Origins of American Government Our Political Beginnings Chapter 2 Sect. 1
Basic Concepts of Government Ordered Government• Our first settlers brought with them the customs and laws from England• The first settlers organized their towns based on those common laws using a sheriff, coroner, justice of the peace, and grand juries.
Basic Concepts of Government• Land was divided into counties and townships.(ordered gov.)• They brought the idea of limited government (limited gov.)• Because they were far from the king, they began a representative government in Jamestown(Representative gov.)
Basic Concepts of Government• The new government was based on English law and tradition from the Magna Carta, Petition of Rights and the English Bill of Rights• Wealthy men still ruled these local governments
Limited Government• Absolute monarchies lost some of their power in England beginning in 1215. (Magna Carta)• The idea of limiting the power of government was brought with the early colonists.
Magna Carta• In 1215, English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, making the king share power with them• It included a trial by jury and due process before taking life, liberty or property.
Petition of Right• Almost 400 years later, in 1628, Charles I signed the Petition of Right which gave rights to common people.• This document further eroded the power of the absolute monarchy• It challenged the idea of divine right saying the king had to obey the law (Rule of Law)
English Bill of Rights• After the Glorious Revolution in 1688, William and Mary agreed to the English Bill of Rights• This required the elected Parliament to share the power of government
English Bill of Rights• It gave the right to a fair trial, freedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment and prohibited a standing army unless authorized by Parliament.• The absolute monarchy was dead in England
Representative Government• Colonists also brought with them the idea of electing representatives to serve for them in government.
Jamestown• The first permanent English colony was started as a joint- stock company, the Virginia Company.• The first inhabitants were employees
Jamestown• Far from the King (3 months by ship), local decisions were made by management leading to self- rule.
Massachusetts• The Pilgrims settled in New England to escape religious persecution
Georgia• To relieve overcrowding in debtors prisons, Britain sent victims of the Poor Laws to Georgia• It was set up as a military colony to buffer Spanish Florida from the Carolinas
Royal Colonies• Of the 13 colonies, 8 were under direct control of the Crown – NH, MA, NY, NJ, VA, NC, SC, GA• The king named a governor but the lower house was elected by the people
Proprietary Colonies• Three were proprietary colonies: PA, MD, DE• Lord Baltimore – Delaware• William Penn – PA and MD Penn• Major decisions were made by the king while day to day business was controlled by elected representatives
Charter Colonies• Connecticut and Rhode Island were charter colonies and largely self- governing• They had a bi- cameral, two houses, legislature
Britain’s Policies• The 13 colonies were separately controlled through the king• Except for trade, the colonies were left to govern themselves under the watchful eye of the Crown
Britain’s Policies• The Crown hired royal governors to oversee policy, but colonial taxes paid his salary.• Usually the governor went with the wishes of the town
Britain’s Policies• The Crown provided for a national currency and made foreign policy for the colonies.• Parliament made few regulations regarding trade and taxes were low
Policies Change…..• When George III takes the throne he begins to deal more firmly with colonies• New taxes were imposed to pay for French and Indian War and to support British troops in the colonies
Colonial Unity• For the first years, there was no unity among the colonies.• Trade, transportation, communication, etc all went between Britain.• The first attempts at unity, the New England Confederation(to defend against Native American attacks) and one devised by William Penn, were unsuccessful.
Albany Plan of Union• Ben Franklin wanted each colony to send delegates to an annual meeting• They would have the power to raise a military, regulate inter- colonial trade, and dealings with the Indians• It was rejected, too soon for a proposed “national” gov; not ready to be independent from
Stamp Act 1765• Parliament passed a new tax law for the colonists• It required that a tax be paid on almost all paper goods; newspapers, legal documents, etc• A stamp proved the tax was paid
Stamp Act 1765• The colonists petitioned the king, boycotted British goods and hung effigies of tax collectors• Parliament repealed the tax.
More Taxes, More Protests• Colonial boycotts continued when Britain imposed other taxes• Their claim, “No taxation without representation.” Tar and feathering
More Taxes, More Protests• Boston Massacre (1770)- British troops kill five colonists• On Dec. 16, 1773, patriots threw chests of tea into Boston Harbor• King George III imposed the Intolerable Acts (See Handout)• It was time for the colonies to
First Continental Congress• Delegates from 12 colonies, (not GA) met in Philadelphia• They discussed the worsening situation with Britain and looked for a way to solve the conflict.• They planned to meet the following summer.
More Taxes, More Protests• In April 1775, British soldiers headed for a colonial munitions stockpile west of Boston• The “shot heard ‘round the world” was fired and the American Revolution had begun
Second Continental Congress• By the meeting of this Congress, we were at war with Britain.• All 13 colonies sent delegates, which devised America’s first government.
Second Continental Congress• John Hancock was its president• George Washington was appointed Commander in Chief• They raised an army, borrowed funds, dealt with foreign nations, and created a money system
Declaration of Independence• A committee of 5 was charged with writing a document explaining our grievances against King George III• Thomas Jefferson wrote the document which was approved on July 4, 1776
Declaration of Independence• The Declaration of Independence lists the numerous acts that King George III did to America without any representative from the colonies in Parliament.
United States of America• After 5 years of fighting, America was independent• States began writing their own state constitutions, each featuring popular sovereignty, something the patriots had fought for.
United States of America• The state constitutions had many similarities – Governors had little power – Most authority was given to the legislature – Elected offices had short terms – Landed men had the right to vote
United States of America• It was easy to see that America would not easily forget the reasons they fought for their freedom.
Origins of Our American Government The Critical Period Chapter 2 Section 3
Vocabulary• Articles of Confederation – first plan for America’s government following the Revolutionary War• Ratification – approval• Presiding officer – person leading a meeting
Articles of Confederation• The first state and federal governments of America were reminders of what colonists had lived through under King George II• They based these documents more on what they did not want
Articles of Confederation• The Articles of Confederation is a government which gave states exactly what they wanted – Strong state’s rights – Weak central government – Unanimous decisions to change the Articles
Articles of Confederation• The Articles of Confederation was ratified by all 13 states by 1781• The presiding officer had no decision making power• Congress could declare war but not raise troops• Congress could spend money but not raise revenue
Articles of Confederation• The states promised to send money and troops to the federal government when it was needed• Nothing could force them to do it when the time came, however• The govt had ‘power’ but no ‘authority’
Articles of Confederation• Congress borrowed heavily to pay for the war and those debts had not been repaid• Not a single state came close to repaying their share of the debt and Congress could not mandate it
Articles of Confederation• Because 9 of the 13 states had to ratify any amendments, it was impossible to get them to agree so no amendments were done• States bickered among themselves and many acted like an independent country when dealing with foreign countries
Critical Period, 1780’s• “We are one nation today and 13 tomorrow, Who will treat us on such terms?” G. Washington• States taxed one another’s goods and banned trade.• Debts went unpaid• Violence broke out
Shays Rebellion• Daniel Shays led farmers in western Massachusetts in violent protests against losing their farms• There was no army to stop them
Shay’s Rebellion• American’s realized that they needed a stronger federal government• States agreed to meet to discuss a plan to settle the problems
Constitutional Convention• Delegates met in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787.
Origins of our American GovernmentCreating the Constitution Ch. 2 Sect. 4
Constitutional Convention• The summer of 1787 was hot• To keep out the noise and flies, and to protect their secrets, the windows were shut.• Men wore wool suits
The Framers•The men who came to Philadelphiahad a great deal of experiences andeducation among them•Most were lawyers and currentlegislators for their state•Some wrote their own stateconstitutions
The Framers•Some signed the Declaration ofIndependence•The average age was 42, withalmost half in their 30’s•Ben Franklin was the oldest at 81
The Framers•Sam Adams, Thomas Jefferson,Richard Henry Lee, John Hancockand Thomas Paine were not present•George Washington was electedpresident of the Convention
The Work•The delegates decided to keep theproceedings secret until they werefinished.•Several delegates, especiallyJames Madison, kept copious notes•They met most days from May toSeptember 1787
The Work•Upon arriving, most delegatesexpected to “fine tune” theArticles.•Within days, they majority knewthey were writing a totally newdocument.•Some delegates were prepared forthis turn of events
The Virginia Plan•Virginia was the largest, mostpopulated and most influential of allthe colonies.•Their plan favored large,populated states, wanting alegislative body whose membershipwas decided on by total population
The Virginia Plan (Large State Plan)•Their plan also called for 3branches of government; executive,legislative and judicial•The lower house, based onpopulation, would select membersof the upper house•Federal laws supersede state laws
The Virginia Plan•Congress has the authority toadmit new states•Congress would choose a “NationalExecutive”•The small states thought theseideas were too radical
The New Jersey Plan (Small State Plan)•William Patterson of NJ presentedthe plan for the smaller states•The plan called for equal staterepresentation regardless of size•Congress would be limited in theirability to tax and regulate trade
The New Jersey Plan•A panel would make up the“federal executive” office•A “supreme” tribunal would overseethe judicial system.
The Connecticut Compromise•The large states expected todominate the new government•The Connecticut Compromise joinedthe Virginia Plan and the NewJersey Plan into the Constitutionwe have today.
The Connecticut or Great Compromise•Two House Legislature –Upper House, the Senate, would have 2 members from each state –Lower House, House of Representatives, members would be based on population
Three-Fifths Compromise•Northern states had few or no slaves anddid not want them counted for southernpopulation•Southern states had majority of slaves andwanted to count them in their population(more people=more control in gov.)•The 3/5 Compromise allowed states to countonly 3/5 of their slaves as noted in the 1790US Census
Commerce Compromise•The South was fearful that thenew government would try to payfor itself using export taxes.•They didn’t want tobacco, a majorexport, taxed•The Compromise stated that noState export would be taxed,imports could be taxed
Slave Trade Compromise•The South also feared that thenew government would try toregulate the slave trade•In the late 1700s, slavery wasdying out•For this reason the North agreedto allow slavery for 20 years, until1808.
Bundle of Compromises•The Constitution is a bundle ofcompromises•From 13 states with differentgeography, products, ethnic groups,religions, social classes,populations, climates, etc, theyagreed to the document
Bundle of Compromises•They agreed that the newgovernment had to have the powerto deal with big social and economicproblems•They agreed to a separation ofpowers and checks and balances
Bundle of Compromises•The heated debates occurred overhow the president would beelected, the structure of Congress,and the limits of power that shouldbe given to the new government.
Separation of Powers•The 3 branches of government,executive, legislative and judicial,have duties and responsibilitiesgiven to it in the Constitution thatis their job that no other branchcan do.•Example - Only Congress candeclare war, only the President canmove troops.
Checks and Balances•Because each branch has its ownduties, the Constitution set up thissystem to make sure no branchassumes too much power.•Example - The presidentnominates a Supreme Court judgebut the Senate must agree.
Sources of the Constitution•The framers of the Constitutionused early writings from Greeceand Rome, and books written byEuropean philosophers of the1700s.•They also used their experienceswith colonial governments and theArticles of Confederation.
Sources of the Constitution•Locke – Two Treatises ofGovernment•Rousseau – Social Contract•Blackstone – Commentaries on theLaws of England•Montesquieu – Spirit of Laws
The Constitution is Complete •On Sept 17, 1787 the delegates approved and signed their work •James Madison gets credit for writing the document
Origins of our American Government Ratifying the Constitution Chapter 2 Section 5
Ratification•Two groups emerged•Federalists, who supported astrong, central government,approved it•Anti-federalists, who supportedstate’s rights, did not.
Federalists Anti-Federalists •George • Patrick Henry Washington • John Hancock •James Madison • Samuel Adams •John Adams • Thomas •Alexander Jefferson Hamilton
Concerns•1. Increased powers of thefederal government (which meansless state’s rights and localcontrol)•2. Lack of a Bill of Rights
Concerns•Nine states ratified theConstitution, but two of the largestates, VA and NY, did not•Without their support, theConstitution would be doomed.
Federalist Papers•Essays, for and againstratification, were printed innewspapers•Once gathered, all 85 essayscomprised the Federalist Papers•After including a Bill of Rights, allstates ratified the Constitution.
Ratification• They decided that the States would choose electors to vote for a president who would assume power in March 1789.• Even today, electors, not individuals, elect our president.
President George Washington•Washington was electedpresident unanimously•John Adams was selected as his VP•Inaugurations were held the firstWednesday of March•The President moved to the newUS capital in New York City