children exposed to domestic violence Psychological Effects
Post traumatic stress disorders
Loss of interest in school
Inability to seek healthy relationships
Self-blame attitude (Cummings, et al., 1989, as cited in Jarvis et al., 2005).
Psychological distress of children and mothers in domestic violence emergency shelters
Display an increased sensitivity to angry adult interactions
Respond with sadness, fear, anger, and stress
Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (Cummings, et al., 1989, as cited in Jarvis et al., 2005).
The pain of domestic violence exposure Words do hurt
Environmental influences, the developing brain, and aggressive behavior “Trauma research suggests that the brain may undergo neurobiological change in a region called the hypothalmo-pituitary axis (HPA) that triggers a stress response” (Hudley, Novac, n.d).
The development of abusive personality: A trauma response
Witnessing violence, experiencing violence, shaming, and insecure attachments, may lead to the development of abusive personalities in males.
These males show difficulty in redirecting their aggression towards others
These males have a high chance of becoming partner abusers (Lawson, 2001).
Legal and policy responses to children exposed to domestic violence: The need to evaluate intended and unintended consequences
Child witness to domestic violence is now being considered a secondary crime to domestic violence
Child witness to domestic violence is being factored into criminal sentencing is some states
In other states such as Oregon and Utah, exposure to domestic violence is being considered a separate charge (Jaffe, Crooks, Wolfe, 2003).
Next steps in research on children exposed to domestic violence:
Broader, more inclusive definitions of violence are needed
In order to examine different perspectives multiple reporters are needed
Valid and informative measures of violence are needed fro identification and assessment
More studies are needed that examine the effects of domestic violence
Research is needed that examines the medical and health consequences (Prinz, Feerick, 2003).
References Hudley, C., Novac, A. (n.d.). Environmental influences, the developing brain, and aggressive behavior. Theory into Practice. 46(2), 121-129 Irving, M. (2004). Emotional abuse. Retrieved from http://www.irvingstudios.com/child_abuse_survivor_monument/EmotionalAbuse.htm Jaffe, P., Crooks, C. Wolfe, D. (2003). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6 (3) Jarvis, J., Gordon, E., Novaco, R. (2005). Psychological distress of children and mothers in domestic violence emergency shelters. Journal of Family Violence, 20(6), DOI: 10.1007/s10896-005-7800-1 Lawson, D. M. (2001). The development of abusive personality. Journal of counseling and development. 79 (4), 505
References continued Prinz, R., Feerick, M. (2003). Next steps in research on children exposed to domestic violence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6 (3)