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A brief whistle-stop description of the synoptic effect and how THE-I works...

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  1. 1. Rob Black
  2. 2. <ul><li>Greatly enhanced visual detail and vividity. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy based on mathematical derivation </li></ul><ul><li>Ability for this cue to function in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>But, in conventional and recent 3D glasses systems this very problem is the undoing. </li></ul><ul><li>Disparity is phenomenally accurate at dictating that the screen being viewed is totally flat. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Evolution designed us to have two laterally separated eyes, to help foreground objects stand out more in space. </li></ul><ul><li>This advantage converts to a loss when we look at a computer screen or a flat canvas/paper </li></ul><ul><li>There is nothing to see round, and all of our life’s experience tells us that the surface is flat, and that pictures on flat surfaces are flat. </li></ul><ul><li>We are so conditioned that pictures are flat that we don’t acknowledge another possibility... </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Partially. Closing one eye does remove binocular disparity information. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the eye still makes vergence movements as if matching the other closed eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Plus, one closed eye dictates an ambiguous depth percept – could be flat or deep. </li></ul><ul><li>Two eyes in parity present an unambiguous depth percept – the visual information is deep. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, have you tried holding one eye closed for extended periods? Very uncomfortable... </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Convergence is nowhere near as accurate as binocular disparity for determining depth. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is somewhat accurate </li></ul><ul><li>In that, if the viewer is looking at a screen less than 10m away, there will be a noticeable degree of visual convergence </li></ul><ul><li>And ditto for anywhere between 100 and 400m away for binocular disparity </li></ul><ul><li>This tells the brain that the objects are nearby </li></ul><ul><li>This may be why 3D film-makers often used hyper-stereo. Now, they tend to use hypo. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>It virtually never works consistently across the board. There is inevitably one + factor amiss. </li></ul><ul><li>There is almost always a degree of ghosting, processor slowdown, resolution loss, misrendered foreground objects, inappropriate scaling, camera misalignment, parallax etc. </li></ul><ul><li>This is being resolved by the industry daily. </li></ul><ul><li>PC games can be scaled to IPD but movies can’t </li></ul><ul><li>This is until multi-viewer glasses-free and depth-map scaled systems which maintain roundness for near objects are implemented </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Binocular disparity is a very good cue to depth, but also an incredibly good cue to flatness. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first instance, removing real binocular disparity information results in the surface being unspecified, or specified as far away. </li></ul><ul><li>However, crucially, the convergence cue must be removed by encouraging vision to look straight ahead, not focus on a near point. </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation needs correction to infinity. </li></ul><ul><li>By combining these factors we can fool the eyes </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Fooled into perceiving the visual information as being extant in three dimensional space. </li></ul><ul><li>By removing binocular disparity and convergence cues to flatness, the brain can perceive any image, movie, photograph, artwork or video game with it’s natural implicit depth map. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything, ever created can look more three dimensional, just by removing real depth info. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>They did! In 1874 Jentzsch observed non-stereoscopic depth in microscopes. </li></ul><ul><li>3D visionaries such as Helmholtz, Gregory, Gibson, Wheatstone and Brewster all acknowledged monocular/plastic relief. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1903-7, Moritz Von Rohr (Zeiss) patented a synopter device to be marketed to art galleries which failed due to cost and ergonomic issues. </li></ul><ul><li>The only remnant is the binoviewer attached to telescopes. People frequently comment that the space objects look more 3D and more detailed. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The device exists in various guises with a single beam splitter. However this gives it a large footprint and a very small FOV </li></ul><ul><li>A large FOV is critical for the effect to work. </li></ul><ul><li>The double beam splitter device requires the alignment accuracy to be almost perfect, cutting prisms to fit the correct IPD a </li></ul><ul><li>There must be no visible seaming or mis-scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Such prisms do exist already in LCD projectors, but are tinted with RGB colour filters </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture is simple, affordable and intuitive, however not implicitly obvious. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Conventional 3D glasses can be given a global offset which does bring the picture forward. However, the convergence and binocular disparity flatness information remain, changing only the screen content, not context </li></ul><ul><li>It is not the added depth, so much as the removed flatness which aids this effect to work. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the very best HMDs have a sufficiently large field of view and pixel density to pass off as normal. So it is out of reach but to a very few (eg users of the £500,000 piSight etc.) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Yes, it is theoretically possible to make this device using electronic components. </li></ul><ul><li>It would require 400 DPI+ screens and an extremely good, tiny camera </li></ul><ul><li>However, only the very best camera viewfinder screens have sufficient DPI and contrast ratios, </li></ul><ul><li>(THE-I would have an RRP of under €100). </li></ul><ul><li>The contrast and resolution of the real world is still orders of magnitude better than the best electronics commercially available today. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Effortless natural depth produced by the eyes being completely relaxed. </li></ul><ul><li>We are so used to viewing pictures with our normal eyes that there is quantitative shift. </li></ul><ul><li>Motion parallax is greatly enhanced (perhaps because zero disparity and parallel convergence both specify infinite depth) </li></ul><ul><li>Monocular depth cues also look more salient, strong perspectives can look very realistic. </li></ul><ul><li>There is massively more visual detail evident compared to normal viewing. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>BINOCULAR DISPARITY 3D </li></ul><ul><li>Computationally and economically costly </li></ul><ul><li>System specific </li></ul><ul><li>Requires custom hardware (monitors) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires software tuning profiles for each game </li></ul><ul><li>BINOCULAR PARITY 3D </li></ul><ul><li>No electronics, profiles, flickering </li></ul><ul><li>No intervention with source material </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately priced </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with virtually everything </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>PC games and applications lack a consistent, specialised setting to make them look 3D. </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented environment-specific drivers & wrappers that only work with some programs. </li></ul><ul><li>What if I want to use a graphic design package, see photos in more 3D, play an FPS at 1080P (frame rate barely normal) & play my console? </li></ul><ul><li>No existing 3D system currently does all these things, and certainly can’t handle the range. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Yes! 3D shutter or polarising glasses are independent technology from THE-I </li></ul><ul><li>Combining the two results in a perfect, stable perception with no visual strain of identically placed physical images in both eyes, filtered either by flickering or polarising. </li></ul><ul><li>The cancellation of distracting surrounding information and removal of flatness information result in a dramatically more vibrant and convincing 3D setup. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>THE-I works as a standalone device. Cancelling the disparity and convergence cues to flatness results in powerful and unexpected increased depth in the picture or moving picture. </li></ul><ul><li>THE-I can also be combined with all existing disparity-based 3D technologies creating a much more powerful effect than before. </li></ul><ul><li>THE-I is a unique device, drawing 150 years of sidelined visual theory back to the fore. </li></ul>
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