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I School, Senior Thesis, Safia Brown, Parsons The New School for Design

I School, Senior Thesis, Safia Brown, Parsons The New School for Design



Spring 2009, Safia Brown, Senior Thesis, BBA Design + Management Program, Parsons The New School for Design, New York. Faculty, Robert Rabinovitz, Associate Professor, School for Design Strategies.

Spring 2009, Safia Brown, Senior Thesis, BBA Design + Management Program, Parsons The New School for Design, New York. Faculty, Robert Rabinovitz, Associate Professor, School for Design Strategies.



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    I School, Senior Thesis, Safia Brown, Parsons The New School for Design I School, Senior Thesis, Safia Brown, Parsons The New School for Design Document Transcript

    • iSchool. A nonprofit initiative sponsored by Apple. Safia Brown Senior Thesis Parsons The New School for Design Faculty Robert Rabinovitz Spring 2009
    • DESIGN, ILLUSTRATIONS AND TEXT Safia Brown ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Robert Rabinovitz ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Robert Rabinovitz My thesis class Steven Dean My Parents Said and Ingeborg Brown Mounir Brown Emily Harding Jason-Julian Bailey
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 1.0 The Notion of education 1.1 Kant on education: moral 1.2 Aristotle on education: happiness 1.3 The Roots of education 2.2 Education and the community 2.1 The impact of education 2.2 Breaking the cycle of poverty 2.3 Case study 1 : CAMFED 3.0 Framing the problem in Morocco 3.1 Locating Morocco 3.2 Opportunity cost: Child labor 3.3 Persona: Aicha 3.4 Intellectual Bankruptcy 4.0 Social Entrepreneurship for education 4.1 Case Study 2: OLPC 4.2 INTEL in Morocco SAFIA BROWN 5.0 An intervention for Morocco SENIOR THESIS 5.1 Distant Education 5.2 Dimensions DESIGN + MANAGEMENT 5.3 Storyboard: Rural vs Urban PARSONS SCHOOL OF DESIGN 5.4 Distant education Advantages 5.5 Feasibility 6.0 Ischool: The next generation of Classrooms 6.1 Apple: company overview 6.2 iTunes University 6.3 iSchool: defining the concept 6.4 Architecture for humanity 6.5 System map 7.0 Business Plan 8.0 Conclusion
    • Education is a fundamental human right, powerful enough to end cycles of poverty and diseases, pro- mote gender equality and enhance economical development. Alone in North Africa and the Middle Eastern 100.7 million children worldwide of primary school age are not able to attend educational ABSTRACT institutions. In Morocco, despite the fact that education is free, 90% of girls from rural areas are illiter- ate. These numbers result in child labor, high unemployment rates, and stagnation in the countries de- velopment. Education remains a privilege for children in urban environments, coming from stronger financial backgrounds and leaves children behind due to lacking infrastructures, high unemployment rates and therefore child labor. iSchool targets children in rural areas, providing them with a safe and innovative school. It incorporates live-stream education through iChat Av, an Apple Inc. video and communication software. In phase one of the project, the next generation of classrooms will take 20 children living in rural areas, guided by teachers that are being recruited in Moroccan universities. IS- chool students will audit from a first grade classroom in urban areas and learn basic education through the same teacher. The curriculum will remain the same. The children will attend school from 8 am to 1 p.m., having an individual computer designed by Apple that will use icons and games in order to facili- tate the learning process. When completing phase 1, students will now be able to audit a second grade classroom. iSchool is not a governmental institution that has a high school diploma as a goal, but is looking into decreasing the illiteracy rate and giving access to basic education. Giving children of the world access to equal education remains a subject of social enterprises . iSchool is taking the first step and introduces the next generation of classrooms through live-stream education systems developed by Apple Inc.
    • ‘‘ ARISTOTLE All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth.
    • KANT ON EDUCATION: MORAL ARISTOTLE ON EDUCATION: HAPPINESS Immanuel Kant has dedicated a whole disser- According to Aristotle, in order to understand the tation, Kant on Education, discussing what the true meaning of education, one must look at a education has as a purpose. “Main purpose of his much larger picture, including elements such as academic life,”(...) “cultivate good characters.” When happiness, moral virtues, the theory of right action. describing an ultimate education, Kant uses the Aristotle affirms on terms of eudemonia: “For the [ The notion of education] German originate word “Bildung” incorporating in- tellectual, moral, social education. Looking at edu- former think it is some plain and obvious thing, like pleasure, wealth, or honor; they differ, however, 1 cation on a broader picture, one must understand from one another--and often even the same man that a “Bildung”(in Kant’s meaning of the work) is identifies it with different things, with health when building human assets for a nation. It enforces the he is ill, with wealth when he is poor; but, conscious life quality and will play an important economic of their ignorance, they admire those who proclaim factor. Formally expressed, “educated people” will some great ideal that is above their comprehen- have an understanding of the world in the “big pic- sion. (1095a16ff.) In an Aristotelian point of view, ture”, and will have the necessary intellectual tools education is therefore a major element in a person’s for conflict solving, innovation in many key areas happiness. But Aristotle is not the only philosopher such health, politics and human rights.1 approaching the concept of education.”2
    • THE ROOTS OF EDUCATION Many traces lead to the Islamic world around 786 A.D. This period is nowadays known as the Golden Age, which can be referred to a period of enlightenment, a period where intellec- tual activity took place. The Arabs had a big influence in fields such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and chemistry. By the 9th Century the Madrasah was introduced, an educational space that according to a classic definition of a university, this institution founded in an early stage of our society was the first to teach people on higher level. Today, The University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco is recognized as the oldest edu- cational institution in our history. Furthermore Arabic Phi- losophers such as al-Kind_ (801–873) and al-F_r_b_ (870–950) Today, The University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco is recognized as the oldest transmitted the Aristotelian point of view in the early Islamic Philosophy, as well as the first publication on mathematics called algebra. Today the entire human race is learning from these basics.3 educational institution in our history. 3
    • THE IMPACT OF EDUCATION A country’s development process and success is very much dependant on a strong educa- tion. Education is an ongoing solution incorporating innovations in many fields and en- ables a community to reconstruct hope and preserve heritage and culture. An active and sustainable school environment will affect safe water and sanitation, nutrition, health and recreation.4 However, in order to justify this project factors such as social, economic and [ Education and the community] political issues come into account. The situation of parents, children and employers are in- terconnected and more or less controlled by the same external factors such as traditions, 2 religion, and gender inequality. Attempting to intervene on these levels will ultimately affect all other partied involved. On the other hand, the current political governance is looking into identifying factors for social regression. King Mohammed VI reigning since July 1999 opens many windows in order to implement social entrepreneurship among the country. Him and is wife Princess Lalla Meryem show the attempt of making Morocco a more progressive, innovative and gender-equal nation. Presently Princess Lalla Meryem is involved in projects connected to the right of children and is very much followed up in the media. Furthermore King Mohammed VI has recently launched a social project in Morocco’s capital Rabat, inaugurating a network of young entrepreneurs. A project of the National Initiative of Human Development. On may 18th 2005 King Mohammed VI an- nounces to his nation that of his understanding of the social issues in the country, is a major weakness that needs to be constraint by concrete social projects and human devel- opment.5 On that note, despite the social difficulties and religious constraint that will face this intervention, many of the influencing factors such as politics are willing to introduce social entrepreneurship into the nations path to development, in order to overcome social instabilities, improve life quality, enforce gender equality and boost economic develop- ment.
    • BREAKING THE CYCLE OF POVERTY The importance of education has been subject for many phi- losophers, politicians but giving access to education to less fortunate remains subject of many non for profit organiza- tions. UNICEF has dedicated many of their projects to the importance of education and the impact it has on communi- ties and the economic development of a country. Education is fundamental element in building a community. It plays a major factor in enhancing respect among all members of a community fighting against inequalities. Inequalities that mainly concern girls that do not have access education there- fore have been taken the right to independently make their own decision. Stephane Klasen, professor at the University of Gottingen, Germany (with a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard) states the following: “By allowing educated females to become part of the work force, become part of the productive resource of the economy, to increase their productivity and contribute to economic growth. There are quite a number of stud- ies that have shown that countries that have a large gen- der imbalance in their education have ended up growing “ Education is a fundamental human right: slower than those countries that have gender balance in Every child is entitled to it. (…)Education enhances lives. education” 6 It ends generational cycles of poverty and disease and provides a foundation for sustainable development.”7
    • CASE STUDY 1: CAMFED, BREAKING THE CYCLE OF POVERTY “Our focus is on rural areas of Africa. In this context of widespread poverty, girls and young women face massive exclusion from education and the opportunities that education itself unlocks. Girls and young women in rural areas of Africa are the most disadvantaged social group in the world today. They are unable to challenge the status quo from their position of acute vulnerability. Girls’ circumstances can only improve if their communities are in a position to support them. And in turn rural communities can only change if girls’ circumstances improve. Educating girls and women helps individuals. It also unlocks energies which drive social and economic development.” 8 The problems The Solution How to succeed 1. The change in families where girls Therefore CAMFED has taken The importance they put on have historically born responsibil- into account the whole com- the long-term follow up is what ity for domestic chores with their munity and build a project that makes this project successful. mothers, while boys have had more responds to all their needs. They do not believe in “short- freedom to play and study. Moth- “The power of the program is term” projects. Nobody can ers are now sharing those domestic in the transformation in girls’ benefit from a project that can chores between girls and boys. and young women’s lives and not provide positive result on 2. The change in leadership struc- how they use this to transform the long term. There way of do- tures that have traditionally ex- the lives of others.Camfed also ing so is to give all girls primary cluded women, such as the chief’s builds the capacity of schools and secondary ecducation fol- courts. In Zimbabwe, young wom- to respond to the needs of chil- lowed by business training. en are now involved as counsellors dren. Across Africa, schools are These woman will than be giv- and advocates for women bringing more than educational institu- ing their knowledge to younger action on issues such as domestic tions, they provide vital social girls and so on. These woman violence. support for poor children, espe- become spokesperson on na- 3. The change in schools where cially those who have lost their tional and international level girls have previously been a minor- parents to HIV/AIDS.” They have promoting the importance of ity, participating in predominantly taken the risk to implement a having access to education. “By male environments and seen as less project where it seemed impos- multiplying girls’ access to edu- intelligent than their male peers. The sible to educate the people due cation, we can transform the change in girls and young women to strong traditions, but have world. Because when you edu- themselves as their self-perception realized the importance of fe- cate a girl, everything changes.” 8 rises and they become role models males in a society and they there and activists. 8 is need of empowering the one that is able to be driver to e de- veloping cycle: the woman. 8 “EDUCATE ME, I WILL CHANGE THE WORLD” 42-19503565| Standard RM| © Amanda Koster/Corbis
    • CHILD LABOR. [Framing the problem in Morocco] 3
    • LOCATING MOROCCO Morocco is located on the North West corner of Africa only 12 Kilometers away from Spain. The population is 538,000 estimated at 33,000,000 at a growth rate of 1.7 %. 31% of children under the age of 15 are in the population is under 15 and 65% under 30. More than the labor force 40% of the population lives in rural areas. Rural Morocco has an illiteracy rate of 67% compared to a 34% rate in urban areas. Villages lack of basic infrastructures such as roads, water, sanitation, electricity ( 40% of the rural pop- 90% Ages 12-14 ulation). Furthermore they have labor tasks that need to be fulfilled. For instance, woman are responsible for domestic chores, field labor. Buying and selling the local of girls in at least 14 hours markets, smuggling goods across borders, gathering fire of economic work rural areas can or 28 hours of do- woods. 20On top of that, due to the lack of infrastructure, these tasks are more time consuming than in urban ar- not read or write mestic work per week eas. Fetching water remains tasks of women and children and according to the Collectif 95 Maghreb Egalité 1999 14.3 of the Moroccan rural population has not access to water, and women need to travel an average of 3 km in 44% order to access water in commune wells. 9 of the population lives in rural areas and therefore no access to education Article 13 of the Moroccan Constitution cites: All citizens shall have equal rights in seeking education and employment.
    • OPPORTUNITY COST: CHILD LABOR THIS IS AICHA. VICTIM OF CHILD LABOR Despite the fact that education in Morocco is free, 538.000 children under the age of 15 are in the labor “We meet Aicha in her home in a village near Marrake- force, and more than half are girls. These children are working as carpet-makers, sewers, herdsman and ch, and talk with Aicha and her mother Mina. Aicha is domestic servants making as little as $10 a week. Labor laws in Morocco have established that children 14 years old, and has worked for one year for a “very under the age of 12 may not be in the labor force. Furthermore, after the 1982 census indicated that rich” family in Marrakech. They are additionally six other half of school-aged children were not in school, and of those 95% never have been to school, the 1963 bonnes working for this family. The employer is a high- Moroccan constitution made schooling mandatory for all children aged 7 to 13. On top of that half of ly ranked man, with an “important job”, who receives children between 5 and 14 had no education, due to a lack of developed infrastructure in rural areas, many guests, and this is why there is very much work depriving many people the access to educational institutions.19 The World Bank estimates that 2.5 mil- even though there are many maids, Aicha and Mina lion children, mostly rural girls, do not attend school.10 explain. Aicha earns 400 Dirhams per month. She got the job through a girl from the same village who also works as a bonne in Marrakech. Now, Aicha is sick, and THE “PETITE BONNE” PHENOMENON has boils on her hands and feet. This sort of boils and wounds basically comes from the work, washing, etc, explain both Aicha and her mother. Usually, Mina goes On that note, Morocco has been showing particular cases of child labor that are a reflection of the to get Aicha’s salary each month, but this time, the em- absence on girls education. The phenomenon of “petite bonne” (servants under the age of 15) is a ployer sent the money. This worried Mina: “It was as if major issue in terms of lack of education since it breaks many rules of basic human rights. In Morocco they didn’t want me to come”. Therefore, she went to domestic labor concentrates on urban areas, where young girls work as servants. As of 2001, there was Marrakech to see what was happening and found Aicha an estimate of 66.000 to 88.000 girls sent to urban families to work as maid. Many factors come into ill. Now, Aicha does not want to work anymore, or to go account when asking why? The level of salaries is very low and families try all ways to earn a living, the back to this family. Mina says that Aicha has to work, decreasing educational system, general living and working conditions.11 On behalf of the young girls because she needs the money Aicha says that if she has the only influences and relations they have are with their parents and their employers. Sending these to work, she does not want to go back to this family, as young girls to work is a response to an economic situation in order to ensure a source of income, and http://www.maroc-hebdo.press.ma/ MHinternet/Archives_601/ph_601/ the work is too tough. But Mina says that she prefers the employers usually do not tend to integrate the girls socially, worse, do not give them the oppor- bonne.jpg Aicha to work for this family, because it is a “big family”, tunity to attend schools. The “petite bonne” becomes a commodity for sale. “Child domestic labour” is that is to say, rich and important.” (Fafo and the UK ini- a special term (or expression) within studies of children’s work and child labour. Historically, children’s tiative “ Save the Children” have introduced this young work within industry and artisan crafts has been accorded most attention, Morocco being no excep- girl that has been working as a domestic servant). This tion. Domestic activities within households have not always been recognized as “work” or “labour”, example is a personification of the problems that Mo- especially when performed by girls (or women). Presently, however, more international attention is rocco is facing: gender inequality, economic develop- being directed toward children’s labour and work in domestic settings (cf. Black 1997, Nieuwenhuys ment, gap between urban and rural communities and 1994, 1996; UNICEF 1999). 72% of the interviewed girls get up before 7 a.m., and 65% go to bed after the lack of education. Morocco becomes subjects of so- 11 p.m. 81% say that they have no days off (1996:49). 12 cial enterprises. How can this problem be addressed?13
    • MOROCCO: INTELLECTUAL BANCRUPTCY As of now, 93 million children do not attend school, mostly girls and “80 per cent of them live in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.” Ironically, considering that Morocco was leading in terms of knowledge is nowadays a developing country is in need for educational reforms and educational rights. According to the World Bank, the Muslim World is failing to follow the right to education, and are “falling behind”, and there is an urgent need to rethink the reform. “It’s a very youthful region - 60% of the region’s population is under 30 years of age, close to 100 million new jobs will need to be cre- ated over the next 10 to 15 years in the Arab world. If we are to create such jobs, then we have to start with education.” says Marwan Muasher a senior official at the World Bank. The irony lies in historical facts, the Muslim World once was a major contributor to fields such as science and technology, and nowadays are struggling with illiteracy and unemployment. 14
    • [Social Entrepreneurship for education. ] 4
    • CASE STUDY 2: ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD Mission Statement: Innovative approach The product OLPC success To create educational opportunities for OLPC is innovative in many ways, using Weighing in at 1.58 kg, the XO is the size Research was the key factor in the initial the world’s poorest children by providing product design for charity purposes. The of an average textbook yet, lighter than steps in developing this program. In or- each child with a rugged, low-cost, low laptop was not merchandised, and was a lunch box. It can assume many differ- der to reach and implement such an in- power, connected laptop with content solely designed for developing countries. ent configurations in order to suit vari- novative product, OLPC had to overcome and software designed for collaborative, However as strategy to raise awareness ous cultural needs. A transformer hinge many obstacles. As Michael Schrage cov- joyful, self-empowered learning. When and attract attention of a three month allows versatility for standard laptop use, ers in his writings of Serious Play, obsta- children have access to this type of tool time period they initiated the Give One, e-book reading, and gaming. XO has a cles can be an integral part of an innova- they get engaged in their own education. Get One campaign. What this allowed customized sealed rubber-membrane tion process. The project is mostly funded They learn, share, create, and collaborate. was for a $400 donation, which would keyboard designed to suite the size of by corporate organizations, which have They become connected to each other, to give the person donating the money an children’s hands. It can assume many dif- a lot of impact on the success of the in- the world and to a brighter future. OLPC XO as well as send and XO to a child in a ferent configurations in order to suit vari- tervention. Companies such as eBay, is a non-profit organization founded by developing country. ous cultural needs. A transformer hinge Norton, and Intel have donated over 2 Nicholas Negroponte. The goal is to bring allows versatility for standard laptop use, million dollars. The social entrepreneur- education to the poorest children in the e-book reading, and gaming. XO has ship landscape is very wide, and includes most remote parts of the world. a customized sealed rubber-membrane various organizations aiming to help the keyboard designed to suite the size of ones who cannot help themselves. “The children’s hands. pragmatic and results-oriented methods of a business entrepreneur with the goals of a social reformer” Comparing it to the other studies, OLPC has achieved to build a strong corporate identity, which builds trust and loyalty among stakeholders. 15
    • INTEL’S ATTEMPT IN MOROCCO Despite Intel’s initiative they have been no results stating improvement of education in rural areas. Intel has donated 1000 computers towards education in Morocco but has not included curriculums tied to the changes that have In order to implement a project focusing on education it is crucial to consider all aspects of the situ- been made. ation. Driven by strong traditions and facing a lack of travel possibilities it seems to be necessary to introduce a program that will use modern technology to accomplish long-term goals. Intel has started to envision a project that will use technology in order to provide education and community develop- ment in Morocco. Craig Barrett, chairman at Intel notes: “Morocco is at a crossroads in its economic development(…)Technology can help accelerate the country’s economic prospects, and Intel is col- laborating with Morocco’s government and its people to help enable this transition.” When talking to teachers that were introduced to technology as a tool the education they have been positively sur- prised by the success “The students, and especially the students that are from underprivileged families, had this occasion to access knowledge, so now nothing is holding them from pursuing progress to succeed. It is going to give them a chance for a better future.” Intel aims to provide internet access for every Moroccan, and building e-spaces where people can access government services. Morocco is one of the few African countries that provides governmental serviced tangible on online platforms. “This initiative will help us bridge the digital divide and allow low-income citizens to access e-government services while creating new opportunities for young entrepreneurs to launch their own businesses and create new jobs,” said Taieb Debbagh, general secretary of D.E.P.T.I. However, despite Intel’s initia- tive they have been no results stating improvement of education in rural areas. Intel has donated 1000 computers towards education in Morocco but has not included curriculums tied to the changes that Craig Barrett (L) and Moroccan athlete Hicham EL Guerrouj (R) visit 01 November 2007 a school in the village of Ain Aouda, near Rabat, where the USs firm set up 250 computers. have been made. It seems as they have given these children the possibility to connect to the world but have not considered the changes that could have been done. 16
    • DISTANT EDUCATION In order to address the problem of access in educa- tion in rural Morocco, INTEL initiative would need to been taking further. Therefore this project, a non for profit initiative sponsored by Apple is looking into the concept of distant education. Distant education has been used for over 800 years in many different cultures. Genghia Khaan had established a way to travel education through horses. In the 19th century the Chautauqua movement had established a trav- [An intervention for Morocco] eling education throughout the United States, using 5 railroads and boats. In 1919 Polish Film maker Dziga Vertov has developed a interactive educational film. a peripatetic educational media approach complete with principles known today as instructional design and formative evaluation (James, 1996a, 1996b). Early on, there were innovators who have discovered ways to share education, mostly through mobile me- dias such as horses, trains and boats. Nowadays, this mobility lies in new technologies, enabling to share information through the web. The question to be asked is, how can www education in Morocco start a sustainable work environment for the children and parents, and how these families will remain to gener- ate their income. Distant education has become a large trend in the western world as well because of time management as well as human asset expenses. On the other hand, many try-outs of distant has failed due to lack of technologies in these specific countries.17
    • DOMAINS OF RESEARCH. dimensions units of analysis dimensions government traditions low high funding technology children legislations low high community corporation education low high low high unemployment schools rural vs. urban graduation low high low high distant education demographics literacy rates follow-up low high low high curriculum economics human rights infrastucture high religion high low low social organizations ROI low high low high child Labor low high
    • A RURAL PROBLEM Storyboarding. While rural areas house less than 50% of the population, they account for 70% of the poor. Rural areas are also strongly disfavored according to other indicators such as access to electricity and safe water, literacy, and school enrollment, with the female population standing out as particularly disadvantaged. Low educational achieve- ment is reflected in a labor force that for the most part is “unskilled” (in the sense that most jobs require no formal education). The skill gap is a major source of inequal- ity between rural and urban areas; on average skilled workers earn 6-7 times the wage of unskilled workers (Karshenas, 1994). Relatively unfavorable rural conditions have led to rapid rural-urban migration, which provides an importantoutlet for the rural labor force (absorbing the bulk of its natural growth), but exacerbates urban unemployment and puts downward pressure on urban wages. The rural economy is dominated by 2 Drawing on the model’s Social Accounting Matrix. Unprocessed agricultural products represent around 8% of exports and 6% of imports.agriculture which represents close to 80% of total employment and may account for some 60% of total rural value-added. In terms of the economy as a whole, agriculture provides somewhat less than 20% of GDP but as much as 45% of total employment, attesting to its relatively high laborintensity. While agricultural GDP is highly variable, since the early 1980s, the sector has discontinued an earlier secular decline in its share of the economy . The agricultural sector is itself marked by considerable heterogeneity, perhaps most importantly between relatively prosperous irrigated zones (17% of the cultivated area in the early 1990s) and disfavored rainfed zones that, inter alia, suffer from frequent but irregular droughts. Moreover, the rainfed areas differ greatly in terms of average annual rainfall.(Trade Reform and the Poor in Morocco: A Rural-Urban General Equilib- rium Analysis of Reduced Protection , Hans Löfgren, International Food Policy Research Institute1999)18
    • DISTANT EDUCATION FEASIBILTY DISTANT EDUCATION ADVANTAGES The biggest challenge that online education faces is if children in primary schools are able to be The introduction of web 2.0. has increased the usage of distant education, along with receptive to such technologies. The answer is yes. In 2000, the Education and Manpower Bureau of the development of third generation courses. These courses are defined by a two-way Hong Kong had conducted a study over 3 years. “The aim was to encourage teachers to enhance communication media and enable the communication between the originator of the how students learnt in primary schools and to professionally support teachers to raise their aware- material and the receptor, in this case the student. As argued previously, distant educa- ness of strategies to cater for individual learning differences in traditional classrooms, particularly tion using the internet as a media has shown many failures. However, when used in an when ICT ( information and communication technologies) tools were used.” The called the project appropriate manner it delivers mechanisms that offer many advantages including: “designing for school culture change”. The implementation of online educational tools resulted in a shift of the was children use to learn. They were now more motivated because they were using 1. Quicker access to materials, children in rural areas do not have the financial needs and computer based tools. Students demonstrated self-initiative to use class time to work on home- possibilities to get access to printed documents. work. When interviewing the children they revealed the following: 1-Their interest in learning had increased because they were attracted by the animations, multime- 2. Materials are always up to date as most donated books tend to be older editions. dia elements and the different yet flexible functions on the ILE; 3. Interaction and feedback with students and tutors from other schools. 2-The students readily showed willingness to go to other web sites to explore and look for more information on their own, with minimal teacher guidance; 4. A variety of different sources including audio and video material 3-They felt that they could always use the information on the ILE to achieve better scores, since the 5. More flexible class time, students will benefit from streamed lectures but will be able exercises and activities were repeatable and they could continually work to improve; to simultaneously interact with the tutor. 4-Many of them preferred doing the exercises on the ILE because they could get immediate feed- 6. The tutor, in this case the volunteer, will be able to chose the streaming hours and use back and avoid any embarrassment; the rest of class time to work on arts and crafts and group discussions. 5-They felt that they could always move on to the next set of exercises when they had finished the The advantage of giving rural areas access through education whether by building a school and ones they had been assigned; having teachers come in, where the books will have to be collected, is the cost factor. Web-based education eliminates the need to print updated materials, since nowadays information changes so 6-They had more time to think for themselves; rapidly. 21 7-They gained more satisfaction from their own achievements. 22
    • 1 TEACHER 1 PROJECTOR + iChat = ACCESS TO EDUCATION IN RURAL MOROCCO [iSchool:thenextgenerationofclassrooms] 6
    • APPLE: COMPANY OVERVIEW Apple has been successful not only for their innova- are far more predictable. Apple continues to claim that tive products, but very much for the fact that Steve 50% of the computers sold at their retail stores are to Jobs has the ability to predict the technological fu- customers new to the Mac. The final issue is far more ture. He knew what to make the consumer want. He important, however, and that’s the touchy issue of suc- has the talent to put a product into scene and make cession. Ever since Steve Jobs dodged the cancer bul- it seem like it was a commodity for the consumer let a while back, you have to wonder if Apple’s board since it hit the retail stores. Apple is, to all intents and of directors has made any effort to line up his replace- purposes, a show business figure as personified by ment. Sure, Jobs seems to have recovered nicely, and Steve Jobs. So the same rules apply. Today you adore despite claims at one time that he seemed a little out of them, tomorrow they are the objects of derision, it at one or two keynote addresses, I haven’t heard any whether they deserve it or not. Indeed, one ques- such claims after this month’s Macworld Expo. Sure, tion raised these days is whether the iPod’s existence the product announcements may not have been as as a cultural icon is coming to a close. Surely it was a trendsetting as the introduction of the iPhone last year, fad, and that it sustained itself so long seems to be but Jobs seemed perfectly on target. But nothing is for- almost a miracle. The way that the consumer awaits ever. It is possible Jobs will continue to savor the CEO the new Apple product is a cultural phenomenon. experience for many years, well into his 70s perhaps. It seem like Steve Jobs has turned his invention into But that would mean that health and other tragedies a cult. Strong product development, iconic adver- don’t intervene to change the situation in a terrible way tising campaigns, significant branding, impeccable with little warning. A responsible company would plan design, to only name a few, make Apple to an iconic for the eventual departure of its leader, and I have little revolution of the 21st Century. Many things like the doubt that a replacement is being groomed within the issue with the “plus-and-play” have been put aside, hallowed halls of One Infinite Loop. and there are no more barriers for PC users o switch Apple needs to find a new way to innovate and sur- Think different. to Apple. It focuses on user-friendly interfaces and prise their loyal customers. Not to forget this is how they design and makes the Apple experience into a dis- gained their loyalty, by surprising them every 6 months covery world. It starts by purchasing the product. or so, with a new, better version of what has been out The apple retail stores speak for themselves: clean there. They might will have to weigh their focus a bit cut, cutting-edge, integrated design stores, where on their publicity, and push the sustainable and social all salesperson look like interesting young students. conscious aspect, just because, considering today’s In other words, they look like a Steve Jobs in 1976, economic status, people appreciate when corporations a young college dropout that has just invented a seem to have social conscious mind. In my opinion a personal computer called the Macintosh. It feels like type of sponsorship seems to be interestingly Giving you are becoming a genius yourself, playing with all young and enthiousatic entrepreneurs the opportunity kinds of Apple products. However, if you look at the to challenge for Apple Sponsorship. On the other hand, sales figures, you’ll see that’s just not so. More and a corporate sponsorship with youth centers, that focus more Windows users, sick and tired of Vista and its on better education would be an important aspect for chronic performance and compatibility irritants, are Apple’s social identity.23 crossing to the other side of the tracks where thing
    • APPLE: INVOLVMENT IN EDUCATION iSCHOOL DEFINING THE CONCEPT Considering the fact that online education is feasible in Morocco, the problem of com- munities having no access to education can be approached. The country shows enough access to internet and telephone lines. As of 2006, 1.266 million telephones were in use and 137,187 internet hosts, with 6.1 million internet users. iSchool is a non for profit organization that will provide rural children in Morocco with life stream education. Using existing technologies such as iChat we will be able to stream live classrooms from urban areas to neglected villages. IChat is video and audio communication software Thanks to iChat screen sharing, you and your buddy can observe and control a single desktop with iChat, making it a cinch to collaborate with a colleague, browse the web with a friend, or pick plane seats with your spouse. Share your own desktop or your buddy’s — you both have control at all times. And iChat automatically initiates an audio chat when you start a screen sharing session, so you can talk things through while you’re at it. The iSchool system revolves around sustainable funding, strong partnership with part- ner schools that are providing their classroom to be transferred by iChat, the volunteers, the students and the community. In phase 1 of the project, iSchool we will offer a 1st grade curriculum to students between the ages of 5-9. They will have class Monday iTunes U is an inititaitve by Apple that allows users to dowload lectures, language lessons, audiobooks, through Friday from 8am-1pm. They will learn reading, writing, basic mathematics, arts and many more that are purchased on iTunes store. They can be transferred to the iPod or IiPhone and and crafts, geography and basic sciences. be enjoyed on the go. They offer 100,000 educational downloads from top universities, museums and media organizations.23
    • Architecture for humanity: iSchool Buidling Architecture for Humanity represents the finest of the new breed of architectural leadership, employ- ing architectural skills and directing them for the larger good. Committed, unapologetically architec- tural in name and mission, Architecture for Humanity stands up for people in need.” – Robert Ivy, Editor in Chief, Architectural Record Architecture for humanity(ADH) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1999 in New York City. They look into building sustainable futures and hope among communities by providing them with construc- tion and development services. It seems particulary interesting for iSchool to partner with Architecture with humanity, not only to cut costs but furthermore to emphasize on the mission. Creating Alliances between nonporfit organizations can promote efficiency, achieving more with fewer resources and increase speed in which goal is achieved. However the focus should be put into aligning both mission statements. On that note, iSchool and AFH are complementing each other: buidling sustainable future for communities in need. 25
    • Systemmap. Input. Media. iSchool. Outcome. Partner school, that will project A prjector and screen will enable iChat will transmits the classroom iSchool receives the lecture live Volunteers as supervisors Access to education Community strenght Gender equality communicaton per IChat through a projector Provide iSchool with Instant messaging iSchool recrtuits Instant messaging live classrooms and video software that Moroccan students and video software that teaching and stream it allows to share information. that chose social allows to share information. through iChat to the new Insteadof bringing in a enterprises in the future. Insteadof bringing in a generation of education whole team of teachers, We o er them experience whole team of teachers, iSchool. The teacher will not that would need to be as well as wages. that would need to be directly be incontact with the accommodated in these They will work closely accommodated in these students in iSchool. areas, iChat provides with the students and areas, iChat provides the same possibilities control homework the same possibilities through online technologies. as well as look over through online technologies. the live stream classes. The iSchool system revolves around sustainable funding, strong partnership with partner schools that are providing their classroom to be transferred by iChat, the volunteers, the students and the community. In phase 1 of the project, iSchool we will offer a 1st grade curriculum to students between the ages of 5-9. They will have class Monday through Friday from 8am-1pm. They will learn reading, writing, basic math’s, arts and crafts, geography and basic sciences.
    • 1.0 Executive summary 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Keys to success 1.3 Mission [The Business Plan] 2.0 Organization summary 2.1 Locations and web presence 7 3.0 Services 3.1 Service description 3.2 Fulfillment 4.0 Market Analysis 5.0 Management summary 6.0 Marketing Plan 7.0 Financial Plan
    • 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ISchool will launch its first program in Morocco. As a growth strategy the organization will expand geographically in order to reach as many children as possible. ISchool will build its success on a strong marketing campaign in collaboration with its strong business partner Apple. This will raise awareness among potential donors. There are endless non for profit organization out there, many that focus on education only. Some are successful and many fail. ISchool learned from other organizations mis- takes and will launch a sustainable and corporate string NFP and focus on helping peo- ple on the long term. 1.1 Objectives THE SERVICE 20 students will successfully accomplish a first grade curriculum $40,000 in yearly philanthropic funding The service consists in giving access to education to children all over the world living in $60,000 in corporate sponsorship rural areas, deprived from institutions they can not reach due to weak infrastructures. In Geographical expansion phase 1, ischool will launch the project on Oukaimeden, a Moroccan village located 75 International awareness km from Marrakesh. Based on projected donations and educational success, iSchool will be in a suitable po- 1.2 Keys to success sition for future company growth within 5 years. Strong corporate identity that will create awareness and trust in potential FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS donors Apple’s initial sponsorship that will allow to create a significant marketing Since iSchool is a non for profit organization, there will be no revenue. The projects plan. success will depend on corporate donations and philanthropy. Apple, being our main Long-term follow-up sponsor will donate the start up budget. Having the internet as a key media, iSchool will Sustainable relationships with sponsors achieve public awareness and therefore more potential philanthropists. By 2000, in the bloom of the internet, private investors were financing 50,000 start-ups with $40 billion 1.3 Mission per year. Viral marketing will therefore enhance the success of this project. With a revenue of 32,479 million, Apple will be a strong financial support in the start up iSchool builds hope and offers equal education opportunities. Its service phase. They will sponsor ischool with one percent of their 2008 revenue, which gives the provides children in rural areas with live streamed classrooms from urban project a start up budget of $3,347,900. This will cover all start up costs. scholar institutions through the technology of iChat, a video communi- cation software designed by Apple. iSchool wants to give access to education to children living in rural Environments.
    • 2.0 ORGANIZATION SUMMARY ISchool is a non for profit start up organization. It has been developed as a response to strong inequalities in accessing education.. ISchool reflects the idea of managing an organization using strong research and design tools in order to achieve its goal: raising money for education. 2.1 Locations and facilities In the start up phase, iSchool will have its head office in Marrakesh in order to have a full control over the projects implementation and progress. In order to have an internation- al presences, the organization uses a website that incorporates all components of the project. Furthermore, this will allows users to donate directly through the website. As of now, Apple has incorporated iSchool on their website as their social involvement link. We hope to have the same presence on websites with our future corporate sponsors.
    • 3.0 SERVICE iSchool provides education to children in rural areas through a live streaming software: iChat, an audio and video communication software designed by Apple Real and live classroom material Moroccan students that will be working as teachers at iSchool and get future sponsorship for continuing education 3.2 Fulfillment Small classes which allows increased attention for and by students The full-time executive director will personally visit the school or otherwise inter- ested in our goals and objectives, to solicit their success in the organization. In addi- 3.1 Service Description tion, she will contact new corporate sponsors and potential donors to sustain steady costs. The Students In phase 1 of the project we will offer a 1st grade curriculum to students between the ages of The director and staff will coordinate and produce the events and activities that will 5 to 9. They will have class Monday through Friday from 8 AM to 1 PM. They will learn reading, produce the revenue to operate the organization as well as provide the services for writing, basic maths, arts and crafts,geography and basic sciences. all stakeholders. The communities We hope to have iSchool a community hub, where all members of the family can come, seeking information and knowledge. Everybody should benefit from this educational institution made possible by iSchool. Volunteers We will recruit students in Moroccan cities that will be volunteer for our organization. They will work closely with the students and control homework as well as look over the live stream classes. Partner Schools These are iSchool’s most important stakeholders. They will provide iSchool with live classroom teaching and stream it through iChat. The teacher will not directly be in contact with the stu- dents in iSchool., since the volunteers are working on the communication between students and teacher figure. Furthermore we do not want to disturb the usual class syllabus.
    • 4.0 Market Analysis Nonprofit organizations are facing unprecedented challenges. There is an increased need and competition for donations to staff turnovers and a push from funders for performance metric. 4.1 Human Resources 42% of the staff indicate that duties such as coordinating events, conducting prospect research, managing endowments and securing planned gifts are often part of a job rather than a dedi- Internet usage of nonprofits to raise money. cated full- or part-time position. 70% use consultants for fund raising and capital campaigns. 57% use consultants for software selection. 72% use consultants for technology implementation and training. 100% 69% use consultants for strategic planning. 4.2 Funding 59% of organizations’ overall budgets increased this year compared to last year. yes 83% of organizations’ funding from individual donations either increased or stayed the same. no 92% of organizations use one-on-one solicitation of major donors either frequently, periodi- cally, or plan to use it in the near future. 77% of organizations would choose to increase major gifts if they had additional resources to invest. 41% 59% 0% 4.3 Strategy 949 total respondents 80% feel their board members are committed to helping provide strategic direction. 52% feel their board is effective in leading and managing the organization. 22% have a committee to audit their boards. Top 3 management challenges within organizations: Securing funding Ensuring program growth Driving board effectiveness Followed by: retaining staff, expanding mission awareness and keeping pace with technology
    • Level of change in Philanthropic trends 4.4 Philanthropic trends Demographics: an aging population and increase in rural communities are willing to donate in organizations. New ways of working: networked organizations, alliances, longer professional lives with Philanthropic Industry many different career paths, new expectations of time and space. Social Level Product/Services Demography Regulation Structures Technology Globalization and its backlash: Access to education, impact of global corporations an Global non-democratic global finances systems, new understanding of the role and potential Community of international aid. Community and environmental sustainabilty: practice and attitude change, increased Grantmakers awareness, corporate social responsibility, the role of communities. Boards IT Choice
    • 5.0 Management team iSchool follows a simple organizational structure. The initial team consists of a board of direc- tors working closely with the executive director and the rest of all stakeholders. Each member of the organization will be working on their own department. There is a clear understanding of the structure. In order for a company to have a successful outcome of their human resources, one must be clear of the flow of information. iSchool will therefore implement weekly meetings Organizational Chart and discuss all happenings in each department. Following iSchool’s mission, the ultimate goal can all be reached by strong communication skills. The decision-making process will be a task of the board of directors, however in order to have strong idea pitching, all staff must have com- municated with each department so that all financial, client relations, marketing and human re- sources factors have been taken into account. A transparent organizational chart will ultimately result in strong and sustainable idea development. All decisions will be designed with children in the mind. 5.1 Management goals Being a nonprofit organization, the goals remain in making access to education equal. iSchool does not have financial goals, but rather making true a basic human right. Furthermore, in order to make iSchool a place where people enjoy to work, the work environment is a pleasant place. Staff satisfaction is crucial when talking about a work engine. Working together to help those who can’t help themselves is the core of iSchool.
    • Website welcome page 6.0 MARKETING Viral marketing is a strong tool in order to create awareness and build a strong international presence. Considering the competition in donations, a nonprofit organization must build trust and affiliation among users. 6.1 Website Ischools website will become an interactive and visually interesting platform. We want to gain potential donors by creating emotions when navigating through the website. Personal stories and recorded video from classes will be available in order to for visitors to get a strong under- standing of what iSchool does, and nothing else is better understood when not seen in a visual. Users will have the option to register for a newsletter that will update on storied of children. We are using the website not only to present the organization but are much rather using it as an interactive tool, where users will be able to get a real life grasp of these children and follow their success. Website home page 6.2 Corporate Sponsorship As a start up, Apple will promote iSchool on their website and retail stores. Donations will be accepted on both locations. Apple being a fast forward and innovative company will be in a suitable place to advertise iSchool as another kind of charity, one that will show positive results. 6.3 Events CEO and Founder Safia Brown will connect with contacts in New York City, Paris, Frankfurt and Berlin in order to set up iSchool events.
    • 7.0 FINANCIALS 7.2 Functional expenses Balance Sheet 7.1 Balance sheet Functional costs Program Services Management Development and PR US-GAAP Grants to school $800,000 Assets 2009 Salaries and employees benefits $100,000 $39,000 $70,000 Current Assets Volunteer Cash $2,191,984 Teacher recruitment $2,000 $3,400 $2,000 Contribution Receivable $20,481 Occupancy $9,900 $4,000 $7,000 Computer for children $400,000 Inventory $421,600 Software $20,000 Temporary Investments Projectors $2,000 Prepaid Expenses Office supplies $5,000 $6,000 $100 Other Current Assets $30,656 Equipment and equipment rental $900 $600 Total Current Assets $2,664,721 Insurance $1,800 $7,000 $2,000 Meetings, Hospitality and meals $600 $2,000 $500 Fixed Assets $30,656 Travel Expenses $13,000 $10,000 $10,000 Postage and shipping of material $2,300 $1,000 $1,900 Long Term Investments $20,000 Printing $5,000 $3,000 $1,000 Buildings $10,000 Storage fees $3,000 $1,300 $2,000 Total Net Fixed Assets $30,000 Telephone $2,500 $2,000 $2,000 Bank charges $15,000 Total Assets $2,694,721 Volunteer Website development $2,000 $500 Website maintenance $500 Photographer $1,000 $500 $1,000 Cleaning services $300 $300 $300 Total expenses before depreciation $1,368,000 $97,600 $100,300 Depreciation $10,000 Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity 2009 Total expenses $1,369,300 $107,600 $100,300 Current Liabilities Grants Payable $321,987 Accounts payable and accrued expenses $43,646 Total Liabilities $365,633 7.3 Income Statement Long Term Liabilities Long Term Debt Deferred Income Taxes Other Long Term Liabilities Total Long Term Liabilities $0 Shareholders’ Equity Capital Stock Additional Paid in Capital Retained Earnings $2,329,088 Total Shareholders’ Equity $2,329,088 Total Liabilities and Equity $2,694,721
    • Education has been a recurrent topic among many thinkers in this world, and has now become a business opportunity for many social entrepreneurs due to a lack of consistency in this field. Kant affirms that education is imperative for the develop- ment of mankind. Kant finds it ‘delightful to imagine that human nature can be increasingly enhanced through education and that education can be shaped in a manner which is appropri- ate to mankind’. And if this does not prove the point, that education is the basis of all happenings in this world than the following quote should convince existing doubts: ‘Good education is itself the source of all that is good in the world’ -KANT Aristotle enforces this argument by stating that education is consequently the rea- [Conclusion] son for a person to be happy. However, this world has transformed into a place of injustice, cruelty and egoism. Many people still have no access to education. This is a 8 social issue that has resulted in many social entrepreneurs aiming for change, justice and opportunities. In other words, organizations aiming to make this world a better place, step by step. The illiteracy rate in Morocco among girls is alarming and should not be put aside. Many factors come into account when framing the problem, many actors that are threatening a possible intervention to take place. Religion, politics and tradition are very much respected. Fighting against illiteracy however means having to confront each threat and finding the window, the opportunity to reach the one’s that not only need our help but also the one’s that will then have the power to help others again. Existing solutions such as Camfed are very inspiring and show the importance for such interventions to be done, and that they are possible in the end of the day. As Angeline Mugwendere:”When people say it cannot be done, they only mean it has never been done before”. Implementing iSchool on this level, having to confront cultural barriers, inequality are making this project very changeling. But this only means that the need for inter- vention is even more significant, since nobody had been able to reach or address this topic. Considering recent development in Morocco, the Government is more likely to support and publicize the need for education among the country, and help to pro- mote justice and gender equality regardless of anything.
    • END NOTES 1 G. Felicitas Munzel, “Kant on moral education, or enlightment and the liberal arts” 17 NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS Distance Education at Postsecondary Education Institutions: 1997-98 Laurie Lewis Kyle Snow Eliza- 2 The World’s Great Philosophers By Robert L. Arrington Published by Blackwell Publishing, 2003 beth Farris Westat 3 Guinness Book of World Records UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), World Bank, UNAIDS, ILO, 18 Trade Reform and the Poor in Morocco: A Rural-Urban General Equilibrium Analysis of Reduced Household Surveys, IMF, Country. 2005. Protection , Hans Löfgren, International Food Policy Research Institute1999 4 PROSPECTS: the quarterly review of comparative education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIII, no. 3/4, 1993, p. 789–806. ©UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, 1999 19 Dr. Mrani Alaoui Abdelali, ed., Labor Legislation in Morocco: A Practical Guide, n.d., at 113-14. Based on Decree of 6 September, 1957, Articles 1-17. 5 Discours de SA MAJESTÉ LE ROI MOHAMMED VI QUE DIEU L’ASSISTE, adressé à la nation le 18 mai 2005.< http://www.indh.ma/fr/article.asp> 20 Entrepreneur For Social Change By Caroline Hsu,May 31st 2005, <http://www.usnews.com/us- 6 http://www.unicef.org/sowc04/sowc04_education_gender.html news/news/articles/051031/31drayton.htm> 7 http://www.unicef.org/girlseducation/index.php 21 Where did distance education go wrong? By: Baggaley, Jon. Distance Education, May2008, Vol. 29 Issue 1, p39-51, 13p 8 http://us.camfed.org/what/ 9 http://www.euromonitor.com/factfile.aspx?country=MO 22 Online learning in primary schools: designing for school culture change Kar-Tin Lee* Queensland University of Technology, Australia Educational Media International, Vol. 43, No. 2, June 2006, pp. 10 http://www.dol.gov/ilab/media/reports/iclp/sweat/morocco.htm#26 91–106 11 Domestic Child Labour in Morocco An analysis of the parties involved in relationships to “Petites Bonnes”, Tone Sommerfelt (ed.), © Fafo Institute for Applied Social Science 2001 23 Education, Mobile learning < http://www.apple.com/education/mobile-learning/ > 12 Domestic Child Labour in Morocco An analysis of the parties involved in relationships to “Petites 24 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/education Bonnes”, Tone Sommerfelt (ed.), © Fafo Institute for Applied Social Science 2001 13 Domestic Child Labour in Morocco An analysis of the parties involved in relationships to “Petites 25 “Architecture for Humanity.” Architecture for Humanity. 13 May 2009 <http://www.architects- Bonnes”, Tone Sommerfelt (ed.), © Fafo Institute for Applied Social Science 2001 forhumanity.org/>. 14 http://www.khilafah.com/index.php/the-khilafah/education/2019-muslim-world-education-fall- ing-behind 15 Design for the other 90%, “One laptop a child” Smithsonian, Cooper Hewitt, National Design Mu- seum 16 http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/20071101corp_b.htm
    • BIBILOGRAPHY Abdelali, Dr. Mrani Alaoui . Labor Legislation in Morocco: A Practical Guide. Rabat: Decree of 6 September, 1957. Austin, James E., Herman B. Leonard, Howard H. Stevenson, and Jane C. Wei-Skillern. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc, 2007. Baggaley, Jon. “Where did distance education go wrong? .” Distance Education 29.1 (2008): 39-51. Education, U.S. Dept of. Distance education at postsecondary education institutions, 1997-98 (SuDoc ED 1.328/5:IN 7/3). Washington D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Education, Office Of Educational Research And Improvement, National Center For Education Statistics, 1999. “Education.” Apple. 14 Apr. 2009 < http://www.apple.com/education/mobile-learning>. Hsu, Caroline. “USNews.com: The social entrepreneur: Bill Drayton.” US News & World Report - Breaking News, World News, Business News, and America’s Best Colleges - USNews.com. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/051031/31drayton. htm>. “ILAB - Morocco.” The U.S. Department of Labor Home Page. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://www.dol.gov/ilab/media/reports/iclp/sweat/mo- PHOTOGRAPHY rocco.htm#26>. Page 1 42-17005572| Premium RM| © Eudora Welty/Corbis “ :: [ Initiative Nationale pour le Développement Humain ] :: .” Initiation Nationale du development humain. 28 Apr. 2009 <http:// page 6 unknown photographer www.indh.ma/fr/article.asp>. page 10 AX025922| Value RM| © Lawrence Manning/CORBIS “Intel Chairman Brings Digital Transformation Projects to Morocco.” Laptop, Notebook, Desktop, Server and Embedded Processor Technology - Intel. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/20071101corp_b.htm>. page12 www.camfed.com page 14 Child Laborors © JP Laffont/Sygma/Corbis Lee, and Kartin. “Online learning in primary schools: designing for school culture change.” Educational Media International 43.2 (2006): 91-106. 42-20013708| Standard RM| © Jacques Haillot/Corbis Mamun&. “Muslim World education ‘falling behind’.” Khilafah.com - Building a global movement for Khilafah. 28 Apr. 2009 <http:// page 16 HU055420| Standard RM| © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS www.khilafah.com/index.php/the-khilafah/education/2019-muslim-world-education-falling-behind>. 0000213243-014| Standard RM| © Jacques Langevin/CORBIS SYGMA “Morocco Statistics.” Euromonitor International: Global market research on industries, countries and consumers. 28 Apr. 2009 <http:// www.olpc.com www.euromonitor.com/factfile.aspx?country=MO>. http://blogs.zdnet.com/storage/images/olpc_picture.jpg “UNICEF - Basic education and gender equality - Introduction.” UNICEF - UNICEF Home. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://www.unicef.org/girlsedu- page 18 unknown photographer cation/index.php>. page 19 42-15978785| Standard RM| © Kazuyoshi Nomachi/Corbi “UNICEF - The State of the World’s Children 2004 - Education, gender and economic development.” UNICEF - UNICEF Home. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://www.unicef.org/sowc04/sowc04_education_gender.html>. page 21-22 www.olpc.org page 24 photographer unknown “What we do - Camfed International.” Camfed USA: Girls’ Education and Women’s Empowerment in Africa. 28 Apr. 2009 <http:// us.camfed.org/what/>. page 33 www.apple.com/education “charity: water.” charity: water. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://www.charitywater.org>. page 49 http://farm1.static.flickr.com/1/183023493_0ca690bbb8_o.jpg CLosing picture http://scrapbook.citizen-citizen.com/photos/uncategorized/ Global Education Digest 2005 - Comparing Education Statistics Across the World (ref UIS/2005) by Institute for Statistics - UNESCO (Paperback - 2004). Montreal, Quebec: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2005. applemini.jpg Kant’s Conception of Moral Character: The “Critical” Link of Morality, Anthropology, and Reflective Judgment. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1998. Special thanks to corbis.com for superb imagery. Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education (Issue Number 101, March 1997). Paris: UNESCO: International Bureau of Edu- cation, 1997. p. 789–806 The World’s Great Philosophers. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003. Design for the other 90%, “One laptop a child” Smithsonian, Cooper Hewitt, National Design Museum Domestic Child Labour in Morocco An analysis of the parties involved in relationships to “Petites Bonnes”, Tone Sommerfelt (ed.), © Fafo Institute for Applied Social Science 2001 Trade Reform and the Poor in Morocco: A Rural-Urban General Equilibrium Analysis of Reduced Protection , Hans Löfgren, Internation- al Food Policy Research Institute1999 Bonnes”, Tone Sommerfelt (ed.), © Fafo Institute for Applied Social Science 2001
    • The resulting task is clear: it is incumbent on every generation to work on the plan of a more purposive education (…) greatest and most difficult problem that can be assigned to humankind. -KANT
    • iSchool. The next generation of classrooms.