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Deborah Tan Mosquito Initiative

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Deborah Tan

Deborah Tan
Mosquito Initiative
Junior Product Design Studio Course
Project Theme: Tsunami Disaster

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Deborah Tan Mosquito Initiative Deborah Tan Mosquito Initiative Presentation Transcript

  • Deborah Tan The Mosquito Initiative: Project for the Reduction of Mosquito-Borne Disease in Tsunami-Stricken Countries
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan The mass flooding of the S.E. Asia Tsunami has led to large expanses of water-logged areas. The disaster rubble and stagnant pools are prime mosquito breeding sites. Coupled with the imminent monsoon season, Tsunami-afflicted areas are endemic for Dengue/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Malaria, mosquito- borne diseases that kill 1-3 million people each year. Although International aid agencies have provided emergency control measures, these consist of chemical methods that are operationally demanding, and afford only a transient killing effect. While the population of mosquitoes may be controlled for that moment, opportunities to re-populate are abundant. Therefore a product or system is essential for long-term maintenance and prevention on a communal basis. It should emphasize the nature of the problem, and its severity if left unaddressed. This product must integrate within daily community life, and also incorporate suitable technology for rural S.E. Asian communities, the areas most susceptible to mosquito-borne epidemics. PROBLEM STATEMENT:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan
    • Indonesia, March 2004: Dengue epidemic infected over 20,000 people, and claimed the lives of close to 400 people, most of whom were children.
    • Worldwide, there are 2.5 billion people living at risk of Dengue/DHF.
    • Each year, tens of millions of cases of Dengue/DHF occur.
    • Dengue/DHF is the leading cause of hospitalization and death among children in S.E. Asia
    • Effective mosquito control is virtually nonexistent in most dengue-endemic countries.
    RESEARCH: Dengue/DHF Statistics:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan
    • 41% of the world’s population live in areas where malaria is transmitted.
    • 300 million people are infected with malaria each year.
    • In 2002, malaria was the 4th cause of death of children in developing countries.
    • Malaria kills an African child every 30 seconds.
    RESEARCH: Malaria Statistics:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan
    • Malaria parasites spread by infecting successively 2 types of hosts: humans and female Anopheles mosquitoes.
    • Anopheles mosquitoes enter the house after dusk, and peak feeding time occurs between late night and dawn.
    • Dengue/DHF is spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. They are a day-biting vectors.
    • The female mosquito lays 30-150 every 2-3 days, provided there is a blood meal. Its average life span is between 2-3 weeks, longer if conditions are ideal.
    RESEARCH: Mosquito Facts: Man and Mosquito play complementary roles in the mosquito life cycle. MAN MOSQUITO Parasites multiply in fever and bloodstream, causing fever and chills. MOSQUITO BITES INFECTED MAN INFECTED MOSQUITO BITES MAN Parasites multiply in mosquito gut and migrate to salivary glands.
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan 1. Virus transmitted to human in mosquito saliva   2. Virus replicates in target organs   3. Virus infects white blood cells and lymphatic tissues   4. Virus released and circulates in blood     RESEARCH: Transmission of DHF and Malaria:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   5. Second mosquito ingests virus with blood   6. Virus replicates in mosquito midgut and other organs, infects salivary glands   7. Virus replicates in salivary glands  RESEARCH: Transmission of DHF and Malaria:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan  
    • Mosquitoes use a number of different sensors to detect their prey:
    • CHEMICAL: carbon dioxide and lactic acid (in sweat) within a 100ft range.
    • VISUAL: movement and clothing that contrasts with the background.
    • HEAT: warmth given off by mammals.
    • Male and female mosquitoes drink plant sugar as their energy source, but females need blood meals to develop their eggs.
    RESEARCH: Mosquito Physiology:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan  
    • After a blood meal, the female aedes and anopheles mosquitoes lay their eggs in stagnant water with low salinity. Such breeding sites may include:
    • Man-made containers
    • Metal drums
    • Buckets
    • Tires
    • Water Tanks
    • Wells
    • Ponds
    • Paddy Fields
    • Coconut Shells
    RESEARCH: Mosquito Reproduction: larva pupa adult egg
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan  
    • Space spraying with insecticides
    • Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN)
    • Permethrin-sprayed blankets and sheets
    RESEARCH: Current Emergency Methods of Control and Prevention:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan  
    • Killing Systems (Mosquito Magnet)
    • Mechanical Sprayer
    • Electric Flyswatter
    • Coils
    • Citronella Candles
    • Ultrasonic Repellent
    • Chemical Repellents
    • Permethrin Coated Clothing
    RESEARCH: Current Commercial Products for Control and Prevention:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan  
    • DEET: One of the most widely used insecticides and repellents, developed by the USDA (Agriculture) for the military in 1946. Its use has been associated with skin and eye irritations, and products with high DEET concentration are hazardous to children. Recent research on animals shows that frequent use of DEET caused brain-cell death and behavioral changes.
    • Permethrin: a synthetic chemical derived from the chrysanthemum plant. Research shows that permethrin can cause neurological degeneration.
    RESEARCH: Problems with Insecticides:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan  
    • Garlic: there is strong evidence that garlic is a natural repellent when crushed or concentrated. Whether applied to skin or ingested, research has been conducted to show that the smell of garlic interferes with the mosquitoes chemical sensors.
    • Citronella
    • Wild tomatoes: recent proof that a natural compound (IBI-246) found in tomatoes can potentially replace DEET in most insect repellents.
    • Predators : fish, small birds and dragonflies
    RESEARCH: Natural Methods of Control and Prevention:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan  
    • Reducing the population density of mosquitoes is achieved by targeting their breeding sites through environmental management. Methods include:
    • Drainage
    • Filling
    • Levelling of depressions
    • Use of larvicides
    • Even though chemical control is used as the most appropriate immediate response to mosquito outbreaks, sustained spraying is generally not recommended unless there are no other, more sustainable alternatives.
    • Benefits of environmental management:
    • Longer-lasting effects
    • Contributes to a healthier environment (no risk of environmental contamination from chemicals)
    • No problems of pesticide resistance
    RESEARCH: Density Reduction and Environmental Management:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   RESEARCH: Pros and Cons of Current Methodology: Emergency Methods Commercial Methods Natural Methods Environmental Management Methods
    • Seen as a last resort - in epidemics
    • Effective, but only on a short-term basis
    • Expensive
    • Operationally demanding
    • Fumes can be damaging to the respiratory system
    • Affordable
    • Deal more with mosquito repulsion than population control
    • Not particularly effective
    • Little or no effect on health or the environment
    • Affordable
    • Deal more with repulsion than population control
    • Not as effective as chemical alternatives
    • Little or no effect on health or environment
    • Cost-effective
    • Deals with population control
    • No risk of pesticide resistance
    • Requires regular maintenance and monitoring
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   A sustainable and completely natural way of Repelling mosquitoes. Portable and organic protection for those who cannot afford insect-repellent, which contains DEET. CONCEPT SKETCHES: Garlic Products:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   Current insect screens only help keep mosquitoes out. Traps would be more effective in longevity reduction. CONCEPT SKETCHES: Screens:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   CONCEPT SKETCHES: Drainage Pumps:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   CONCEPT SKETCHES: Larvicide Distribution:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   A toy that children will enjoy playing with, but can also be used To educate them to help with density reduction of mosquitoes. CONCEPT SKETCHES: Toy Pumps:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   NON-FOR-PROFIT: About WHO (World Health Organization): The World Health Organization is the United Nations specialized agency for health. It was established on 7 April 1948. WHO's objective, as set out in its Constitution, is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO's Constitution as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. WHO is governed by 192 Member States through the World Health Assembly. The Health Assembly is composed of representatives from WHO's Member States. The main tasks of the World Health Assembly are to approve the WHO programme and the budget for the following biennium and to decide major policy questions.
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   NON-FOR-PROFIT: Letter from WHO: Dear Ms. Tan, R egarding your inquiry from 22 February 2005, in cases of natural disasters in foreign countries the national government (usually a Ministry of Health, MOH) determines the types of interventions to be used to prevent build-up of mosquito vector densities. W HO local (country) offices may be asked by a MOH to advise on the issue. S ource reduction (e.g. small-scale drain and fill, destruction/removal of small breeding sites) is an appropriate community-based strategy for larval vector control in the case of mosquito vectors of malaria and dengue, however for dengue vectors it may be more difficult to implement successfully due to the potential wide variety of breeding sites that Aedes aegypti may utilize. C ommunity capacity must exist in order to effectively carry out local environmental management measures after a natural disaster; it may take some time before a community is ready (and has the resources/equipment to do this and has prioritized vector control). Furthermore, health education and community consultation are necessary for any successful community-based vector control effort. C hemical control by government authorities is, in principle, a last resort for prevention and control but individual MOHs may use aerial or space spraying for vector density reduction. B est regards, Steven Ault Steven K. Ault Regional Advisor in Communicable Diseases (Parasitic Diseases) Communicable Diseases Unit (CD), Room 714 Area of Disease Prevention and Control (DPC) Regional Office of the World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) 525 23 rd Street, NW Washington DC 20037 ,USA Tel. + (202) 974-3896 Fax + (202) 974-3656 and 974-3331 E-mail: [email_address]
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   Mosquito Hunt is a constructive game targeted at educating the community, especially its youth, on the severity of mosquito-borne diseases, and the importance of a unified effort in source reduction. The game will be implemented at schools/shelters, involving a team of children (supervised and adequately protected). Each team would be assigned an area of the village, and their task would be to locate prime mosquito breeding sites, mark them on a map, and identify the area with markers. Marked sections can then be drained with a manually-operated water pump, and, if possible, filled. This game would be a regular feature in their routine, and hopefully become a conscious effort at density reduction within the community. CONCEPT EXPLORATION: Mosquito Hunt: Description:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   Proposed distribution of product: Mosquito Hunt may be cheaply manufactured by toy companies and donated to countries at risk.
    • Therefore, elements of this game could include:
    • Drainage pumps
    • Markers/signage to identify hazardous sites
    • Protective covering for team members
    • Graphic instructions describing how the product works and why it is necessary
    CONCEPT EXPLORATION: Mosquito Hunt: Product Description:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   Teacher or aid worker explains the need for density reduction, and the ‘rules’ of Mosquito Hunt. The children are shown images and live samples of mosquito larvae. Children are protected with repellent, or with insecticide-treated clothing, split up into teams and source out prime mosquito breeding sites. These are then marked with flags. Once identified, regular drainage of breeding sites can occur. CONCEPT EXPLORATION: Mosquito Hunt: Scenario
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   Hand-held drainage devices using simple syringe mechanism. Flat-ended nozzle for targeting surfaces of pools. CONCEPT EXPLORATION: Mosquito Hunt: Drainage Devices:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   Drainage product is placed in water and it is manually absorbed into an airtight chamber. The product is carried to dry, level ground and the water containing larvae is dispersed. Flag/marker CONCEPT EXPLORATION: Mosquito Hunt: Drainage Device User Scenario:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   Hunting backpack with flags, foot-pump with water canon, and a map of village. CONCEPT EXPLORATION: Mosquito Hunt: Hunting Pack:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   Larval nets. Can be dragged along the surface of water, where larvae develop, and they are caught in the netting. CONCEPT EXPLORATION: Mosquito Hunt: Larva Nets:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Introduction: One of the largest problems in the SE Asian rural communities is the lack of awareness and understanding - the people may understand that mosquitoes are dangerous, but not necessarily know what to do with them save repulsion methods (netting, coils, etc.). Hence a correct protocol needs to be established.
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   The Mosquito Initiative: targeting public awareness of vector-borne disease and the encouragement of a communal-based effort in density reduction and regular supervision as means of reducing Dengue Fever and Malaria. Target market would consist mainly of children (ages 4-11) in a supervised setting – schools, homes, shelters and orphanages. The initiative would aim to empower children to be proactive in a situation where they are the largest victims. Educating the children at a young age would also ensure the continuance of the Initiative over their generation, and this knowledge would have a higher chance of being passed on. FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Target market:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Distribution and Implementation Scenario: Provided by MOHs or Non-profits like WHO Distributed to Schools, Shelters and Orphanages MOH or WHO delegate lectures parents, teachers and village officials on how the product is used The Mosquito Initiative kit is distributed to the children, and regular practices are implemented and encouraged New knowledge and understanding about density reduction practices are passed on to younger siblings, or future generation Mosquito Initiative Kit In Dengue Fever and Malaria endemic countries
    • Indonesia
    • Thailand
    • Malaysia
    • Sri Lanka
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   A portable kit that consists of : 1. A water-sampling device for small-scale draining. 2. A graphic chart that identifies the most common breeding sites around residential areas, as well as an explanation of the basic concepts of density reduction. 3. A larvicide for larger areas of water. 4. A hand-held larva net. Products which, through their use, convey the fundamental elements of density reduction. The Initiative should be seen as an intermediary action until the community has the means, and basic knowledge to tackle the problem on their own terms. FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Products:
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Products: Larva net - for manual larva/pupa removal Drainage pump - for drainage of small breeding sites Bottle of Bti (organic larvicide) - for large-scale larva/pupa removal Waterproof chart - describes common mosquito breeding sites, and principles of environmental management
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Products: Product: Potential Materials: Measurements: (For ages 4-11) Properties:
    • waterproof
    • easy to clean
    • light-weight
    • low cost
    • durable
    • waterproof
    • light-weight
    • low cost
    • durable
    • air-tight
    • transparent
    • light-weight
    • low cost
    • durable
    • air-tight
    • light-weight
    • low cost
    • waterproof
    • light-weight
    • low cost
    • durable
    • woven nylon
    • woven bamboo
    • fiber
    • plastic fabric
    • waxed canvas
    • Net:
    • plastic/metal
    • mesh
    • Frame:
    • twisted plastic/ pvc-coated wire
    • stainless steel wire
    • Cylinder:
    • polyethylene
    • polypropylene
    • polystyrene
    • Plunger:
    • synthetic rubber seal
    • polyethylene
    • LDPE
    • polypropylene
    • plastic-coated paper
    • wax-coated paper
    Length: 12”-16” Diameter: 4”-7” Handle Length: 6”-8” Net Length: 5”-7” Diameter: 5”-7” Cylinder Length: 8”-10” Diameter: 1.5”-3” Height: 4”-5” Width: 2”-3” Depth: 1.25”-1.75”
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Usage: The drainage device is held over a pool of stagnant water. Plunger is pulled back and water rushes in to the cylinder. The water is then taken to level ground and dispersed. The larva net skims the surface of the stagnant water, and larvae get caught in the mesh. The net may be cleaned in salt water or running water, conditions which larvae cannot tolerate. Larvicide (Bti – a bacterial toxin that is non-toxic to humans or animals) is dispersed regularly in paddy fields, ponds, or any large areas of still water.
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Location: homes paddy field wells, water tanks, ponds buckets, tires, metal drums, etc. Schematic of potential mosquito breeding sites in a typical village
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Mosquito Breeding: AIR WATER This diagram explains the mosquito life cycle and the breeding that occurs in the aforementioned sites.
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Remedies: home paddy field wells, water tanks, ponds buckets, tires, metal drums, etc. Insecticide-treated bed nets and screens larvicide Filling, larvicide, larva net Filling, draining
  • The Mosquito Initiative: Project for Tsunami Relief Deborah Tan   FINAL CONCEPT: The Mosquito Initiative: Conclusion: The threat of mosquito-borne disease is not location-specific to tsunami-stricken countries. Worldwide, 2.5 billion people are at risk, especially those in tropical countries where the public health infrastructure is underdeveloped (mainly Africa, South America, and South East Asia). The Mosquito Initiative is a non-invasive solution that prioritizes public health education and environmental management, aiming to relieve dependence on governmental or financial aid when epidemics occur. Rather, with increased awareness of the problem, those most at risk can take the problem into their own hands, working to reduce the threat. Moreover, with increased knowledge and understanding, people will take better precautions when exposing themselves to the threat (i.e. personal protection). Once these practices have been established, there is no doubt that dengue and malaria cases will diminish.