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A brief whistle-stop description of the synoptic effect and how THE-I works...

A brief whistle-stop description of the synoptic effect and how THE-I works...

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  • 1. Rob Black
  • 2.
    • Greatly enhanced visual detail and vividity.
    • Accuracy based on mathematical derivation
    • Ability for this cue to function in isolation
    • But, in conventional and recent 3D glasses systems this very problem is the undoing.
    • Disparity is phenomenally accurate at dictating that the screen being viewed is totally flat.
  • 3.
    • Evolution designed us to have two laterally separated eyes, to help foreground objects stand out more in space.
    • This advantage converts to a loss when we look at a computer screen or a flat canvas/paper
    • There is nothing to see round, and all of our life’s experience tells us that the surface is flat, and that pictures on flat surfaces are flat.
    • We are so conditioned that pictures are flat that we don’t acknowledge another possibility...
  • 4.
    • Partially. Closing one eye does remove binocular disparity information.
    • However, the eye still makes vergence movements as if matching the other closed eye.
    • Plus, one closed eye dictates an ambiguous depth percept – could be flat or deep.
    • Two eyes in parity present an unambiguous depth percept – the visual information is deep.
    • Besides, have you tried holding one eye closed for extended periods? Very uncomfortable...
  • 5.
    • Convergence is nowhere near as accurate as binocular disparity for determining depth.
    • However, it is somewhat accurate
    • In that, if the viewer is looking at a screen less than 10m away, there will be a noticeable degree of visual convergence
    • And ditto for anywhere between 100 and 400m away for binocular disparity
    • This tells the brain that the objects are nearby
    • This may be why 3D film-makers often used hyper-stereo. Now, they tend to use hypo.
  • 6.
    • It virtually never works consistently across the board. There is inevitably one + factor amiss.
    • There is almost always a degree of ghosting, processor slowdown, resolution loss, misrendered foreground objects, inappropriate scaling, camera misalignment, parallax etc.
    • This is being resolved by the industry daily.
    • PC games can be scaled to IPD but movies can’t
    • This is until multi-viewer glasses-free and depth-map scaled systems which maintain roundness for near objects are implemented
  • 7.
    • Binocular disparity is a very good cue to depth, but also an incredibly good cue to flatness.
    • In the first instance, removing real binocular disparity information results in the surface being unspecified, or specified as far away.
    • However, crucially, the convergence cue must be removed by encouraging vision to look straight ahead, not focus on a near point.
    • Accommodation needs correction to infinity.
    • By combining these factors we can fool the eyes
  • 8.
    • Fooled into perceiving the visual information as being extant in three dimensional space.
    • By removing binocular disparity and convergence cues to flatness, the brain can perceive any image, movie, photograph, artwork or video game with it’s natural implicit depth map.
    • Anything, ever created can look more three dimensional, just by removing real depth info.
  • 9.
    • They did! In 1874 Jentzsch observed non-stereoscopic depth in microscopes.
    • 3D visionaries such as Helmholtz, Gregory, Gibson, Wheatstone and Brewster all acknowledged monocular/plastic relief.
    • In 1903-7, Moritz Von Rohr (Zeiss) patented a synopter device to be marketed to art galleries which failed due to cost and ergonomic issues.
    • The only remnant is the binoviewer attached to telescopes. People frequently comment that the space objects look more 3D and more detailed.
  • 10.
    • The device exists in various guises with a single beam splitter. However this gives it a large footprint and a very small FOV
    • A large FOV is critical for the effect to work.
    • The double beam splitter device requires the alignment accuracy to be almost perfect, cutting prisms to fit the correct IPD a
    • There must be no visible seaming or mis-scale.
    • Such prisms do exist already in LCD projectors, but are tinted with RGB colour filters
    • Manufacture is simple, affordable and intuitive, however not implicitly obvious.
  • 11.
    • Conventional 3D glasses can be given a global offset which does bring the picture forward. However, the convergence and binocular disparity flatness information remain, changing only the screen content, not context
    • It is not the added depth, so much as the removed flatness which aids this effect to work.
    • Only the very best HMDs have a sufficiently large field of view and pixel density to pass off as normal. So it is out of reach but to a very few (eg users of the £500,000 piSight etc.)
  • 12.
    • Yes, it is theoretically possible to make this device using electronic components.
    • It would require 400 DPI+ screens and an extremely good, tiny camera
    • However, only the very best camera viewfinder screens have sufficient DPI and contrast ratios,
    • (THE-I would have an RRP of under €100).
    • The contrast and resolution of the real world is still orders of magnitude better than the best electronics commercially available today.
  • 13.
    • Effortless natural depth produced by the eyes being completely relaxed.
    • We are so used to viewing pictures with our normal eyes that there is quantitative shift.
    • Motion parallax is greatly enhanced (perhaps because zero disparity and parallel convergence both specify infinite depth)
    • Monocular depth cues also look more salient, strong perspectives can look very realistic.
    • There is massively more visual detail evident compared to normal viewing.
  • 14.
    • Computationally and economically costly
    • System specific
    • Requires custom hardware (monitors)
    • Requires software tuning profiles for each game
    • No electronics, profiles, flickering
    • No intervention with source material
    • Moderately priced
    • Compatible with virtually everything
  • 15.
    • PC games and applications lack a consistent, specialised setting to make them look 3D.
    • Fragmented environment-specific drivers & wrappers that only work with some programs.
    • What if I want to use a graphic design package, see photos in more 3D, play an FPS at 1080P (frame rate barely normal) & play my console?
    • No existing 3D system currently does all these things, and certainly can’t handle the range.
  • 16.
    • Yes! 3D shutter or polarising glasses are independent technology from THE-I
    • Combining the two results in a perfect, stable perception with no visual strain of identically placed physical images in both eyes, filtered either by flickering or polarising.
    • The cancellation of distracting surrounding information and removal of flatness information result in a dramatically more vibrant and convincing 3D setup.
  • 17.
    • THE-I works as a standalone device. Cancelling the disparity and convergence cues to flatness results in powerful and unexpected increased depth in the picture or moving picture.
    • THE-I can also be combined with all existing disparity-based 3D technologies creating a much more powerful effect than before.
    • THE-I is a unique device, drawing 150 years of sidelined visual theory back to the fore.