So here are some ideas I’d like to get you thinking about during this hour. Mobile technology allows you to virtually be available for your users anytime anywhere, any place. This is particularly important because many believe we are entering a New Paradigm in which we will see our users in person with much less frequency. And finally we would like everyone to consider whether or not all of this mobile technology is changing what it means to be “information literate”.
So just to get a sense of the room let me ask you: How many of you own a cellphone? How many of you have a smartphone?
So here is a picture of some high school students taking an exam, and what I love about this picture is that it shows 9 students and 17 phones. We probably can’t see all the students in the room, but we still thought it was pretty funny.According to the ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology: In 2010, 74% of undergraduates owned an internet capable handheld device or planned to purchase one within the next 6 months
Increasingly we are becoming more and more connected to the world, but becoming less and less connected through wired connection Globally there are over 555 million fixed broadband subscriptions but over 940 million 3G subscriptions. So, more people are connecting to the internet using mobile technology than through landlines. Additionally, there are now over 5.3 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide
Here is a map showing 2G & 3G coverage worldwide70% of mobile internet users in Egypt never or rarely access the internet via desktop, laptop or tablet. Similarly, 59% of internet users in India are “mobile only” And surprisingly, 25% of mobile internet users in the U.S are “mobile only”
In addition to this: AT&T reported that from 2007-2010 demand for mobile broadband increased 4,932% (Hanson, Cody) - According Ericsson, Studies show that soon 80% of all people accessing the internet will be doing so on their mobile device (Ericsson, 2010)
According to TomiAhonen, a well know mobility researcher, the average person engages with their phone 150 times per day. If you averaged this out over a 16.5 hour day, that works out to an average of once every 6.5 minutes. This may seem like a crazy number, and I’d venture to say that everyone in this room is well below this average, myself included, but to put it in context, consider how many text messages your average 15 year old sends in a day or the fact that the same ICT report that gave us the map of the world we saw earlier found that in 2010 there were 6.1 TRILLION text messages sent, which was estimated to be over 192,000 SMS messages EVERY SECOND. (SMS=Short Message Service)
So the worry here whether or not patrons will continue turn to us for our expertise in the future given the ease of finding information using mobile technology. As Tom Boone points out 1 then 2 Pause so the concern here is that librarians will be cut out of interactions with our patrons. And that3, 4So, how do we do this?
One of the first considerations is the current difference between mobile apps and mobile websites. Essentially this difference is beginning to disappear as technology evolves to make mobile sites in many ways as compelling and easy to use as downloadable apps. Generally,a mobile site is easier to create than an app, and will require less investment and technical expertise, but in the future advancements such as the expansion in the use of the new HTML standard, html5 will allow websites to better replicate the functionality of a downloadable application. Frankly, half the time mobile apps simply link users to a mobile site, and vice versa, and as you can see, at U of T our mobile app is neraly identical to our mobile website.
Here again is a list of some of the most popular and frequently seen services and resources on the mobile sites of academic libraries.Mention: Desktop/laptop availability … Floor Maps and Stacks Guides … Video Libcasts … Course Reserves … Library Finder (Particularly important at an institution like U of T where we have over 40 different libraries on our St. George Campus)
So what sorts of things are libraries incorporating into their mobile sites and apps? Here you’ll see the results of our own environmental scan of the content found on mobile websites produced by libraries belonging to the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, superimposed with the results from Alan Aldrich’s scan of mobile ARL Library sites.TOP 5: Library Catalogue … Library Hours … Contact Information … Account Access … Library Location
So the questions then become (Click, Click, Click). Must strike a BALANCE between giving students what they think they want, and giving students what we think they need. If we rely completely on user surveys, we’ll end up building services that conform to what students think a library is SUPPOSED to be (traditional stuff like catalogues, resources, library hours). We’ll be losing an important opportunity to use this technology to EXPAND our reach, and give users tools they never even KNEW they needed. Responding to customers is great, but successful technology implementation (think Apple) is also about thinking about what users NEED and THEN explaining to them WHY they need it. Steve Jobs doesn’t ask you what you want the next iPhone to do, he figures out what he thinks you need it to do, and then explains to you why you need that. Sometimes, this strategy means you’ll create something that users don’t find compelling (think Google Buzz) but every once in a while, you might hit a homerun (Facebook). It’s important not to be afraid to fail. Google’s experiment with Google Buzz may have been a flop, but most of the innovative ideas that Google’s engineers came up with in that development process have already been incorporated into many of Google’s more successful products and services. Failure often teaches many more lessons than success.
Here are a few more things to consider:(click) As smartphones become more ubiquitous, they increasingly influence the ways in which students search for, find, evaluate, and use information. So the question then becomes:(click) Do current students exhibit information literate behaviour when engaging with information on their phones? And(click) Do smartphones make it easier for students to demonstrate information literacy, or does this new technology perhaps erect barriers between students, and effective searching for, -and use of- information?
With the rapid expansion of the use of mobile technology a new concept has developed over the past decade called mobile learning. 26) There are many definition of Mobile Learning. Here are a two of the earliest that we believe are still two of the best. Mobile learning is: Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location. Or simply the: The intersection of mobile computing and e-learning
Mobile Information Literacy I also feel it’s important to point out that there are several information literacy competencies listed in the ACRL Standards that are particularly relevant to searching for information in the mobile environment. Mobile Information Literacy slide: Well for example, The information literate student considers the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed information. For example, Do I need this information now?, and am I willing to go over my cap limit to get it? The information literate student selects the most appropriate investigative methods or information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information. Selecting an appropriate app from the Apple app store … is a good example of selecting an appropriate resource to address a personal information need. The information literate student communicates the product or performance effectively to others. For example sharing search results using social networking tools such as Twitter or Facebook. The information literate student understands many of the ethical, legal and socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology. Privacy issues or issues related to digital right management (DRM).
Howard Rheingold stated in 2002 that “The mobile internet is not just a way of doing things on the go, but it enables us to do new things that we couldn’t do before in any context.
So what sorts of searching does a mobile device allow us to do that was not possible before?Searching for information on an internet-capable phone:Typed keywords – Nothing newSpoken keyword (voice search) – Now with the microphone and voice recognition software we can do searches with our voice, using applications such as Google voice search.Other audio– By this I mean how a microphone can also be used to identify a song on the radio using an app like Shazam (How many of you have used Shazam or a similar app like SOUNDHOUND?).A smartphone also has a camera which can also be used to perform searches. Google Goggles, for example, takes advantage of a phones camera by analysing any picture you take to perform a search relevant to that picture. Eiffel Tower – Google will do a search on it. (How many have used Google Goggles?)Smartphoes are also aware of their location thanks to their ability to access GPS systems. Location-aware functionality (GPS/Compass) – with GPS technology your phone knows where you are and can contextualise your search results based on your location. (restaurants closest to you, Indian, $25) Also, by pinpointing your location, the phone can tell you more about the environment around you, Like Google SkyMap which points out stars, galaxies, constellations etc.. When you point your phone towards the sky (how many of you have used that?)We are particularly interested in QR Codes and Augmented reality and will go into these in more detail.Barcode/QR Code ScanningAugmented Reality
For those of you who aren’t familiar with QR Codes, this strange pattern in the top right corner is a quick response or QR Code. Mention where the link takes you if you scan the code with a QR scanner app. QR codes make context specific information available to users at the point of need, enriching their experience and giving them information that is relevant and timely. One can link students to resources you’ve already created, such as online instructional videos, and deliver them at the time and place that they are needed. The University of Huddersfield, for example have developed mobile friendly resources to deliver information skills materials directly to their users at the point of need, linked by QR codes on printed materials and on appropriate locations in the physical library.
Here’s an example from McGill University that allows users with mobile phones to go directly to the Library’s mobile site directly from this traditional site by scanning the QR code provided.This code will take users to the version of our site which is most appropriate to their device.
QR codes are sometimes referred to as “marked” augmented reality, as they augment the real world around you, but only if the real world is “marked” with a code. Generally, however, when we talk about “augmented reality” we mean “markerless” AR… augmentation that does not require an added physical access point in the real world… the camera simply recognizes the features of the world around you, and augments that view with additional digital information.Markerless augmented reality uses the location determined by GPS to serve as a basis for adding local information to the camera view. Perhaps the simplest definition is that augmented reality is the combination of digital information with the real world. As the folks at Layar explain, AR lets you “browse the reality around you”Examples of AR that you’ve seen to help demystify the concept: the HUD from a fighter jetthe virtual line of scrimmage and 1st down markers superimposed on to television broadcasts offootball (this is Texas after all)The Fox glowing puck experiment when they were broadcasting NHL Hockey (we are Canadians after all)And the HUD of the Terminator in the filmsVideo (keep in mind that this video is from TWO YEARS AGO, Layar is actual even cooler today!)
Here’s our Layar for the U of T Scarborough Campus. Smartphone users can use Layer to navigate the campus, get more information about campus buildings and landmarks, and find contact information for employees and services within certain buildings…
In-Class examples of using services:Google goggles – have items to scan that will find results through Google and items that will not. Have students scan the items and make notes, and then discuss why the items that didn’t work, didn’t work.QR Codes – link to subject guides for students to scan and take away.Location-Based Searching (Local History Courses)Taking the students in your class out of the room and walking in to the stacks (bringing the online and physical together… standing in the stacks with all of the library’s digital resources in your hand).Consider taking formal classroom instruction outside of the actual room (especially with smaller classes, if you’re lucky enough to have them).
Mobile Librarians (page or SMS a librarian and have them meet you where your are in the library with an iPad)Utilize discipline-appropriate augmented reality services (like Google SkyMap for astronomy, or local historical “layars” such as “Your city 100 years ago”.)Augmented Reality created by you! (Make a “layar” for your campus or the libraries in your local library system) QR Codes in the stacks or in the books. Link to information on the call number range that the student is visiting in the stacks, link to subject guides related to the content of a print book, link to lists of related resources, instructional videos etc… free your hyperlinks from the virtual world and bring them into reality!
Technical Expertise – We all don’t have this expertise in house. Might have to outsource the development of your mobile technology. Although keep in mind some things are easy to do, and relatively inexpensive to implement, such as QR codes.Costs – Another challenge are the costs associated with mobile technology development, and the cost of devices and data plans for users can also be expensive.Competing Priorities – Some of your colleagues may not think that mobile development is a high priority. So, mobile development will always be competing with something else. Your mission is to convince them to prioritize mobile! Perception of Librarians (just for the elite, too expensive, frivolous – waste of money…, a luxury) Your mission is to change their perceptions!Licensed vs. Owned content – like issues around digital rights management (DRM), licensed file formatsSpeed (Net Neutrality) – exceed data cap – connection slowed down by ISP until it becomes impossible to stream a video. Coverage (mobile broadband availability) – My office – forget 3G, in my office I can’t even get a cell signal at all. building copper.
Opportunity is on of the most mobile of mobile devices! (LOL)
In a lot of ways when it comes to mobile it really doesn’t matter which way you turn. The only way you truly fail is to do nothing at all.
Mobile Technology and Learning: Information Literacy Beyond the Classroom Robin Canuel, MLIS Liaison LibrarianHumanities and Social Sciences LibraryMcGill University Chad Crichton, MA, MLIS Coordinator of Reference, Research & InstructionU of T Scarborough LibraryUniversity of Toronto 40th Annual WILU Conference –Regina, Saskatchewan – June 1-3, 2011
Learning Objectives Participants will...1) Understand the value of mobile technology in an academic library context2) Appreciate the current state of mobile resources and services, and possible avenues of future mobile development3) Learn about the integration of mobile technology into information literacy instruction in the classroom and beyond
Introduction Being available for your users anytime, anywhere, in any context New Paradigm - Possibility of never seeing your patrons in person in the future Does new mobile technology change what it means to be “information literate”? Image – Device pile: http://www.flickr.com/photos/blakespot/4773693893/
How many of you own a cellphone? How many of you have a smartphone?
Image – Exam week: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosipaw/4328473236/in/photostream/ In 2010, 74% of undergraduates owned an internet capable handheld device or planned to purchase one within the next 6 months ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ers1006/rs/ers1006w.pdf
Globally there are over 555 million fixed broadband subscriptions but over 940 million 3G subscriptions There are now over 5.3 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide A World Without Wires The World in 2010, International Telecommunication Union, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/FactsFigures2010.pdf Image – Earth and clouds: http://office.microsoft.com/en-ca/images/technology-CM079001967.aspx#ai:MP900422242|mt:2|is:3|si:1|
25% of internet users in the U.S are “mobile only” 59% of internet users in India are “mobile only” 70% of internet users in Egypt never or rarely access the internet via desktop, laptop or tablets. Hill, Alistar. (2010) The Mobile Only Internet Generation
AT&T reported that from 2007-2010 demand for mobile broadband increased 4,932% Hanson, Cody (2011) Soon, 80% of all people accessing the internet will be doing so using their mobile device (Ericsson (2010), http://www.ericsson.com/jm/news/1430616) PEW Internet and American Life: The mobile device will be the primary connection tool to the Internet for most people in the world in 2020. The Future of the Internet III (2008)
The average person engages with their phone 150 times per day. If averaged out over a 16.5 hour day, that works out to an average of once every 6.5 minutes. TomiAhonen
Librarians could become invisible on smartphones unless they reach out to patrons through existing applications… …Continuing down this road, many libraries could find themselves doing little more than selecting and paying for databases… …If librarians are not visible in research apps, patrons will go to vendors to get help… …But if librarians are willing to redefine their roles in the research process, they can not only survive, but thrive in the mobile world. Boone, Tom (2011) Image - Nesting Dolls: http://www.flickr.com/photos/andyi/482006549/
Some Questions How many of you already have a mobile initiative at your institution? How many of you are going mobile in the next six months? Year?
Canadian Association of Research Libraries Members Offering a Mobile Web Presence
So that’s what people are doing with mobile technology, but why? Who’s priorities are those? Who is setting the agenda, users or librarians? Who should be setting the agenda?
Mobile Search As smartphones become more ubiquitous, they increasingly influence the ways in which students search for, find, evaluate, and use information. Do current students exhibit information literate behaviour when engaging with information on their phones? Do smartphones make it easier for students to demonstrate information literacy, or does this new technology perhaps erect barriers between students and effective searching for, and use, of information? (Yarmey, 2011)
Image – Three children:http://office.microsoft.com/en-ca/images/results.aspx?qu=cell%20phones#ai:MP900422734|mt:2|is:3|si:1| Mobile Learning “Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies.” O’Malley, C., Vavoula, G., Glew, J. P., Taylor, J., Sharples, M., & Lefrere, P. (2003) “The intersection of mobile computing (the application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices) and e-learning (learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology).” Quinn (2000)
Mobile Information Literacy What does it mean to be mobile information literate? The information literate student considers the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed information. The information literate student selects the most appropriate investigative methods or information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information. The information literate student communicates the product or performance effectively to others. The information literate student understands many of the ethical, legal and socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology.
“The mobile internet . . . will not be just a way to do old things while moving. It will be a way to do things that couldn’t be done before.” Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Publications, 2002), pp. xiv, xix.
Mobile Search Variety Searching for information on an internet-capable phone: Typed keywords Spoken keywords (voice search) Other audio (e.g. Shazam) Camera (e.g. Google Goggles) Location-aware (GPS/Compass) Barcode/QR Code Scanning Augmented Reality
QR Code Uses Links to electronic resources Instructional videos Useful websites for further information Directly containing contact details (e.g. link to QuestionPoint, Subject Librarian) A way of storing information for future reference (Scanning catalogue records, Call number and location information – floor maps, scanning search results) (Ashford, 2010; Walsh, 2010)
In the Classroom Google Goggles – scan and discuss Location-Based Searching - Local History Courses Poll software like “Poll Everywhere” - replace “clickers” and add interactivity to your teaching QR Codes in presentations and handouts Consider actually taking your class outside of the room! http://www.flickr.com/photos/dickinsonlibrary/1552211138/
Outside the Class / Reference Mobile Librarians Utilize discipline-appropriate augmented reality services Augmented Reality created by you! QR Codes in the stacks or in the books http://www.flickr.com/photos/officenow/2630709925/
Opportunities Opportunity Engaging students with a compelling technology Taking the expertise of librarians beyond the library New ways of searching for data, new ways to manipulate and use data Opportunities to re-emphasize traditional IL concepts An opportunity to challenge the strong connection of our profession to a place and collections of THINGSand make us more present in our students’ everyday lives Image - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opportunity_in_Endurance_Crater.jpg
Conclusions In the future, we’ll all simply be moving from screen to screen to screen, with no difference between one’s laptop and TV and desktop computer and cell phone… Jump on the mobile bandwagon now, in the future this won’t even be a “thing”, but you and your students will benefit greatly from having been ahead of the curve! “If I have one prediction about the future of mobile computing, it’s this: The future of mobile is the future of computing.” (Hanson, 2011)
THANK YOU!!! Image – Talking on the Jeejah: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckincustoms/3977296146/in/photostream/
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