Empowering teens with confidence
table of contents

                       “She walks in Beauty, like the night
                      Of cloudless clime...

                                                                                       -Man’s Ma...
developing the concept


                                                                Why is this issue important?
finding the problem


                         -Investigate the present daily lives of teen age girls from
understanding the group
                          psychological factors                      ...

   Nationwide, 12.3% of high school teenage girls had gone
   without eating for 24 hours or more to lose w...
parenting                                                     school environment
understanding the group

social life

                                                                   Today’s teens want to be absolutely indivi...
what is being taught

                                                                                 The med...
Many Teens Become Fashion-Conscious at Early
the consequences

                   “No one ever told me I was pretty when I was a little
                   girl. All...

   “Body image is...
   -How one sees themselves in the mirror or pictures them- Body Image Problems and Di...
the consequences

SUBSTANCE                    SOCIAL                       STRESS &
                              ABUSE            ...
the consequences

                   A fashion for pale, skinny models with dark sunke...

                                                          There is a new strange phenomenon in Manhattan
                   the lust for longer lashes
the consequences


     For High Heels
    This article talks about how women are getting their toes
    or sm...
the consequences

                   Surgical cosmetic procedures increased 2 percent,
defining beauty

                  “The most beautiful thing we can experience is the
                  mysterious. It ...

                                                                   symmetry and the smoothness of th...
defining beauty

                                                                                “Geometry i...
“Man is the measure of all things.”
Heraclitus (540-480 BC)

defining beauty

                                                                           Symmetry is everywhe...

   Humans have manipulated the nature of foods, making
   them seem more appealing or beautiful to t...
defining beauty

                                                                                   The ipod i...

                                                                       Black Raku bowl                 MT8 Lam...



                                                                   Slogans and iconic commercials become ingrai...
the evolution of beauty

                          “Women do some rather insane things to achieve mod-

   Corset health issues date back to the 1800s when wom-
   en willingly abused their bodies in the name of...
                          Nefertiti                                                          Venus De Mil...
A Li woman

                                                            “Dressed for a celebration, a Li woman o...

                                                                                 The practice, now illegal, ...

                                                                All eight brands came from China or Tai...
the evolution of beauty

                          The Karenni women place gold rings around              Now i...

    A 5-year-old wears 3 kilogram (6.2 pounds) of
    coiled brass. Then, when she is about seven years
the evolution of beauty

              36     Sources: THE MURSI WOMEN: Jean-Pierre Dutilleux (WHERE BEAUTY...

The Mursi women wear large lip ornaments made
of clay or wood. They share this unusual custom
with the K...
the evolution of beauty

-a Brazilian mode, actress, and spokeswoman.                 Kate Moss (born January 16, 1974), is an English
   -became t...
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
Bloom: Redefine Beauty
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Bloom: Redefine Beauty


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Rachel McCollum
Parsons The New School for Design
Design + Management Department
Senior Thesis 1
Fall Semester 2008
Professor: Robert Rabinovitz

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Bloom: Redefine Beauty

  1. 1. REDEFINING THE BEAUTY MARK bloom Empowering teens with confidence
  2. 2. table of contents “She walks in Beauty, like the night Of cloudless climes and starry skies; And all that’s best of dark and bright Met in her aspect and her eyes: Thus mellowed to that tender light Which Heaven to gaudy day denies.” -From She Walks In Beauty by Lord Byron
  3. 3. SUMMARIZING THE CHAPTERS -Man’s Manipulation..………………………………..24 -The Math ...….....……………………………………25 -Objects……...……………………………………….26 -Semiotics .…………………………………………..27 -Desire .....…………………………………………..28 8.) The evolution of Beauty -The Corset…………………………………………..29 -Ancient Beauties……….………………………..30-31 -Foot Binding…………………………………………32 -Skin Bleaching……………………………………….33 -Myanmar...........................................................34-35 -Mursi Women...................................................36-37 -Beauty Icons....................................................38-39 1.) Developing the concept -Cross Cultural Overview...................................40-41 -Descriptionof Topic.......................................................1 9.) Current Solutions (Case studies) -The Facts.....................................................................2 -Dove: campaign “women for real beauty”.........43 -The Value.....................................................................2 -Nike...................................................................44 2.) Finding the problem -Brazil Fit light yogurt..........................................45 -Thesis statement.........................................................3 -Women’s rights groups......................................46 -Areas of investigation..................................................4 -Social Groups….............................................…47 3.) Understanding the Group 9.) Empirical Research -Psychological factors..................................................5 -Survey...........................................................48-49 -Physical factors...........................................................5 -Surveys.........................................................50-51 -Statistics.....................................................................6 -Expert opinions............................................51-52 -Parenting…………………………………………………7 10.) Existing Actors -School Environment……………………………………7 -Introduction of the groups involved...................53 -Social Life…………………………………………….…..8 -Facts about the groups involved.......................54 5.) What is being taught? -The intervention relationships...........................55 -The media.....................................................................9 - All esisting relationships…..............................56 -Describing the problem with photos...........................10 10) Recognizing the gaps 6.) The consequences -Successes/ Failures..........................................57 -Body Image..................................................................11 -Opportunity........................................................58 -Disorders................................................................12-13 11.) Possible Ideas -Diet pills......................................................................14- -About Bloom.....................................................59 Cosmetics....................................................................15 12. ) Future plan -New Trends in Beauty Industry………………………..16 -Extensive plan next semester by weeks.......60 -Cosmetic surgery for Heels…………………………….17 -Plastic Surgery………………………………………18-19 Rachel McCollum 7.) Defining Beauty Parsons The New School For Design -What is Beaty.............................................................20 Department Design and Management -The History ...........................................................21-22 Senior Thesis part 1 -Nature ........................................................................23 Fall 2008 -Man’sManipulation.……………………………………..24 Robert Rabinovitz
  4. 4. DESCRIPTION OF TOPIC developing the concept Teens that battle with self-confidence and body dissatis- faction issues struggle through life changes and in many cases can result in desperate states such as disorders and psychological problems. Body image dissatisfaction is one of the most common reasons that influences low self-esteem in girls. The major issue here is that these girls go on living life uncomfortable in their own bodies creating personal problems and overall dissatisfaction. This man made struggle is stagnant and destructive; it is This project is dedicated to young women between the an obstacle that can be difficult to overcome, especially ages of twelve to eighteen that battle with body and when girls are growing into young women. This cold na- identify satisfaction. tured problem has been ingrained in the daily lives of teens creating suffering, social alienation, and a lack of Its purpose will be to reach out to young girls and em- communication. power them with knowledge, understanding, and accep- tance of who they are and how they look. The mission The aim of this project is to redefine the stereotypical is to communicate to this group in a way they can relate ‘beauty mark’ and allow young girls to bloom and grow to and is enlighten them of what constitutes beauty. as free spirits. 1
  5. 5. THE VALUE THE FACTS Why is this issue important? This is an important issue because girls are literally weighing their self esteem. We live in a culture that is obsessed with slimness, yet we are headed toward obesity. There is a need for a healthier outlook on defin- ing beauty standards and health overall. What is the value of this proposal? The value of Bloom is to help young teen girls who are vulnerable to self esteem issues and to empower them with confidence, knowledge about other cultures, and help them to overcome physical dissatisfaction. What is the cost if an intervention is not created? There are groups that have started to take action con- cerning this issue, such as the new Dove campaign for -Only 2 % of women around the world describe them- “Real Women” and the Nike ad “Big Buts and Thunder selves as beautiful thighs”. However there is still yet to be something that speaks directly to young teens in a way that will be ef- -81 % of women in the U.S. strongly agree “the media fective. If an intervention is not created, the cost be at and advertising set an unrealistic standard of beauty the the every day teens’ expense, as many teens suffer that most women can’t ever achieve. from body dissatisfaction, assiduous dieting and overall dissatisfaction. -Market data Enterprises, Inc. estimated the size of the weight loss industry for 2003 at $34,000 billion. -In a study of almost five hundred high school girls, 81 % them reported that they had dieted at least once or were unsatisfied with the way they look. -81% of all 12-18 year-old American girls reported have dieted more than once in their life. -90-95 of all anorexia’s is a woman. Women are more likely to suffer from depression and low self esteem, ac- companying body image dissatisfaction, then men. -Over half of the teen girls interviewed for my research were insecure about something concerning their physi- cal state -60% of the girls interviewed for my research were un- aware of other cultural traditions and customs concern- ing beauty. Sources: 2 Packaged facts; a Division of Market Research by Robert Brown and Ruth WashtonAgust 2002 Market Data Enterprises
  6. 6. THESIS STATEMENT finding the problem Therefore there is a need for a product or ser- Throughout history in all cultures a common ultimate vice that will: goal is to achieve beauty. Just as all people look differ- ent, all people have a different view on the question, what is beautiful? Great pain has been suffered for cen- turies for women to achieve perceived beauty and de- -INFLUENCE SOCIETAL CHANGE pending on point of view it can be seen as subjective or -INCREASE SELF=ESTEEM OF TEENS IN objective. THE UNITED STATES However, today women in western society are exposed -EXPAND ON THE IDEA OF WHAT to an increasing amount of media that is invading the CONSTITUTES BEAUTY lives of young girls. The lengths that women are willing -EMPOWER TEEN’S WITH KNOWLEDGE to go in order to achieve the unattainable look is be- ABOUT OTHER CULTURES, TRADITIONS, coming a growing problem. The unrealistic airbrushed AND IDEA OF BEAUTY female body has become the standard for beauty in - ALLOW YOUNG TEEN WOMEN TO BLOOM western society. This creates a constant pressure for young girls to desire the unachievable. Reality versus AS INDIVIDUAL FREE SPIRITS perception is impacting virtually all teens in the United States. 3
  7. 7. AREAS OF INVESTIGATION -Investigate the present daily lives of teen age girls from ages 12-18 in the United States. -Understand teens lives at home, school, and their so- cial lives. -Observe current communication from society, media, and the fashion industry to teen girls. -Empirical research on teenage girls such as; observa- tion, experimentation, and interviews. -Research all existing relationships and include expert opinions. -Investigate the history and evolution of beauty -Study the other cultural traditions and women’s rights around the world. 4
  8. 8. WHAT TEENS ARE GOING THROUGH understanding the group psychological factors physical factors Physical factors for teens play an important role in going through self-esteem issues. Adolescence can often be a challenging time. The reactions that teen- age girls have to the physical and emotional changes during puberty often depend on how they feel about themselves. “Several large studies have shown that girls aged 8 and 9 are confident, assertive and feel good about themselves. Surprisingly, these same girls can emerge at the end of adolescence with a poor sled image, a narrow view of the future, and less confi- dence about themselves and their abilities.” -Clare Young What controls the development of a healthy self- esteem in girls? According to a study, physical appearance was the most important factor. Many teens felt that they were worthless if they are not attractive by someone else’s “ Cultural factors play a role in psychology for teen standards. Popular culture invades girls with imag- girls , from parent’s subtle expectations to explicit es of the ideal female figure, personality, and social media messages about unattainable appearance skills, all of which is usually unobtainable. goals.” -Timothy Strauman Teenage girls actually reflect more than boys their age, with negative psychological consequences. A recent study found that girls are much more likely to ruminate on negative things, making them more vulnerable to de- pression. This study came from the social psychology lab of Timothy Strauman, who is a professor and chair of psychology and neuroscience. The study data was collected from interviews with girls. The study found cor- relations for discrepancy between real versus ideal self- image. “Teen girls tend to be perfectionist, self-critical tendencies combined with rumination becomes a vicious circle. Rather than coming up with an action-oriented strategy, girls tend to interpret the negative event as a personal failure.”-Strauman Sources: The Duke Today: Social Science Research Institute; written by Dawn Stuart November 14, 2008 5 Teen
  9. 9. STATISTICS Nationwide, 12.3% of high school teenage girls had gone without eating for 24 hours or more to lose weight. Na- tionwide, 4.5% of students had vomited or taken laxatives to loose weight or to keep from gaining weight. Overall “Of the women who classify as underweight, 16% the prevalence of having vomited or taken laxatives was considered themselves to be overweight, 58% con- higher among females at 6.2% than males at 2.8%. sidered their weight to be about right, and 26% Thinness has not only come to represent attractiveness, thought theyr were slightly underweight.” but has also come to symbolize success, self-control and higher socioeconomic status. “Of the women who are average weight, 59% con- sidered themselves to be overweight, and 58% were 89% of American women want to lose weight. (2007) currently trying to loose weight. The women who 75% of American women think that they are too fat. were overweight also reported wanting to be leaner, 90% of all the patients with a specific eating disorder are 81% of them currently trying to loose weight.” women. Average model is 13-19 % thinner than her physically -“Many women suffer from body dissatisfaction, as- expected weight. siduous dieting and the relentless pursuit of thinness 22% of women adolescent smokers believe that smok- has become a normative behavior among women in ing helps to loose weight. Western Society.” 95% of the whole American female population has dieted at least once. 5-10 girls (5-10 million) suffer from an eating disorder after puberty. Sources: YRBSS: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Sstem: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion 6
  10. 10. parenting school environment understanding the group High school environment is an important part of the teens social life. Adolescence is a time when youth are experi- ence big changes in their identities and believes about them selves. In this critical development stage, one es- Research has shown that parents play an important role sential component of an individual’s self concept is self in the self-esteem issues with teenage girls. According to esteem. recent research, supportive parenting is lined to adoles- One of the primary social realms in which these changes cent self esteem (Dekovic & Meeus, 1997). Controverly, occur is in school. Research subjects that this transition lack of parental support has shown to influence social point can be particularly difficult for teen girls. Self-es- behavior and confidence issues. Thus, parental support, teem has been linked to academic and social outcomes though narrower in scope, reflects attachment bonds.. and behaviors in many ways. Studies have shown a The adolescent’s internalized schema of parental sup- positive relationship between high levels of self-esteem port during adolescence facilitates the adolescent’s abil- and academic achievement ity to safely negotiate autonomy toward healthy, adaptive As kids move from their younger tween years toward functioning. The present study was designed to examine becoming teenagers, their connection with their family parental support and monitoring as they relate to self-es- changes significantly. For example, among 12- to 14-year- teem and behavior problems during adolescence. It was old girls, a substantially greater proportion (91.2%) says hypothesized that parental support and monitoring, as that they enjoy hanging out with friends as opposed to perceived by the adolescent, would be associated with spending time with their family (69.7%). higher self-esteem and less risky behavior. 7 Sources: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, by Janis Paterson Volume 24, Number 3. 2005 The Effects of Change in Self Esteem Across the Transition to High School, by Christopher C. Weiss, 2008
  11. 11. social life Today’s teens want to be absolutely individualistic and at the same time just like everybody else. This is the paradox of the adolescent: the need to be part of the group is as great a force as the desire to become one’s own person—a contradiction amplified among today’s teens. On one hand, members of Generation Y are fiercely independent, wanting to carve their own niche and make their own statements. On the other hand, they are still unsure adolescents, transitioning from child- hood to adulthood and highly dependent upon peers for support and approval. Younger teens especially need to be part of the crowd—they seek safety in numbers and want to fit in, and they tend to seek the approval of their social group before committing to an attitude or style. The social life of teen girls is very important and usually plays a part in affecting self esteem in girls. Girls at this age are known to form cliques. Often at this age girls are striving to fit in and be accepted by their peers. If Teens are not accepted at school it can often affect their self esteem. Many girls that describe themselves as lonely often have -Poor self esteem -Self-conscious -Awkward with others -Harsh self-criticism All of these issues make children less likely to join in activities and form friendships, isolating them further and making it all the more difficult for them to improve their self esteem. It can become a self-defeating cycle. Adolescence especially can be a roller coaster ride. So many aspects of a teen’s life are changing, including her body, her relationships with friends and family, academic challenges, and plans for her future. 8 Sources: Family Guide: Keeping youth mentally healthy and Drug Free: By Janis, Walealius, 08 MARKET RESEARCH : TEENS by Packaged Facts, 2007
  12. 12. THE MEDIA what is being taught The media targets teenage girls and are emphasizing Advertising in teen magazines and on the television the ideal of thinness and the concept of beauty. Some usually glamorizes the skinny model with airbrushing, of the facts that sum this problem is the fact that average photo enhancements. Furthermore, they do not repre- weight and height for models is 5’10 and 110 pounds. sent the average woman. The average person in the Then take the average womens’ weight of 5’4 and 145 United States sees around 3,000 ads in magazines, bill pounds into consideration. This factor helps reveal how boards, and television every day. Many of the models this extreme difference is becoming more and more of a used in these mediums are weighted 23% below the health issue for teens. The pictures above were taken average weight. This is sending out the wrong image to in New York City in the exact same location only months you teen girls. apart. 9 Sources: Health Care Industry: by Jennifer S. Parker, Mark J. Benson Pew/IAdvertising: Teens and Social Medi: by Amanda Lenhart, December 2007
  13. 13. Many Teens Become Fashion-Conscious at Early Age A substantial minority (40.4%) of girls in the 8- and 9-year-old age group say they “like to keep up with the latest fashions. Girls in the 12- and 15-year-old age group are most sensitive to fashion trends among all 16- to 18-year-olds. Satisfaction with Looks Declines as Kids Become Young Teens The great majority of girls (69.7%) in the 12- to 16-year-old age group say they are “happy about the way I look.” However, as teens hit the teen years, their self-confidence declines. Girls in particular are subject to a loss of confidence in their looks; only 54.2% of 12- to 14-year-old girls say they are happy about the way they look. Cosmetics Widely Used by Young Teen Girls Significant numbers of 12- to 14-year-old girls use cosmetics, with lipstick and lip gloss used by 86.2% of girls in this age group. Other important products in- clude nail polish (used by 82.2% of young teen girls), eye brow pencil (66.0%), eye shadow (60.6%), and Today’s teens have grown up in a media-saturated cul- mascara (53.0%). By the time they reach the age of ture. Broadcast and cable television present hundreds 12, girls become significant customers for makers of of viewing choices, as do digital video discs (DVDs) and personal-care products. the latest selections from the neighborhood Blockbuster store. Boomboxes and portable stereos bring radio to Weight Control Focus of Many Tween and Young teenage ears in bedrooms, or via headphones on city Teen Girls busses and suburban streets. Moreover, thanks to digi- A majority of 12- to 14-year-olds say that they eat tal audio streaming, teens can tune in to stations from anything they like. However, substantial segments of Osaka to Omaha by clicking a mouse. News can travel the young teen population report that they try not to as fast as a cell phone autodialer, and teens are able to eat too much (40.8%) and that they often try to lose stay in constant contact with each other through porta- weight (30.8%). Even teens feel the need to watch ble phones and pagers. Teens are so active and have so their intake. Girls are usually more prone to connect- many media choices, they do not read as much as other ing food with their emotional state. More than one out age groups, but they still seek out information from print- of four (26.6%) of 12- to 14-year-old girls eat some- ed materials, primarily magazines. Thus, the number of thing when they are sad, compared to 19.7% of boys. magazines targeting today’s adolescent is growing, fill- Girls also are much more likely to feel guilty about ing newsstands with glossy publications aimed at both eating. the general teen market and at niche interest groups 10 Sources: MARKET RESEARCH : TEENS by Packaged Facts, 2007
  14. 14. the consequences “No one ever told me I was pretty when I was a little girl. All little girls should be told they’re pretty, even if they aren’t.” -Marilyn Monroe
  15. 15. BODY IMAGE “Body image is... -How one sees themselves in the mirror or pictures them- Body Image Problems and Disorders caused by low self-esteem selves in their mind. -How one interprets their own appearance, including memories, assumptions, and generalizations. -How one feels about their body, including their height, Anorexia Nervosa shape, and weight. -How one senses and controls their body as they move. Bulimia -How one feels in their own body, not just about their Narcissistic Personality Disorder body.” Adonis Complex “Negative body image is... Plastic Surgery Addiction -A distorted perception of one self’s shape, this person perceives parts of their body unlike they really are. Substance Abuse -One is convinced that only other people are attractive and that there body size or shape us a sign of personal Social Alienation Stress failure. -One feels ashamed, self conscious, and anxious about Depression their body. Body Dysmorphic Disorder -One feels uncomfortable and awkward in their body.” 11 Sources: Book: The Media and Body Image: Of Lookds Could Kill by Maggie and Barrie Gunter Jan 13, 2005
  16. 16. DISORDERS the consequences NARCISSISTIC BODY ANOREXIA BULIMIA PERSONALITY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER DISORDER “Bulimia is characterized Narcissistic personality Body Dysmorphic Disor- “ Anorexia is characterized by intense fear of weight Disorder is a pattern of der is of imagined ugli- by starvation dieting, ex- gain and episodes of diet- traits and behaviors which ness. What individuals cessive exercising, weight ing and bingeing, as well signify infatuation with with this disorder see in below what is considered as purging of the food one’s self to the exclu- the mirror is a grossly normal, and an intense from the body by vomiting sion of all others and the distorted view of what fear of weight gain.” or emetic use, fasting, di- egotistic and ruthless pur- they actually look like. eting, diuretics, diet pills, suit of one’s gratification, Often, these individuals excessive and compulsive dominance and ambition. will spend hours examin- exercise.” ing, attempting to conceal or obsessing over their perceived flaws. Sources: Sources: Book: The Media and Body Image: Of Lookds Could Kill by Maggie and Barrie Gunter Jan 13, 2005 12
  17. 17. SUBSTANCE SOCIAL STRESS & PLASTIC ABUSE ALIENATION DEPRESSION SURGERY OBSESSION Stress has been identi- Social alienation is a Stress is characterized fied as a leading reason consequence of low self by feeling of tension, Two-thirds of plastic sur- for drinking, smoking, and esteem. In many cases frustration, that commonly gery patients are repeat using drugs among girls. girls with low self esteem last from a few hours to patients. Typical plastic Girls with low self-esteem are more likely to spend days. Depression is more surgery procedures in- are more likely to abuse time alone and be left out severe and loner lasting. clude breast augmenta- drugs than girls with high of groups tion, nose jobs, cheek self-esteem. implants, liposuction, and so on. People addicted to cosmetic surgery demon- strate a measure of psy- chological problems. 13
  18. 18. A WORLD OF DIET PILLS AND SCALES the consequences A fashion for pale, skinny models with dark sunken eyes and fine blown away hair gave a rise to the term. This became the look of beauty in the 90s. Models looked ill, because they were really taking a lot of drugs and it was though that they might encourage young teens to do the same. -President Clinton felt the need to make such a state- ment, “In the press in recent days, we’ve seen reports that many of our fashion leaders are now admitting, and I honor them for doing this, they’re admitting that images projected in fashion photos have made heroin addiction seem glamour and sexy and cool, And as some of those people in those images start to die now, it has become obvious that you do not need to glamorize addiction to sell clothes.” 14 Sources: CFDA Panel on the Unhealhty Trend of Skinny Models,June 12, 2008 Do Thin Modles warp girls Body Image, By Nanci Hellmich, USA TODAY
  19. 19. COSMETICS There is a new strange phenomenon in Manhattan where women are seeking to have long Twiggy like lash- es. Women are obsessed with getting bigger and bet- ter lashes. Today the cosmetic industries are seeking all different types of alternatives. One major trend are lash-growing serums and extreme, lash-enhancing sur- gery. The Miracle grow serums, known as RevitaLash,” it works like a steroid for the lashes. They certainly give results, as longer, thicker lashes will appear in four to six weeks when the product is used on a daily basis. This is becoming a major trend for Hollywood celebrities and fashion insiders whom are stockpiling on the $150 dol- lar tubes. However, there remain many health concerns and unknowns about the product even though women really do not seem to care about the health consequenc- es. Another trend is some women are moving towards full-fled augmentation of the eyelashes. 15 Sources: Vouge Magazine:By Annelise Cohan: Issue September 08
  20. 20. NEW TRENDS IN THE BEAUTY INDUSTRY the lust for longer lashes the consequences Kate Moss Mascara ads are banned after complaints of Women are moving towards full-fled augmentation of her lashes being fake. The magazines and TV ads for the eyelashes. This is a process, which the roots are Rimmel said that the Magnif eyes mascara produced transplanted with turf grass. This process of lash surgery 70 per cent more lift, with a unique vertical life brush is done by inserting tiny synthetic hairs into the roots of helping the lashes look longer. Miss Moss features in those natural lashes; they are then glued one by one by a both the magazine and on TV commercial, and exag- lash technician. This is something that has hit the beau- gerated the affect of the mascara. The firm admitted ty mainstream. This first started for burn victims expe- the lashes were enhanced for their advertising. Rim- riencing permanent hair loss from chemotherapy, burns mel said it had developed existing brush technology by and radiation treatment. It was only three years ago that creating a mascara brush that provided greater lash lift they started to perform the surgery on perfectly healthy on ten female panelists. It provided a table and a sam- women. Since then the number of people interested in ple before and after shot, claiming the results showed the surgery has quadrupled. The glue extensions need the average increase in lash lift roof to tip was 74.7 touch ups about every six months. The procedure costs per cent. Cosmetics are advertised in exaggerating 3,000 per eyelid surgical eyelash extensions are perma- their effects and we as consumers are intrigued by it. nent. These lash implants also require a lot of attention and care, not only does it require touch ups but they need to be trimmed every so often. If not it can lead to scratch- es on the cornea and possibly permanent blindness. 16 Sources: Mail online:
  21. 21. COSMETIC SURGERY FOR HEELS For High Heels This article talks about how women are getting their toes or small parts of their toes amputated in order to wear Collagen Injections into the Balls of Feet high-end heel shoes like Manolo Balahnik and Jimmy Plumping up of the feet with injections is cheaper and Choo’s. The title ironically titles “If Shoe Won’t Fit, Fix less risky than the surgery. For many years women have the Foot?” by Gardiner Harris Article New York Times been going to doctors to plump up their lips and fill in on December 7, 2003. Cosmetic foot surgery to wear wrinkles, today women are seeking a new alternative in high heels has been reported in the New York Times injecting collagen into the balls of the feet to ease the newspaper, television, and other media. This is becom- pain and discomfort caused by wearing stilettos. The ing a popular surgery that is raising a lot of concerns. collagen injections last about twelve months. The Process is done by cutting open the toe; some of the bone is removed causing the tip of the toe to shrink. However, there are consequences of this procedure be- cause missing toes or parts of toes can cause more body weight to be placed on the remaining toes and other parts of the feet. This causes them to weaken making it very easy to injury the foot as well as affecting the ability to jog or run. All negative effects are to be permanent and may last for the remainder of a person’s lifetime. 17 Sources: Cosmetic Foot Surgery to Wear High Heels: New York Times: by Gardiner Harris Article New York Times on December 7, 2003.
  22. 22. PLASTIC SURGERY the consequences Surgical cosmetic procedures increased 2 percent, In addition, more than 5.2 million reconstructive plastic with more than 1.8 million procedures performed in the surgery procedures were performed last year. (20) United States in 2006. The top five surgical procedures Minimally-invasive cosmetic procedures jumped 8 per- were breast augmentation (329,000), nose reshap- cent to more than 9.1 million procedures in 2006. The ing (307,000), liposuction (303,000), eyelid surgery top five minimally-invasive procedures were Botox (4.1 (233,000), and tummy tuck (146,000). For the first time, million), chemical peel (1.1 million), laser hair removal breast augmentation is the most popular surgical proce- (887,000), microdermabrasion (817,000), and hyaluronic dure since the ASPS began collecting statistics in 1992. acid fillers (778,000). Hyaluronic acid fillers (Restylane, Reports also show that women represent 90% of all Hylaform and Hylaform Plus) debuted in the top five, cosmetic surgery patients, and rates among women bumping out sclerotherapy (treatment of spider veins) are up 55% since 2000. Rates among men are up 8% which had been among the top five minimally-invasive from 2000, but down 7% from 2005. 11 Million Cosmet- procedures for the previous three years. Botox continues ic Plastic Surgery Procedures in 2006 - Up 7% . Re- to dominate the injectables market, while hyaluronic acid constructive Plastic Surgery at 5.2 Million Procedures. fillers like Restylane have increased 59 percent – more ASPS Reports Nearly 11 million cosmetic plastic sur- than any other minimally-invasive cosmetic procedure. gery procedures were performed in the United States One of the top plastic surgergons, Dr. Guy. states “When in 2006, up 7 percent from 2005, according to statistics it comes to the war on aging, Americans are clearly look- released today by the American Society of Plastic Sur- ing to injectables to help win the battle.” geons (ASPS). (20) 18 Sources:Plastic Surgery Research. info:
  23. 23. 19
  24. 24. defining beauty “The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all art and science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder and at and rapt in awe, is as good as dead.. His eyes are closed.” Albert Einstein
  25. 25. ? WHAT IS BEAUTY? symmetry and the smoothness of the skin to mean that a person has good genes and without illness or disease. The notion of beauty comes down to binary data and interpreted by a mathematical model over 2,000 years ago by the Greek philosopher and mathematician Py- thagoras. He observed the connection between math, geometry, and beauty. He argued that the features of physical objects are corresponding to the “golden ratio”. Beauty is a subject experience, it is frequently said that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Beauty is a char- acteristic of a person, place, object, or idea that gives off a perceptual feeling of pleasure, meaning, or ful- fillment. It is considered as part of aesthetics, sociol- ogy, social psychology, and culture. To truly experience beauty it involves the interpretation of some object or person as being in balance with harmony and nature. Recent studies have shown that the secret of beauty can be understood in terms that it is something that is already placed in our brains. Experiments have been designed to measure attractiveness with a strong connection with symmetry. Facial recognition is a complex process that computer programs have been developed to analyze the varia- tions of such things as the space between eyes, the size of our noses and the proportions of our facial features. Scientists have discovered mathematical facial propor- tions that identify beautiful people. Our brains assess emotions, personality traits and fertility as well as beauty. The human brain has special part called the fusiform, which is located in the back of the head near the spine. When it is damaged individuals are not able to recognize other faces that they are familiar with. Studies have re- vealed that when a person recognizes a face as beautiful was actually making a judgment about the health and energy of that certain individual. We interpret facial Sources:Book source: Real Beauty By Eddy M. Zemach, January 1997 20 Flaunt Magazine: Issue October 2008
  26. 26. THE HISTORY defining beauty “Geometry is the right foundation of all painting.” Albert Durer (1471-1528) “Geometry is the right foundation of all painting.” Albert Durer (1471-1528) “The ancients having taken into consid- eration the rigorous construction of the human body elaborated all their works, as “The Parthenon is certainly on of the pur- especially their holy temples, according to est works of art that man ever made.” Le these proportions. Corbusier (1887-1964) Luca Pacioli, in De divina proportione (1509) 21 Sources: An Allegory of Seeing / © 1974-2003 by Franz Gnaedinger, Zurich, fg(a), fgn(a) /
  27. 27. “Man is the measure of all things.” Heraclitus (540-480 BC) 22
  28. 28. NATURE defining beauty Symmetry is everywhere you look in nature. If you look at plants and animals, you will find that they have sym- metrical body shapes and patterns. If you divide a leaf in half, you will often find that the one half has the same shape as the other half. Today, this symmetry has been scientifically proven to be inherently attractive to the human eye. It has been defined not with proportions, but rather with similarity be- tween the left and right sides of the face. By applying the stringent conditions of the scientific method, researchers now believe symmetry is the an- swer the Greeks were looking for. The rationale behind symmetry preference in both humans and animals is that symmetric individuals have a higher mate-value. Scien- tists believe that this symmetry is equated with a strong immune system. Sources: The beauty of symmetry by Elizabeth Snead ; issue Date:June 1, 2003 23
  29. 29. MAN’S MANIPULATION Humans have manipulated the nature of foods, making them seem more appealing or beautiful to the eye by coating fruit with wax, food preservatives, and coloring. With today’s rapid growth in consumption hormones have been injected in many of the foods we eat to make them look bigger and better, however there is a rising concern about the health of these issues. 24 Sources by Laurence C. Walker, Brian P. Oswald - 2000 - Technology & Engineering
  30. 30. THE MATH defining beauty The ipod is an object that connects with this theory. It is In mathematics and arts, two quantities are the golden ra- the most aesthetically pleasing MP3 player in the world. tio if the ratio between the sum of those quantities and the The idea behind the design of the ipod was to create a larger one is the same as the ratio between the larger one perfect product. One important aspect of the design is the and the smaller. The golden ratio is a mathematical con- basic shape of the device that applies to the golden ratio. stant, approximately 1.6180339887. During the Renais- sance, many artists and architects have proportioned their work to fit the golden ratio believing that this proportion is aesthetically pleasing. Mathematics has studied the gold- en ratio because of its unique and interesting properties. “In the spiral of the Nautilus the whorls continually in- crease in breadth, and so on in a steady and unchanging that the figure may be conceived as growing continuously without ever changing its shape the while.” Sir D’Arcy W. Thomson (1860-1948) Sources: The Golden Section By Hans Walser, Peter Hilton, Mathematical Association of America 25
  31. 31. OBJECTS Black Raku bowl MT8 Lamp Wil- Michelangelo’s Sleeping Nymph 17th century helm Wagenfeld David Imperical Throne Tea Kettle Christo- Pair of shoes for of Ch’ien Lung pher Dresser 1880 Oliveti Typewriter bound feet Plato tried to pinpoint the role that beauty plays in soci- The main function of design in objects is to make things ety. He believed that beauty only exists when you com- more beautiful and to solve problems, however we usu- pare objects to each other. If some aspect of an object is ally associate a design that we like as beautiful. There is beautiful, the whole object is beautiful. Plato “connected an interrelationship between objects, design, and beauty. the good to the beautiful” and thought that beauty pro- Design is used by societies to express their values. (M. vokes pleasure. Csikszentmihalyi and E. Rochberg Halon, The Meaning of Thing) This is because the norms of objects are shaped by eco- nomic and social conditions. The things which people in- teract are not simply tools for survival, or making survival easier and more comfortable. Things embody goals, make skills manifest, and shape the identities of their us- ers and carry meaning. Sources: 26 Book: Objects of Desire (M. Csikszentmihalyi and E. Rochberg Halon, The Meaning of Things
  32. 32. SEMIOTICS Barthes: 1. Democracy creates one style of dress for all men 2. One style of dress creates a need for distinction. 3. The arrival of Dandyism: the manner of dress of “dis- tinction”. 4. The fashion System arises, creating a systematic form of distinction, killing off Dandyism. 5. The fashion System expands its domain into other categories of goods and services (Barthes outlines gar- ment, food, furniture, and architecture. Barthes also makes an interesting point that con- flict with societies that don’t have fashion for indi- viduality. For instance, the ancient Chinese had defining beauty clothing by fixed codes. “The absence of fashion cor- responded to the total stagnate nature of society.” (Roland Barthes, The language of Fashion pg. 91). Barthes states that within fashion magazines, there is always image with the text this is related with what Semiology is the study of sign process and communica- he calls “real clothing”. Each of these objects is per- tion of signs and symbols. Semiotics has significant an- ceived through a different fashion. He states that, thropological dimensions that every cultural phenomenon “in the case of real clothing, it must not be known by can be studied as communication. Semiology is gener- sight, for its visual image does not reveal all of its in- ally understood as the science of signs. Semiotic analy- tricacies. It must be known through the mechanical sis has a broad range of influence from art, literature, process of its production…image clothing is manifest anthropology, sociology, and the mass media. Semiotic through iconic structures, written garment is manifest analysis looks for the cultural and psychological patterns in verbal structures.” (Barthes) Furthermore, Barthes is that underlie language, art, and other cultural expression. arguing that these sign systems do not produce cloth- Semantics: relation between signs and the things they refer to, their dentotata Syntactics: Relation of signs to each other in formal structures. Pragmatics: Relation of signs to their impacts on those who use them. Semiotics through the object of fashion Roland Barthes is a semiotic theorist that published ‘The Fashion system’ this is a theory that is based on the phe- nomenon of fashion that is tied into a certain economic gap within societies, characterized by the need to sell an object (clothing) at a rate before the clothing is worn out. 27 Sources: Book: The Language of Fashion; By Roland Barthes
  33. 33. DESIRE Slogans and iconic commercials become ingrained in our ”Every natural, innate desire in us corresponds to some collective cultural subconscious Beauty taglines are al- real object that can satisfy that desire. But there exists ways uplifting and hopeful, promising added confidence in us a desire which nothing in time, nothing on earth, no with the use of the product. (Whether that happens is creature can satisfy.” -Peter Kreeft another story.) The first premise implies a distinction of desires into two “The use value of prestige and beauty, of “acquisitions” kinds: innate and externally conditioned, or natural and of self adornment, and of play were all placed in the ser- artificial. We naturally desire things like food, drink, sex, vice of advertising’s basic purpose-to provide effective sleep, knowledge, friendship and beauty; and we natu- mass media distribution of products.” rally shun things like starvation, loneliness, ignorance The nature of desire, and not incidentally the nature of and ugliness. capitalism, required an unquestioning attitude toward the uses of production. The use o psychological methods, therefore, attempted to turn the consumer’s critical func- tions away about a product and toward himself. Kant suggests that beauty, objects, and desire are all in connection of lining the good with the concept of pur- pose. Kant also states that the morally good carries with the highest interest. “For the good is the object of the will (A faculty of desire that is determined by reason). 28 Sources: Taken from The Handbook of Christian Apologetics by Peter Kreeft and Ronald Tacelli.1994 Peter Kreeft BOOK: KANT Allen W. Wood June 2004, Wiley-Blackwell Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness
  34. 34. the evolution of beauty “Women do some rather insane things to achieve mod- ern standards of beauty. We wear shoes that do terrible things to our feet. We wear bras that dig into our chest and push our breasts into strange conformations. We slide on panty-hose to firm our stomachs, makeup to hide our imperfections, and hair dye to diminish our grays. All in the name of beauty -Maryanne Williamson ( women’s rights activist)
  35. 35. THE CORSET Corset health issues date back to the 1800s when wom- en willingly abused their bodies in the name of fashion. But how did this all come about? What sort of health is- sues did ladies endure by wearing corsets? For some time in the nineteenth century, in America a definition of beauty included corsets, making women’s waists as small as possible. This process was not only painful for women but also resulted in broken ribs and damaged internal organs.(19) Though commonly associated with Victorian upper-class matrons, corsets originated much earlier, in the 16th cen- tury, and by the 19th had become a hallmark of fashion for women of nearly all classes. Practically compulsory for women of aristocratic birth, corsets were also adopt- ed by working women who aspired toward similar ideals of fashion. One popular line of mass-produced corsets in the 1880s was the “Pretty Housemaid” model. In the name of fashion, tightlacing became commonplace. The goal was to reshape a female’s body to conform to stan- dards of fashion.(19) For many ladies, a 16- to 17-inch waist was desirable and was accomplished by lac- ing their corsets tighter and tighter until their rib cages became deformed. Health problems naturally followed. One such problem was reduction of lung volume which led to breathing problems. Because the corsets were so tight, women were only able to fill the tops of their lungs with air. This shallow breathing resulted in the bottom part of the lungs being filled with mucus. This was characterized by a persistent cough, the body’s way of ridding the lungs of foreign mat- ter. This may have been why doctors believed corsets were a cause of tuberculosis. Women were also known to faint because of the reduced lung function. This made smelling salts a typical household item. Another corset health issue was the compression of the internal organs, including: Liver, Stomach, Bladder, and Intestines. 29 Sources: Period Corsets http//
  36. 36. ANCIENT BEAUTIES Nefertiti Venus De Milo the evolution of beauty Venus De Milo (Ancient Greece): The most fa- Nerfertiti (Ancient Egypt): The Eyptian queen and wife mous dipiction of the Greek, later Roman, godess of of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, and mother-in-law of the Pha- beauty,earthly love, and joy. Found at Milo 130-120 raoh Tutankhamun. Her name translates to the “beauti- BC, now located at the Musee du Louvre, Paris. ful one is come”. She was made famous by her painted limestone bust now in Berlin’s Egyptian Museum. The artifact remains to be an international point of crisis be- tween Egypt and Germany. The 3,000 year old bust is being visitede by thousands of people everyday. 30 Sources:
  37. 37. Hainan A Li woman “Dressed for a celebration, a Li woman of Hainan Island in the South China Sea gives onlookers an earful. Her five-pound brass earrings, a mark of high status, were typically worn swung up into the hair as headgear. This picture was published in the September 1938 article of Nation Geographic about her people, the largest ethnic minority on Hainan”. -Photographed by: Jason Kallien 31 Sources: Magazine: National Geographic: By James Korald pg. 47 Issue January 05
  38. 38. FOOT BINDING The practice, now illegal, required breaking the the evolution of beauty arch of the foot, then constricting it, which result- ed in a stylized, mincing gait. It also set social constraints. “If girls feet are not bound, they go here and there with unfitting associates. This act, foot binding, was an attempt to stop the growth of the feet. Foot binding is a bizarre and terrible custom, yet it is hard to understand ex- actly what foot binding was like with the modern outlook we have today. The reason for women binding their feet went deeper than fashion and reflected the role of women in Chinese society. It was necessary then in China for a woman to have bound feet in order to achieve a good life. The exact way foot binding started is not fully known. Several legends have been passed down on how foot binding originally started. The most common legend is about the Chinese prince Li Yu in the Sung dynasty (AD 960-1280) (Nadine) The prince’s concubine, Yao Niang walked so gracefully it appeared as if she was “skimming The origin of foot binding may not be clear; how- over the top of golden lilies”. To follow that, the ever the powerful affects foot binding left are ap- “lily footed” woman became a model for China. parent. One billion women performed this for nearly a thousand years. (6) 32 Sources: The Shoe man by Joung Youn 2003
  39. 39. SKIN BLEACHING All eight brands came from China or Taiwan, prompting Lam to predict this could be “the tip of the iceberg” because the creams have been available for several years and widely used. When Lam phoned one Chinese supplier, he was told: “What is wrong with a little mercury in the cream, as long as it can make ladies beauti- ful. ”Mad-as-a hatter While mercury was con- sidered a strong and effective whitening agent ten to twenty years ago, in high doses it is lethal It is so toxic and dangerous that when workers used mercury to make felt hats in the 1800s, the psychiatric changes it triggered, led ob- servers to call them as “mad-as-a-hatter.” “Mercury is very harmful to the central nervous system and kidney, particularly the developing brain of a foetus and young child “ says Lam. “It can lead to convulsions, coma and death.” (More on mercury poisonings as a skin bleach- er for years, it was only when a smattering of As cosmetic giants around the world jump onto toxic cream cases broke out during the 1990s this lucrative Asian obsession, women in the re- in Australia, America and Saudi Arabia that gion face an enormous array of ways to bright- mercury was put under the spotlight, spark- en, whiten, lighten and illuminate their yellow- ing calls to boost labeling and purity require- toned skins. But as companies pump money ments. The more effective it is, the less safe into new skin technology -- touting heat-sealed it is, and with a strong product the reaction capsules and triple-action formulas -- they are will be expected to be more,” says Dr. Wendy being joined by less scrupulous players. In De- Wong Hok-wai, a Hong Kong dermatologist. cember 2000, Lam and Prince of Wales Hospi- Mercury is very harmful to the central nervous tal doctor Michael Chan tested 36 creams made system and kidney, particularly the developing by cosmetic makers across the world.(7) They brain of a foetus and young child “ says Lam. found eight creams exceeded the U.S. Food and “It can lead to convulsions, coma and death.” Drug Administration safety limits for mercury. 33 Sources: Skin Deep: Dying to be White May 15, 2002 by Marianne Bray
  40. 40. MYANMAR the evolution of beauty The Karenni women place gold rings around Now it is the women themselves who have be- their necks as a symbol of beauty. Short coils are come a valuable commodity, both for their own applied first to girls about 5 years of age, or even communities and for the Thai officials and tour as young as 3. Every five years or so, the coil is operators however they are being exploited and unwound and replaced by a longer and heavier are being prevented to leave the village. The one. Parents make the decision of whether or long-necked women are an unprecedented not their girls should wear the coils and almost source of income, supporting their families and all of the village girls wear them. their villages. 34 Sources: The Pa Dong Village of Nai Soi Long-Necked Women May 14, 2001
  41. 41. NECK RINGS A 5-year-old wears 3 kilogram (6.2 pounds) of coiled brass. Then, when she is about seven years old, she’ll wear 4 kilograms (8.3 pounds). This will slowly be increased over the years to 5 kilograms. The rising spiral of brass is borne by a female’s collarbone and shoulders. One coil is long enough to encircle her throat several times with a polished, industrial-strength solid brass rod, about one-third of an inch in diameter. The girl will remain coiled for the rest of her life. This is equivelent to a young western girl packing around They are also limited to how far they look down 6 pounds of books on her back. This does not include that the youn Karenni girls that are not able to tak e them or sideways because their jaw bone is kept off until they are replaced with heaver ones. She will upturned, rigid and extended. To alleviate the eventually carry over ten pounds of brass on her neck. metal’s eternal, painful rubbing against their skin and bones, most Padaung females insert a thick, handkerchief-sized cloth under their chin’s jaw bone. But endlessly irritated skin rubs raw, producing scabs and darkened, chaffed rings on the throat and shoulders. 35 Sources: The Karenna State: Author not available, KARENNI STATE. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2008 Copyright 2008 Columbia University Press
  42. 42. MURSI WOMEN the evolution of beauty 36 Sources: THE MURSI WOMEN: Jean-Pierre Dutilleux (WHERE BEAUTY COMES FROM THE HEART)
  43. 43. LIP ORNAMENTS The Mursi women wear large lip ornaments made of clay or wood. They share this unusual custom with the Kayapo natives of the Brazilian Amazon. Secluded tribes separated by thousands of miles, share this extremely rare tradition. The reason is still one of the many intriguing mysteries of lower lip, the clay plate has become the defining the tribal world. At puberty, the girl’s bottom lip is image and symbol of beauty of the Mursi woman. pierced and a small wooden or clay plate is insert- The process involves piercing a hole in the bottom ed. They gradually increase the size of the plate, lip, stretching it out and gradually increasing the year by year, until it reaches a dramatic 10 inch- size of the lip plate. The Mursi see it as a symbol es in diameter. The size of the disk sets the price of a woman’s beauty, pride and sexual maturity. of the young woman’s dowry. (10) The larger the When the lip isn’t spooled around the plate, it dan- disk, the more cattle her family will receive from gles below the chin like Buddha’s ear lobes.(10) the groom’s family. As many as 50 heads of cattle For the foreigner who’s just been introduced to this will be paid to marry the girl with the largest disk. unusual cultural practice, it’s hard to imagine how In a tiny village in southern Ethiopia, some- the women can comfortably eat, drink or speak. where in the Lower Omo Valley’s Mago Na- tional Park, a group of Mursi women prepare for a day of visitors. Though they’re cattle herd- ers by tradition, tourism is now their main form of income. They baste themselves with white body paint, designing lines with the scratch of a fingernail. Their arms are adorned with jin- gling brass bracelets, their mouths are wrapped around coaster-sized lip plates. Worn in the 37
  44. 44. BEAUTY ICONS the evolution of beauty Audrey Hepburn was an actress, philanthropist, and known CHANEL NO, 5 (FRENCH) for ber beauty. Born on May 4, 1929, in Brussels, Belgium. -Signature perfume of the house of Chanel. , Audrey Hepburn was known for her beauty, elegance, and -Is seen as the ultimate luxury perfume through de- grace. Often imitated, she remains one of Hollywood’s great- cades. est style icons -Print ads include names Estella Warren and Nicole Kidman. -When asked what she wore to bed, Marilyn Monroe famously replied: “Only a few drops of No. 5…”-Today Chanel No. 5 sells a bottle every 30 seconds. 38 Sources:
  45. 45. -a Brazilian mode, actress, and spokeswoman. Kate Moss (born January 16, 1974), is an English -became the most expensive model in the world shortly model. Known as one of the most iconic models in the after her arrival to the fashion scene. world[citation needed], she has appeared on over 300 -was born 1980, 5’11” tall, and is seen as a ;flawed beau- magazine covers [2]. She is known for her tiny frame, ty because of her slightly larger nose. uncommon modeling height for a fashion model, and -been the leading model for Versace, Louis Vuitton, Mis- appearing in many advertising campaigns. She is also soni, Armani, Dior, Dolce&Gabbana, and Victoria’s Se- notorious for her high-profile relationships and party life- cret. Reportedly earns 7,000 per hour with modeling. style. She came 2nd on the Forbes top 15 richest super- models list, estimated to earn 9m in one year. 39 Sources: