Self- Personality Brand personality Sincerity Excitement Competence Sophistication Ruggedness Self- Self-concept Person’s actual self-concept self- Ideal self-concept self- Others’ self-concept self- 1-201 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  202. 202. Influencing Buyer Behavior Psychological Factors Motivation Motive Freud’s Theory Laddering Projective techniques 1-202 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  203. 203. Influencing Buyer Behavior Ernest Dichter’s research found: Consumers resist prunes because prunes are wrinkled looking and remind people of old age. Men smoke cigars as an adult version of thumb sucking. Women prefer vegetable shortening to animal fats because the latter arouse a sense of guilt over killing animals. Women don’t trust cake mixes unless they require adding an egg, because this helps them feel they are giving “birth.” 1-203 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  204. 204. Influencing Buyer Behavior Maslow’s Theory Figure 7.3: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1-204 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  205. 205. Influencing Buyer Behavior Herzberg’s Theory Dissatisfiers Satisfiers 1-205 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  206. 206. Influencing Buyer Behavior Perception Selective attention People are more likely to notice stimuli than relate to a current need People are more likely to notice stimuli than they anticipate People are more likely to notice stimuli whose deviations are large in relation to the normal size of the stimuli Selective distortion Selective retention 1-206 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  207. 207. Influencing Buyer Behavior Learning Drive Cues Discrimination Beliefs and Attitudes Belief Spreading activation Attitude 1-207 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  208. 208. The purchase of a product from a Company A turns out to be a positive experience. You are looking for a loosely related product, which is also offered by Company A. Do you assume that you will again have a positive experience with Company A’s offering, or do you look for the “best of breed,” regardless of which company offers it? 1-208 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  209. 209. The Buying Decision Process Buying Roles Initiator Influencer Decider Buyer User Buying behavior 1-209 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  210. 210. Table 7.3: Four Types of Buying Behavior High Involvement Low Involvement Significant Differences Complex buying Variety- Variety-seeking between Brands behavior buying behavior Few Differences between Dissonance- Dissonance-reducing Habitual buying Brands buying behavior behavior 1-210 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  211. 211. The Buying Decision Process Complex Buying Behavior Dissonance- Dissonance-Reducing Buyer Behavior Habitual Buying Behavior Variety- Variety-Seeking Buying Behavior 1-211 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  212. 212. Stages in the Buying Decision Process How marketers learn about the stages: Introspective method Retrospective method Prospective method Prescriptive method Understanding by mapping the customer’s Consumption system Customer activity cycle Customer scenario Metamarket Metamediaries 1-212 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  213. 213. The Edmunds.com home page shows the variety of services this Web company offers those shopping for a car. 1-213 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  214. 214. Stages of the Buying Decision Process Problem recognition Information search Personal sources Figure 7.4: Commercial sources Five-Stage Model of the Public sources Consumer Buying Experiential sources Process 1-214 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  215. 215. Figure 7.5: Successive Sets Involved in Customer Decision Making 1-215 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  216. 216. The Buying Decision Process Evaluation of Alternatives Potential Attributes of interest Cameras Hotels Mouthwash Tires Brand beliefs Brand image 1-216 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  217. 217. Table 7.4: A Consumer’s Brand Beliefs about Computers Computer Attribute Memory Graphics Size and Capacity Capability Weight Price A 10 8 6 4 B 8 9 8 3 C 6 8 10 5 D 4 3 7 8 1-217 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  218. 218. The Buying Decision Process Strategies designed to stimulate interest in a computer Redesign the computer Alter beliefs about the brand Alter beliefs about competitors’ brands Alter the importance weights Call attention to neglected attributes Shift the buyer’s ideas 1-218 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  219. 219. The Buying Decision Process Purchase Decision Figure 7.6: Steps Between Evaluation of Alternatives and a purchase decision 1-219 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  220. 220. The Buying Decision Process Informediaries Consumer Reports Zagats Unanticipated situational factors Perceived risk Brand decision Vendor decision Quantity decision Timing decision Payment- Payment-method decision 1-220 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  221. 221. The Buying Decision Process Postpurchase Behavior Postpurchase Satisfaction Disappointed Satisfied Delighted Postpurchase Actions Postpurchase Use and Disposal 1-221 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  222. 222. Figure 7.7: How Customers Dispose of Products 1-222 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  223. 223. The Buying Decision Process Other Models of the Buying Decision Process Health Model Stages of Change Model Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Customer Activity Cycle Model Pre, during and post phases 1-223 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  224. 224. Figure 7.8: Activity cycle for IBM customers in the global electronic networking capability market space 1-224 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  225. 225. Figure 7.9: Value adds for IBM customers in the global electronic networking capability market space 1-225 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  226. 226. Chapter 8 Analyzing Business Markets and Business Buying Behavior by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-226 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  227. 227. Kotler on Marketing Many businesses are wisely turning their suppliers and distributors into valued partners. 1-227 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  228. 228. Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we focus on six questions: What is the business market, and how does it differ from the consumer market? What buying situations do organizational buyers face? Who participates in the business buying process? What are the major influences on organizational buyers? How do business buyers make their decisions? How do institutions and government agencies do their buying? 1-228 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  229. 229. What is Organizational Buying? Organizational buying The business market versus the consumer market Business market Fewer buyers Larger buyers Close supplier-customer relationship supplier- Geographically concentrated buyers 1-229 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  230. 230. What is Organizational Buying? Derived demand Inelastic demand Fluctuating demand Professional purchasing 1-230 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  231. 231. Blue Shield of California’s mylifepath 1-231 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  232. 232. What is Organizational Buying? Several buying influences Multiple sales calls Directed purchasing Reciprocity Leasing 1-232 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  233. 233. If you were tasked with marketing a product or service to an organization, would you attempt to initially contact the purchasing department, or potential department, users of your company’s offerings? Why? Would the product you were selling make a difference? Why? 1-233 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  234. 234. What is Organizational Buying? Buying Situations Straight rebuy Modified rebuy New Task Systems Buying and Selling Systems buying Turnkey solution Systems selling 1-234 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  235. 235. What are some of the benefits to an organization that can be derived from a single source solution, or a solution, systems buying arrangement with a prime contractor? What are some of the potential pitfalls? What can the company do to protect itself from these hazards? 1-235 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  236. 236. Participants in the Business Buying Process The Buying Center Initiators Users Influencers Deciders Approvers Buyers Gatekeepers Key buying influencers Multilevel in-depth selling in- 1-236 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  237. 237. Figure 8-1: Major Influences on Industrial Buying Behavior 1-237 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  238. 238. Major Influences on Buying Decisions Environmental Factors Organizational Factors Purchasing- Purchasing-Department Upgrading Cross- Cross-Functional Roles Centralized Purchasing Decentralized Purchasing of Small-Ticket Small- Items Internet Purchasing 1-238 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  239. 239. The e-hub Plastics.com home page offers buyers and e- sellers of plastics a marketplace plus news and information 1-239 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  240. 240. Covisint’s Web site offers both services and information 1-240 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  241. 241. Major Influences on Buying Decisions Other Organizational Factors Long- Long-Term Contracts Vendor- Vendor-managed inventory Continuous replenishment programs Purchasing- Purchasing-Performance Evaluation and Buyers’ Professional Development Improved Supply Chain Management Lean Production Just-in- Just-in-time 1-241 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  242. 242. Major Influences on Buying Decisions Interpersonal and Individual Factors Cultural Factors France Germany Japan Korea Latin America 1-242 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  243. 243. The Purchasing/ Procurement Process Incentive to purchase Three Company Purchasing Orientations Buying Orientation Commoditization Multisourcing Procurement Orientation Materials requirement planning (MRP) Supply Chain Management Orientation 1-243 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  244. 244. The Purchasing/ Procurement Process Types of Purchasing Processes Routine products Leverage products Strategic products Bottleneck products 1-244 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  245. 245. The Purchasing/ Procurement Process Stages in the Buying Process Problem Recognition General Need Description and Product Specification Product value analysis Supplier Search Vertical hubs Functional hubs Direct external links to major suppliers Buying alliances Company buying sites Request for proposals (RFPs) 1-245 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  246. 246. Table 8.1: Buygrid Framework: Major Stages (Buyphases) of the Industrial Buying Process in Relation to Major Buying Situations (Buyclasses) Buyclasses New Modified Straight Task Rebuy Rebuy 1. Problem recognition Yes Maybe No 2. General need description Yes Maybe No 3. Product specification Yes Yes Yes Buyphases 4. Supplier search Yes Maybe No 5. Proposal solicitation Yes Maybe No 6. Supplier selection Yes Maybe No 7. Order-routine specification Order- Yes Maybe No 8. Performance review Yes Yes Yes 1-246 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  247. 247. The Purchasing/ Procurement Process General Need Description and Product Specification Product value analysis Supplier Search Vertical hubs Functional hubs Direct extranet links to major suppliers Buying alliances Company buying sites Request for proposals (RFPs) 1-247 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  248. 248. The Purchasing/ Procurement Process Proposal Solicitation Supplier Selection 1-248 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  249. 249. Table 8-2: An Example of Vendor Analysis Attributes Rating Scale Importance Poor Fair Good Excellent Weights (1) (2) (3) (4) Price .30 x Supplier reputation .20 x Product reliability .30 x Service reliability .10 x Supplier Flexibility .10 x Total score: .30(4) + .20(3) + .30(4) + .10(2) + .10(3) = 3.5 1-249 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  250. 250. The Purchasing/ Procurement Process Customer value assessment Routine- Routine-order products Procedural- Procedural-problem products Political- Political-problem products Order- Order-Routine Specification Blanket contract Stockless purchase plans Performance Review Buyflow map 1-250 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  251. 251. Figure 8-2: Major Influences on Industrial Buying Behavior 1-251 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  252. 252. Institutional and Government Markets Institutional market 1-252 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  253. 253. Chapter 9 Dealing with the Competition by PowerPoint by Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans 1-253 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  254. 254. Kotler on Marketing Poor firms ignore their competitors; average firms copy their competitors; winning firms lead their competitors. 1-254 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  255. 255. Chapter Objectives In this chapter, we focus on five things companies need to know about their competition: Who the primary competitors are How to ascertain their strategies, objectives, strengths and weaknesses, and reaction patterns How to design a competitive intelligence system Whether to position as market leader, challenger, follower, or nicher How to balance a customer versus competitor orientation 1-255 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  256. 256. Competitive Forces Figure 9-1: Five Forces Determining Segment Structural Attractiveness Threat of: 1. intense segment rivalry 2. new entrants 3. substitute products buyers’ growing bargaining power suppliers’ growing bargaining power 1-256 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  257. 257. Figure 9-2: Barriers and Profitability 1-257 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  258. 258. GetThere.com, launched as the Internet Travel Network in 1995, was the first company to book trips over the Web 1-258 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  259. 259. Identifying Competitors Industry Concept of Competition Industry Number of Sellers and Degree of Differentiation Pure monopoly Oligopoly Pure oligopoly Differentiated oligopoly Monopolistic competition Pure competition 1-259 www.bookfiesta4u.com
  260. 260. Identifying Competitors Entry, Mobility, Exit Barriers Entry barriers Mobility barriers Exit barriers Cost Structure Degree of Vertical Integration Vertical integration Degree of Globalization Market Concept of Competition 1-260 www.bookfiesta4u.com
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