Mobile Technology and Learning: Information Literacy Beyond the Classroom Robin Canuel, MLIS Liaison LibrarianHumanities and Social Sciences LibraryMcGill University Chad Crichton, MA, MLIS Coordinator of Reference, Research & InstructionU of T Scarborough LibraryUniversity of Toronto 40th Annual WILU Conference –Regina, Saskatchewan – June 1-3, 2011
Learning Objectives Participants will...1) Understand the value of mobile technology in an academic library context2) Appreciate the current state of mobile resources and services, and possible avenues of future mobile development3) Learn about the integration of mobile technology into information literacy instruction in the classroom and beyond
Introduction Being available for your users anytime, anywhere, in any context New Paradigm - Possibility of never seeing your patrons in person in the future Does new mobile technology change what it means to be “information literate”? Image – Device pile: http://www.flickr.com/photos/blakespot/4773693893/
How many of you own a cellphone? How many of you have a smartphone?
Image – Exam week: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosipaw/4328473236/in/photostream/ In 2010, 74% of undergraduates owned an internet capable handheld device or planned to purchase one within the next 6 months ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ers1006/rs/ers1006w.pdf
Globally there are over 555 million fixed broadband subscriptions but over 940 million 3G subscriptions There are now over 5.3 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide A World Without Wires The World in 2010, International Telecommunication Union, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/FactsFigures2010.pdf Image – Earth and clouds: http://office.microsoft.com/en-ca/images/technology-CM079001967.aspx#ai:MP900422242|mt:2|is:3|si:1|
25% of internet users in the U.S are “mobile only” 59% of internet users in India are “mobile only” 70% of internet users in Egypt never or rarely access the internet via desktop, laptop or tablets. Hill, Alistar. (2010) The Mobile Only Internet Generation
AT&T reported that from 2007-2010 demand for mobile broadband increased 4,932% Hanson, Cody (2011) Soon, 80% of all people accessing the internet will be doing so using their mobile device (Ericsson (2010), http://www.ericsson.com/jm/news/1430616) PEW Internet and American Life: The mobile device will be the primary connection tool to the Internet for most people in the world in 2020. The Future of the Internet III (2008)
The average person engages with their phone 150 times per day. If averaged out over a 16.5 hour day, that works out to an average of once every 6.5 minutes. TomiAhonen
Librarians could become invisible on smartphones unless they reach out to patrons through existing applications… …Continuing down this road, many libraries could find themselves doing little more than selecting and paying for databases… …If librarians are not visible in research apps, patrons will go to vendors to get help… …But if librarians are willing to redefine their roles in the research process, they can not only survive, but thrive in the mobile world. Boone, Tom (2011) Image - Nesting Dolls: http://www.flickr.com/photos/andyi/482006549/
Some Questions How many of you already have a mobile initiative at your institution? How many of you are going mobile in the next six months? Year?
Canadian Association of Research Libraries Members Offering a Mobile Web Presence
So that’s what people are doing with mobile technology, but why? Who’s priorities are those? Who is setting the agenda, users or librarians? Who should be setting the agenda?
Mobile Search As smartphones become more ubiquitous, they increasingly influence the ways in which students search for, find, evaluate, and use information. Do current students exhibit information literate behaviour when engaging with information on their phones? Do smartphones make it easier for students to demonstrate information literacy, or does this new technology perhaps erect barriers between students and effective searching for, and use, of information? (Yarmey, 2011)
Image – Three children:http://office.microsoft.com/en-ca/images/results.aspx?qu=cell%20phones#ai:MP900422734|mt:2|is:3|si:1| Mobile Learning “Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies.” O’Malley, C., Vavoula, G., Glew, J. P., Taylor, J., Sharples, M., & Lefrere, P. (2003) “The intersection of mobile computing (the application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices) and e-learning (learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology).” Quinn (2000)
Mobile Information Literacy What does it mean to be mobile information literate? The information literate student considers the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed information. The information literate student selects the most appropriate investigative methods or information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information. The information literate student communicates the product or performance effectively to others. The information literate student understands many of the ethical, legal and socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology.
“The mobile internet . . . will not be just a way to do old things while moving. It will be a way to do things that couldn’t be done before.” Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Publications, 2002), pp. xiv, xix.
Mobile Search Variety Searching for information on an internet-capable phone: Typed keywords Spoken keywords (voice search) Other audio (e.g. Shazam) Camera (e.g. Google Goggles) Location-aware (GPS/Compass) Barcode/QR Code Scanning Augmented Reality
QR Code Uses Links to electronic resources Instructional videos Useful websites for further information Directly containing contact details (e.g. link to QuestionPoint, Subject Librarian) A way of storing information for future reference (Scanning catalogue records, Call number and location information – floor maps, scanning search results) (Ashford, 2010; Walsh, 2010)
In the Classroom Google Goggles – scan and discuss Location-Based Searching - Local History Courses Poll software like “Poll Everywhere” - replace “clickers” and add interactivity to your teaching QR Codes in presentations and handouts Consider actually taking your class outside of the room! http://www.flickr.com/photos/dickinsonlibrary/1552211138/
Outside the Class / Reference Mobile Librarians Utilize discipline-appropriate augmented reality services Augmented Reality created by you! QR Codes in the stacks or in the books http://www.flickr.com/photos/officenow/2630709925/
Opportunities Opportunity Engaging students with a compelling technology Taking the expertise of librarians beyond the library New ways of searching for data, new ways to manipulate and use data Opportunities to re-emphasize traditional IL concepts An opportunity to challenge the strong connection of our profession to a place and collections of THINGSand make us more present in our students’ everyday lives Image - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opportunity_in_Endurance_Crater.jpg
Conclusions In the future, we’ll all simply be moving from screen to screen to screen, with no difference between one’s laptop and TV and desktop computer and cell phone… Jump on the mobile bandwagon now, in the future this won’t even be a “thing”, but you and your students will benefit greatly from having been ahead of the curve! “If I have one prediction about the future of mobile computing, it’s this: The future of mobile is the future of computing.” (Hanson, 2011)
THANK YOU!!! Image – Talking on the Jeejah: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckincustoms/3977296146/in/photostream/
Bibliography Ahonen, Tomi (2011), Evolving Mobile Industry (Keynote Address). Mobile Dev Camp Helsinki Finland, 26 February 2011, accessed online: http://mobiledevcampfi.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/tomiahonen_mobileevolution_mobiledevcamp2011.pdf Aldrich, A. W. (2010), Universities and libraries move to the mobile web. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 33(2), accessed online: http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/UniversitiesandLibrariesMoveto/206531 Ally, M. (2009). Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training. Edmonton: AU Press. Ashford, R. (2010). QR codes and academic libraries: Reaching mobile users. College & Research Libraries News, 71(10), 526-530. Barnhart, F. D., & Pierce, J. E. (2011). Becoming mobile: Reference in the ubiquitous library. Journal of Library Administration, 51(3), 279-290. Boone, T. (2011). Ensuring the visibility of librarians. Information Outlook, 15(1), 10-12. Canuel, R., & Crichton, C. (2011). Canadian academic libraries and the mobile web. New Library World, 112(3/4), 107-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03074801111117014 Church, K. (2007). Mobile information access: A study of emerging search behavior on the mobile Internet. ACM transactions on the web, 1(1), 4. Cromity, J. (2011). Tablet computers: Enterprise solutions for information professionals. Online, 35(1), 25-28.
Cummings, J., Merrill, A. and Borrelli, S. (2010). The use of handheld mobile devices: their impact and implications for library services. Library Hi Tech, 28(1), 22-40. Dye, J. (2011). Mapping out a mobile strategy: Creating content that delivers value on-the-go. EContent, 34(2), 16-20. Ericsson (2010). Mobile subscriptions hit 5 billion mark (Press Release). accessed online: http://www.ericsson.com/ca/news/1430616 Hanson, C. W. (2011a). Why worry about mobile? Library Technology Reports, 47(2), 5-10. Hanson, C. W. (2011b). Mobile solutions for your library. Library Technology Reports, 47(2), 24-31. Hanson, C. W. (2011c). Issues for information access on the mobile web. Library Technology Reports, 47(2), 32-34. Heimonen, T. (2009). Information needs and practices of active mobile internet users, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mobile Technology, Application & Systems - Mobility ’09, ACM, New York, NY, pp. 50:1–50:8. Kaikkonen, A. (2008). Full or tailored mobile web – where and how do people browse on their mobiles. Proceedings on the International Conference on Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems in Yilan, Taiwan, September 10-12, Mobility 08, ACM. Accessed online: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1506270.1506307 Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2011). Mobile learning as a catalyst for change. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 25(3), 181-185. Lee, I.,Kim, J & Kim, J. (2005) Use contexts for the mobile internet: a longitudinal study monitoring actual use of mobile internet services, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 18(3), 269-92. Lotts, M., & Graves, S. (2011). Using the iPad for reference services: Librarians go mobile, College & Research Libraries News, 72(4), 217-220.
Market Information and Statistics Division, Telecommunication Development Bureau, ITU (2010). The World in 2010: ICT Facts and Figures. Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunications Union. accessed online: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/FactsFigures2010.pdf O’Malley, C., Vavoula, G., Glew, J.P., Taylor, J., Sharples, M., Lefrere, P., Lonsdale, P., Naismith, L., & Waycott, J. (2003) Guidelines for Learning/Teaching/Tutoring in a Mobile Environment. MOBIlearn Project Report, June 10. Peters, T. (2011). Left to their own devices: The future of reference services on personal, portable information, communication, and entertainment devices. The Reference Librarian, 52(1), 68-97. Plato. Phædrus. 275a-b, accessed online: http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/show/259062 Pulliam, B., & Landry, C. (2011). Tag, you’re it! Using QR codes to promote library services. The Reference Librarian, 52(1), 88-74. Quinn, C. (2000). mLearning: Mobile, wireless, in-your-pocket learning. LineZine, Fall. Accessed online: http://www.linezine.com/2.1/features/cqmmwiyp.htm Rabin, J. & McCathieNevile, C (Eds) (2008). Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Reccomendations. accessed online: http://www.w3.org/TR/mobile-bp/ Rapp, D. (2011). Tablet crazy. Library Journal, 136(3), 42-44. Reingold, Howard. (2002). Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Publications. Rodrigo, R. (2011). Mobile teaching versus mobile learning. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 34(1), accessed online: http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/MobileTeachingVersusMobileLear/225846
Seeholzer, J., & Salem, J. (2011). Library on the go: A focus group study of the mobile web and the academic library. College & Research Libraries, 72(1), 9-20. Smith, S. & Caruso J. (2010). The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology. Washinton, D.C.: EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. accessed online: http://www.educause.edu/Resources/ECARStudyofUndergarduateStuden/217333 Thomas, L. C. (2010). Gone Mobile. Library Journal, 135(17), 30-34. Walsh, A. (2010). QR Codes – using mobile phones to deliver library instruction and help at the point of need. Journal of Information Literacy, 4(1), 55-65. http://ojs.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/article/view/LLC-V4-I1-2010-1 Washburn, B. (2011). Library mobile applications: What counts as success? Information Outlook, 15(1), 13-15. Wisniewski, J. (2011). Mobile that works for your library. Online, 35(1), 54-57. Yarmey, K. (2011). Student information literacy in the mobile environment. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 34(1), accessed online: http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/StudentInformationLiteracyinth/225860 Zylstra, J. (2011). A mobile application for discovery. Computers in Libraries, 31(2), 11-14.