Annie Lin Senior Thesis D+M Spring 2009


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Annie Lin, Design + Management, BBA Parsons The New School for Design, Spring 2009, Senior Thesis Project. Faculty: Robert Rabinovitz, Associate Professor, School for Design Strategies.

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Annie Lin Senior Thesis D+M Spring 2009

  1. 1. 3 x 3= 9 3 x 3 = 9 CARE connecting all resources of education Annie Lin. Parsons, The New School of Design. Thesis. 2009. Robert Rabinovitz
  2. 2. CARE connecting all resources of education ABSTRACT The intersection of Design Technology & Human Interaction holds the potential to explore and develop issues of modern advancement and its effect on our society while creating mediums for connecting people to a wealth of information and resources. Inspired by single working parents and single children around the world, CARE, Connecting All Resources of Education, is a network program that embraces the advancement of technology while valuing the importance of human interaction in the development of children. CARE helps teachers, parents, and students stay connected. It is a tool for children to acquire an understanding of virtual communication, allowing them to take full advantage of new technologies without sacrificing their social skills. CARE strives to integrate creative programs into the crucial development stage in a young person’s life.
  3. 3. CARE connecting all resources of education TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction Problem Statement Inspiration p. 5 p. 7 p. 9 CARE Mission and Value p. 43 Social Interaction p. 11 System Map p. 45 Interaction p. 13 Student Interaction p. 47 Social Interaction p. 15 Student Education Screen Shots p. 49 Interpreting Faces p. 17 Student Education p. 51 Cognitive Behavior p. 19 Teacher Interaction p. 53 Socioemotional Disorders p. 21 Parent Interaction p. 55 Case Studies: Sociologists p. 23 Importance of CARE p. 57 Sociologist Input p. 25 Bibliography p. 59 Thank You p. 61 Advanced Technology p. 27 Timeline of Design Technology p. 33 After School p. 35 Case Study: See & Sprout Project p. 37 Case Study: Klick! p. 39 Case Study: Living Values p. 41 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Problem Inspiration Social Interaction Introduction Statement Interaction 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Social Interpreting Cognitive Socioemotional Case Studies: Sociologist Interaction Faces Behavior Disorders Sociologists Inputs 27 28 29 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Advancement Advancement After School Case Study: Case Study: of Technology of Technology See & Sprout KLICK! Project! 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 CARE CARE CARE CONNECTING Case Study: Mission System Map Student Interaction Student Education Student Education EMAIL ASSIGNMENTS ANNOUNCEMENTS ADDRESS BOOK RESOURCES Living Values & Vison Screen Shots LIBRARY KIDS NEWS ADDITIONAL READINGS SEARCH ENGINES www. EDUCATION connecting all resources of education EARTH READING/WRITING CREATIVITY MATH 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 CARE CARE CARE Teacher Interaction Parent Interaction Importance of Bibliography Thank You By Annie Lin CARE connecting all resources of education
  4. 4. CARE connecting all resources of education INTRODUCTION There is no doubt that children today grow up in an general purposes degrades or advances social of communication, entertainment, and studies. unprecedented landscape far different from those of and human interaction. Some experts go Thus, embracing the advancement of previous generations. Today’s kids have an array of options as far as to blame flickering television sets, technlogy would be important for children to available to them for learning and entertainment purposes rapid movement video games, and other understand the opportunities and usage of including playing Wii at home with friends and family, such instantaneous forms of digital media for technology education for their future path. sitting on the computer for hours watching youtube videos, increasing rates of disorders such as intereacting with friends via online social networks, such as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Autism, Thus, I am exploring the field of design Facebook, instant messanging, or simply watching television Asperger syndrome, and emotional stress. technology and electronic media and their shows on the Web. The increased presence of technology While some of these disorders are partially influence on the development of social skills and means that children are spending more and more time in influenced by genetics, they are also human interaction. Questions that I am exploring front of a screen, perhaps more than the television. The influenced by environmental factors. Perhaps include—how has the shift towards an increasingly question that many child development specialists asks is the array of options of entertainment are technological lifestyle influenced our aesthetics whether or not this limits children’s ability to develop social supporting the increasing rates of the and our social interactions? Can product design skills. A broader question to ask is whether our disorders, but it may be avoided by embracing and technology foster social development? I will increasing reliance on technology as a form of the technology at an early age with the right also explore design ideas that include communication, entertainment, news-gathering, and other tools. Our future children generations will be possibilities for interactive activities to encourage the be heavily relying on technology as a form further technological developments to consider this vital part of human society for children. 6
  5. 5. CARE connecting all resources of education PROBLEM STATEMENT The advancement of technology has transformed Today technology makes it possible for single our communication landscape from working parents and their children to connect traditional forms such as postal mail and handouts with whole educational networks. Inspired to digital files, email exchanges, online discussion by single working parents and single children boards, video chats, and text messages. This around the world, I am proposing an online transformation has moved us away from slower, program, CARE (Connecting All Resources of hard copy forms to more instantaneous and graphic Education), that would serve as a connecting digital forms of communication. The array of point for elementary schools, students, and gadgets and inventions that fill our everyday lives parents. The program allows for teachers, has not only changed the way we correspond and parents and students to ask questions, do business, but it has also revolutionized our sense communicate, and watch videos of lessons that of aesthetic and our social processes. As some are uploaded online to efficiently assist children schools conduct complete classes online, new toy with their homework. It also acts as a designs entice children to log online to play games, transitional device, fostering career skills by and movies use more and more frames per second teaching children to adapt to an increasingly to speed up visuals, the question arises: does a shift technologically dependent society. It also builds towards technological dependence degrade the etiquette in children, encouraging them to stray development of social and human interaction? away from text messaging language and to formalize their words and opinions while Or can new technologies and products integrate navigating the nuances of a professional online social and human interaction with electronic network. CARE also enables children to acquire media? The efficiency of ICT’s (Internet basic creative virtual skills that will serve them Communication Technologies) has made the growth for years to come. The creative programs can of electronic communication irreversible. There is no range from hands-on printouts to interactive doubt that such a growth is and will continue to be online flash games and assignments. accompanied by a shift in sociological interaction. My project will explore the ways in which this shift has already occurred, the possibilities for providing human engagement and interaction in the traditional sense via current technologies, and what this bodes for the future development and design of technological products. 8
  6. 6. CARE connecting all resources of education INSPIRATION Since the 1970s, one of the most dramatic As many as 2.5 million parents are overly stressed parents may still have concerns about whether households are, on average, less successful in changes in the structure of the American family by Parental Concern about After-School Time these arrangements are reliable and safe and school and experience more behavior problems has been the increased employment of mothers (PCAST), and are likely to bring their concerns to whether children are happy and spending their than children living in two-parent households. It outside the home. Since the 1930s, the federal the office. PCAST is the degree to which employed time productively.4 further states that within two-parent households, government has subsidized childcare for parents are concerned about the welfare of their children are more likely to do well academically, low-income families. Government-funded school-aged children during the after-school hours. With more and more parents in the workforce, to participate in extracurricular activities, and to programs such as Head Start, which began as a According to the report, based on a survey of 1,755 worries about what minors are doing after school enjoy school. Children as less likely to have ever nutritional and health program for poor children employed parents (44.7 percent fathers, 55.3 are no minor concern. Recent demographic shifts repeated a grade or to have been suspended or in the 1960s, offered educational readiness to percent mothers) who work at one of three Fortune have increased the number of dual-earner expelled if their single-parent have high involve- prepare children for school as part of the 100 companies across the United States, there is families and single parents.5 Given that most ment in their schools.7 child-care program. The Child Care and much that companies can do to protect employees Americans will have children at some point in their Development Fund (CCDF), authorized by the against Parental Concern about After School Time. lives, and that each child is most likely in school for Inspired by Single Working Parent and Single Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Millions of working fathers and mothers are less thirteen years from kindergarten through twelfth Children around the world and the study of Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PL 104–193), helped productive at work due to concerns about what grade, after-school issues are a concern for an advancement of technology and human low-income families and those leaving the their children are doing in the after-school hours, extended period of time for large numbers of interaction, a social networking program, CARE, welfare rolls to obtain child care so they could according to a new study released today by employees at some point during their Connecting All Resources of Education. CARE is pursue employment, job training, or education. 1 Catalyst, the leading nonprofit research and working lives.6 a progream to virtually connect students, parents, advisory organization working to build inclusive and teachers, especially the communication environments and expand opportunities for women According to the National Center for Education between single working parents and their single at work.2 Statistics, Children living in single-parent child. On the whole, working parents are faring well. It is when an employee has concerns about a school- aged child or that child’s care and feels that work- place options are not available that problems arise. PCAST is an indicator of the stress these employ- ees face. In addition, single parents are under pres- sure naturally to meet ends financially and emotionally and have have much less free time to spend with their children.2 The gap between the time the school day ends at 2:00 or 3:00 p.m.and the time most full-time employed parents get home from work at 6:00 or 7:00 p.m. amounts to 15 to 25 hours each week. As a U.S. Department of Labor report noted,“ using the most generous calculations,only about 64 percent of a full-time worker’s standard work schedule is covered by the hours children are typically in school.” Many parents also have long commutes home from work, adding to the time their children must be cared for. Most employed single parents must, therefore, make arrangements for their children’s after-school care. There are significant health, academic, and social risks associated with leaving school-aged children unsupervised. 3 Unfortunately, affordable high-quality dren are in supervised situations after school, 10
  7. 7. CARE connecting all resources of education SOCIAL INTERACTION The research of human interaction is important beginning to understanding the HUMAN INTERACTION SOCIAL INTERACTION HUMAN-COMPUTER importance of a child’s growth in the primary ages when information is keen to their future development of knowledge, understanding of surroundings, people, and self. INTERACTION Face to face and body to Interaction is defined as all Human-computer interaction body communication, and interaction which occurs is a discipline concerned speaking communication throughout any one with the design, evaluation are exercised between two occasion when a given set and implementation of human beings.Interaction of of individuals are in one interactive computing where the five senses: see, another’s continuous systems for human use.10 touch, feel, hear, and smell presence. This is also known are available to be used and as an encounter.9 understood within an environment and surrounding.8 Key Individual Computer 12
  8. 8. CARE connecting all resources of education INTERACTION Integrating into communities and society and developing a sense of belonging are crucial processes in child development. Community is the joining together or grounding of individuals in society. People tend to seek out others that have something in common with themselves to whom they can relate to comfortably. People form communities based upon both natural and constructed situations. Natural communities are those that happen as a result of nature, such as being born a certain race, with a certain hair color, or as a male or female. Constructed communities are defined by boundaries that humans set by beliefs and interests. Communities play a large role in society. They not only define where individuals fit into society but also help people establish identities. They provide continuity and a sense of belonging to something greater than an individual realm. Communities provide people with focus and purpose and, therefore, they can be tre- mendously important in terms of providing a sense of belonging or not belonging, which in turn can inspire or discourage individual participation and success in specific activities. Thus, to neglect, omit, or separate people on basis of any natural community categorization, including gender, can have grave consequences in terms of the constructed communities in which they can identify themselves with. Society offers opportunities to mix, yet at some point during childhood years those opportunities are changed by parents, teachers, and later friends and other environmental factors. With the advancement of technology, it would definitely bring people together in a new form of social community and interaction that would foster positive and negative aspects of a child’s daily routine depending on the approach. With the click of a button, anyone can be connected to the Internet and virtually chat and speak their minds to anyone that would listen. This could foster any lonely child around the world to be heard, similar to those social networks, such as Facebook or My Space, or instant messaging on AIM or SKYPE, or even just a personal blog. CARE is aimed to assist children around the world at an early stage to appreciate and utilize the opportunities of the Internet. 14
  9. 9. CARE connecting all resources of education SOCIAL INTERACTION Social Interaction Prime Time Face to Face Kids get a chance to meet all kinds of people online. Face-to-face interactions or telephone conversations, kids can grasp a sense of emotions, hand gestures, explaning oneself, and understanding differences in people. 11 Team Work Kids working in teams can acquire skills on problem solving, dealing with different personalities, being cooperative, and interacting with one another to explain oneself is a practice for the future for one to understand oneself. 11 Appreciate Their Children playing with each other outdoors, creating arts and crafts, and socializing in events and parties are all essential Environment aspects that would draw attention to appreciating their cultures, surroundings, and environments. 11 Imagination Early experiences with the natural world have been positively linked with the development of imagination and the sense of 13 wonder. Wonder is an important motivator for life long learning. Awareness We live in a society full of different people, cultures, and lifestyles. It is important that we are aware of our surroundings. When kids are out playing in natural environments, it “improves children’s cognitive development by improving their reasoning and observational skills.” 12 16
  10. 10. CARE connecting all resources of education INTERPRETING FACES Window of Opportunity In a recent study, published in this issue of Neurology, Rebecca Hefter suggest that problems with social interactions may be related to problems Hefter’s group suggests that people with social developmental disorders (SDD) have difficulties identifying faces and interpreting facial learning how to interpret faces. One of the ways expression. Hefter conducted a test of 26 adults we judge a person’s emotional state is by “reading” and from this study, Hefter’s group suggested his/her facial expression. During a conversation, that the problems of “reading” facial expression Learning Prime Time “reading” your listener’s expression helps you judge in SDD might be linked to problems with whether he or she understands or is interested in interpreting emotions rather than problems with what you are saying. Without this ongoing simply assessing faces. Without the ability to assessment and modification of what you are say interpret the emotions of others normal social Vision During this time, babies need to see shapes and colors, things ing, a conversation may become awkward, interactions are basically impossible. (Birth to 4 Years) that are close and far away, and things that move. e brain has ineffective or worse. 14 to learn how to see! If your baby has anything wrong with his eyes, it should be fixed early. Babies are born ready to learn any language, but they understand Talking and Reading and babble the language they hear the most. e more talking, (Birth to 10 Years) singing, and reading a baby hears, the more words he will understand and use. is is the best time for children to learn a second language. The part of the brain that handles feelings learns very early. How Feelings you treat your baby shapes the growth of feelings like happiness, (Birth to 18 Months) hopefulness, and sadness. e feeling part of the brain keeps growing through the teenage years. What happens early is most important for the brain’s feelings. Music & Math Skills The part of the brain that hears music is the same part that does math, so listening to rich, complex music is good for a baby’s (Birth to 5 Years) brain and helps a baby learn the skills needed to do math. During the first few months after birth, a baby learns to control Movement Skills his muscles. He learns to hold his head up, roll over and crawl. (Birth to 2 Years) Active games and gentle exercise help his brain learn these skills. Soon he will learn to use his small muscles to do things like pick up small toys and feed himself. 15 chart 18
  11. 11. CARE connecting all resources of education COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Developmental Stage Behavior Developmental Stage Behavior Invention of New Means Reflective Stage Simple Reflex activity such as grasping, sucking Through Mental Evident of an internal represenational system. Symbolizing the problem-solving Combination sequence before actually responding. Deferred imitation. (0-2 Months) (18-24 Months) Primary Circular Reflexive beheaviors occur in stereotyped repetition Preoperational Phase Increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric. The beginnings such as opening and closing fingers repetitively (2-4 Years) of symbolic rather than simple motor play. Transductive reasoning. Can think Reactions about something without the object being present by use of language. (2-4 Months) Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. The child has an intuitive grasp Secondary Circular Repetition of change actions to reproduce interesting Intuitive Phase of logical concepts in some areas. However, there is still a tendency to focus Reactions consequences such as kicking one’s feet to more a (4-7 Years) attention on one aspect of an object while ignoring others. Concepts formed are mobile suspended over the crib. crude and irreversible. Easy to believe in magical increase, decrease, (4-8 Months) disappearance. Reality not firm. Perceptions dominate judgment. In moral ethical realm, the child is not able to show principles underlying best behavior. Responses become coordinated into more complex Concrete Operation Evidence for organized, logical thought. There is the ability to perform multiple Coordination of Secondary classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the sequences. Actions take on an intentional character (7-11 Years) Reaction such as the infant reaches behind a screen to obtain a principle of conservation. thinking becomes less transductive and less (8-12 Months) hidden object. egocentric. The child is capable of concrete problem-solving. Discovery of new ways to produce the same Tertiary Circular Reations consquences or obtain the same goal such as the Formal Operation Thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic. (12-18 Months) (11-15 Years) The ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get possible outcomes is evident. Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality. a toy resting on it. 16 The charts are theories from Jean Piaget, a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental theorist. 20
  12. 12. CARE connecting all resources of education SOCIOEMOTIONAL DISORDERS Today, there are already many socioemotional Not everyone who is overly hyperactive, inattentive, or ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER impulsive has ADHD. How can specialists tell if the problem disorders diagnosed in children, such as ADD, ADHD, Autism, and Asperger Disorder. Most is ADHD? Because everyone shows some of these behav- In a class of 30 students, 1 in 3 are diagnosed with ADHD iors at times, the diagnosis requires that such behavior be substantiated causes appear to fall in the realm Boys are diagnosed with ADHD 3 times more often than girls demonstrated early in life, before age 7, and continue for at of neurobiology and genetics. This is not to say Emotional development in children at 30% slower with ADHD least 6 months. Above all, the behaviors must create a real that environmental factors may not influence the handicap in at least two areas of a person’s life such as in severity of the disorders, and especially the the schoolroom, on the playground, at home, in the com- degree of impairment and suffering the child AUTISM munity, or in social settings. 17 may experience, but that such factors do not Early signs of Autism in a small child may be minimal eye seem to give rise to the condition by 1 in 166 Child in USA are diagnosed Boys are diagnosed 4 times more ofthan than girls contact, a lack of social interest, and avoiding hugging and themselves. Thus, it is not scientifically A new case of Autism case every 20 minutes, most apparent cuddling. These children may have difficulty interpreting the legitimate to attribute increased rates of at age three meaning of facial expressions and gestures. About half of diagnoses to the advancement of technology. children with autism may remain mute for their entire life. But it should be recognized that well-designed Others may show a great delay in learning to talk. These ASPERGER children often echo what people say to them without technological products and programs have the seeming to understand how to reply. Repetitive behaviors potential to assist children and young adults Added to American Psychiatric Association in 1994 are common such as rocking, twirling their hair or waving living with such disorders. Intelligent children that want to fit in and interact, but don’t their hands. These children may also be unusually sensitive know how to sounds that most people can completely ignore.18 Often have one wayconversations Asperger disorder is thought to be a milder form of autism. CARE is a great introduction for young children Generally, these people have normal intelligence or may to acquire Internet etiquette while learning to even be intellectually gifted. However, as in autism, they are navigate a virtual community. It also offers a socially inept and lack insight. They are inflexible to chang- chance for busy, single working parents to make es in expected routines and have a narrow range of inter- themselves a part of this community by offering ests. Often they develop in-depth knowledge about specific them a convenient and efficient means of interests such as airplanes, trains, dinosaurs, etc. Repetitive behaviors, such as spinning objects, are also common. They forming a relationship with their children’s may also be physically clumsy. However, unlike autism, as school network. children they begin to speak on time. 19 22
  13. 13. CARE connecting all resources of education CASE STUDIES: SOCIOLOGISTS Goffman has attempted to capture the creative and expressive aspects of our social behaviour and ERVING GOFFMAN (June 11, 1922 - November 9, 1982) emphasized the symbolic aspects of our self-presentational activity. He saw social encounters as Canadian and American sociologist and writer comprising a manipulation of both sign activity (verbal and non-verbal behaviour) and sign equipment (clothes, etc.). “All the world is not, of course, a stage, but the crucial ways in which it isn’t are not easy to specify.” The self-definition is termed a personal front and social itneraction involves a constant monitoring of our -Goffman 20 own and others personal fronts. Impression management- the social world seen as a stage on which actors constantly create and 21 recreate their social selves according to their conceptions of what it is to be a social person. CHARLES HORTON COOLEY (1864 - 1929) Looking-Glass Self American sociologist A person must use the imagined point of view of another to form opinions of themself. Cooley was also “To have no heroes is to have no aspiration, to live on the interested in the use of possesive pronouns like “mine”, because of the fact that a young child would momentum of the past, to be thrown back upon routine, sensuality, never be exposed to a uniform meaning of the word. Each person using “me” or “mine” would ascribe and the narrow self.” ownership to a different person. Somehow through reflection on society, and self-awareness, a young child -Cooley learns to use these pronouns. The idea is that by taking an imagined point of view of another the child connects with the meaning of that person, and learns to use words ownership in a manner that seems to 22 be appropiate based on their observations of the person they are imagining themselves as. GEORGE HERBERT MEAD Mead argues that language is crucial to the development of the self, and that it is not until a small child (February 17, 1863 - April 26, 1931) learns language that they can being to role play others. This role playing of others is a form of multiple American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist personalities that allow the child to reflect upon themselves and to develop a self. One of the Founder of Pragmatism Mead believes that the fact that the self can be an object to itself makes it unique. Mead argues that we “Our specious present as such is very short. We do, however, can never experience our body as a whole, because we are trapped within it. This differs from the self, experience passing events; part of the process of the passage of which can be an object to itself, by allowing the individual to take the point of view of another and look events is directly there in our experience, including some of the back at it. past and some of the future.” -Mead Mead also distinguishes between the “I” amd the “me”. He explains that the “I” is the part which reacts to the self through taking the point of view of others. The “me” is the social part of the self. 23 24
  14. 14. CARE connecting all resources of education SOCIOLOGIST INPUTS Individuals differ in the extent to which they monitor their behavior and other people’s reactions to it. Some people seem to be consistently conscious of engaging in impression management and their success in doing so – in others success is less marked. Though we constantly monitor the personal fronts of others we rarely attempt to discredit the definitions people present of themselves. Goffman argues that individuals often project fronts for tactical reasons without really believing in them. Cooley presented a divergent view from the norm, stating that “...even economic institutions could [not] be understood solely as a result of impersonal market forces.” With regard to the sociologi- cal perspective and its relevancy toward traditions he states that the dissolution of traditions may be positive, thus creating “the sort of virtues, as well as of vices, that we find on the frontier: plain dealing, love of character and force, kindness, hope, hospitality and courage.” He believed that Sociology continues to contribute to the “growing efficiency of the intellectual processes that would enlighten the larger public will.”23 Cooley’s theories were manifested in response to a three-fold necessity that had developed within the realm of society.24 The first of which was the necessity to create an understanding of societal phenomena that highlighted the subjective mental processes of individuals yet realized that these subjective processes were effects and causes of society’s processes. The second necessity examined the development of a social dynamic conception that portrayed states of chaos as natural occurrences which could provide opportunities for “adaptive innovation.” Finally, a need to manifest publics that were capable of exerting some form of “informed moral control” over current problems and future directions. 25 Mead describes how the individual mind and self arises out of the social process. For Mead, the social process is prior to the structures and processes of individual experience. Mind, according to Mead, arises within the social process of communication and cannot be understood apart from that process. The communicational process involves two phases: (1) the “conversation of gestures” and (2) language, or the “conversation of significant gestures.” Both phases presuppose a social context within which two or more individuals are in interaction with one another.26 Language, in Mead’s view, is communication through significant symbols. A significant symbol is a gesture (usually a vocal gesture) that calls out in the individual making the gesture the same (i.e., functionally identical) response that is called out in others to whom the gesture is directed. Mead describes how the individual mind and self arises out of the social process. For Mead, the so- cial process is prior to the structures and processes of individual experience. Language, in Mead’s view, is communication through significant symbols. A significant symbol is a gesture (usually a vo- cal gesture) that calls out in the individual making the gesture the same (i.e., functionally identical) response that is called out in others to whom the gesture is directed. 27 16 26
  15. 15. CARE connecting all resources of education ADVANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY Design Technology is constantly being invented, re-invented, and innovated in all shapes and forms. It has cluttered our options for connectivity, communication, entertainment, and information sources. Design Technology has altered, shaped, and influenced our society and cultures in ways that we never imagine, such as opening up opportunities for new business operations, social interaction, and has created a natural reliance on accessibility, media communica- tion, and connectivity around the world. Today, design technology has fostered many new game systems, social networks, and social communication tools to connect people around the world. For example, the creation of the Wii from Nintendo is a great example of design technology and human interaction because it encourages people to come together to play on an interactive game system that offers a variety of games with controls that require motion and human involvement. It is a new form of 28 human interaction and social communication. Technology and culture refers to the cyclical co-dependence, co-influence, co-production of technology and society upon the other. This synergistic relationship occurred from the dawn of humankind and the invention of simple tools from stones and rocks. Science, Technology, and Society has helped us become the way we are today by the collaboration of adaptation, the pace of processes becoming more and more immediate, and the need for upward mobility.29 A great example of technology and society is the invention of the mobile phone. The mobile phone is a portable device that can be used to talk to people from any location, and slowly but surely, the need for immediate contact and accessibility became integrated within our daily lives. 28
  16. 16. CARE connecting all resources of education ADVANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY The growth and implementation of technology is influencing our society dramatically and has become the Simplifies Life Technology Development Influence central element of communication for personal and business relationships. The technology is influencing the values of our society by changing our expectations for communicating, information gathering, and networking. There are three interrelated values that inform, and are informed, by The Rise of a Leisure Technology is offered through the raise of leisure class and the ability technological innovations. First, it allows you to have a mechanistic world view, a view that looks at to access the upward mobility. Slowly the mass that contribute to the different parks and can be individually analyzed and understood. Technology within society also Class growth of technology will cheaper the prices and allow accessibility to allows efficiency, a value originally applied only to machines, but now applied to all aspects of society. become easier and more convenient for all. For example, each element is expected to attain a higher and higher percentage of its maximal possible performance, output, or ability to out beat the previous model. Technology also keeps the social progress flowing, which will become beneficial in all aspect of society. Before the Industrial Revolution, and the A More Informed A more informed society means more informed individuals. At some explosion of point, many may point out that our childrens’ generations are not technology, almost all society believed in cyclical theory of social movement, a theory hat shows a Society reading enough, but infact, technology has opened a new way of read- continuing shift in national involvement between public purpose and private interest. ing and obtaining information more efficiently, not only locally, but also internationally. In additional, while technology may influence society, society also controls technology through the decisions made and distributions within our economy. The channels of distribution plays an important Increases Multi-Task Although this isn’t a simplified lifestyle, this enhances ones work ethic role on how the products go from raw materials to consumptions to disposal. The cultural beliefs and ability to juggle multiple tasks efficiently. It also exercises the brain regarding freedom of choice, consumerism, and materialism has contributed to the greed of technology when one multi-task. and new models that has learned to be produced in a shorter span of lifecycle than older technology. Also, the economic values we place on the environment, individual wealth, social status, government control, and capitalism all contribute to the way we consume technology development and utlize it within our lifestyle. According to Williams and Edge, the construction of shaping of technology includes the concept of choice. Choice is inherent in both the design of the individual and systems, and in the making Global Networking Although this isn’t a simplified lifestyle, this enhances ones work ethic of these artifacts and systems. 30 and ability to juggle multiple tasks efficiently. It also exercises the brain when one multi-task. Creates Social Circles Technology has enhanced our ability to keep in touch and meet new people with a click of a button. It has created a denser social circle and eliminated loneliness at a cheaper cost. Cheaper Prices Many consumers search Online for cheaper prices, deals, and price knowledge about products in comparison to a multiple of retailers. Greater Specialization Technology has opened up a new job market for many individuals. It also allowed individuals to specialize in their skills and offer it to In Jobs/ employers looking for specific jobs to be done. Job Opportunities chart 31 30
  17. 17. CARE connecting all resources of education TIMELINE OF TECHNOLOGY Polaroid John Atanasoff and photography Chester F. Carlson Clifford Berry built Mobile phones first invented by Edwin invents the the first electronic invented. Not Sold Herbert Land. photocopier. digital computer. until 1983. 1930 1932 1933 1937 1939 1940 1942 1946 1947 1949 Frank Whittle and Frequency Igor Sikorsky invents Peter Goldmark The microwave oven Robert HopeJones Dr Hans von Ohain modulation (FM the first successful invents modern invented by Percy Spencer. invented the Wurlitzer both invent a jet radio) invented by helicopter. color television jukebox. engine Edwin Howard system. Armstrong. Charles Ginsburg invented the first Spacewar, the first The computer video tape recorder Fortran (computer computer video mouse invented by (VTR) language) invented. game invented. Douglas Engelbart. 1950 1951 1956 1957 1959 1962 1962 1965 1968 1969 The first credit card The first computer The computer The audio cassette The compact disk The arpanet (first (Diners) invented by hard disk used. modem invented. invented. invented by James internet) invented. Ralph Schneider. Russell. Barbie Doll expires december 21, 1955 invented. credit identification card Name Address your acct no. The ethernet (local VCR or computer network) videocassette invented by Robert The Apple Lisa The first 3-D video recorder invented. Metcalfe and Xerox. invented. game invented. 1970 1971 1972 1973 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1988 The floppy disk Pong first video Cell phones MS-DOS invented. Windows program Digital cellular Digital Television invented by Alan game invented by invented. invented by phones invented. Invented Shugart. Nolan Bushnell. Microsoft. 32
  18. 18. CARE connecting all resources of education TIMELINE OF TECHNOLOGY menu Phone tooth The digital invented by James answering machine Auger and Jimmy YouTube, Social invented. Web TV invented. Loizeau. Networks 1990 1991 1995 1996 1999 2001 2002 2003 2005 2009 The World Wide Web DVD (Digital Versatile Scientists measure On October 23, Toyota’s Hybrid Car Today and Internet protocol Disc or Digital Video Disc) the fastest wind 2001 iPod from CARE (HTTP) and WWW invented. speed ever recorded Apple language (HTML) on earth, 509 created by Tim km/h(318 mph). Berners-Lee. www. 34
  19. 19. CARE connecting all resources of education AFTER SCHOOL The Census Department estimates that about During children’s out of school time, they need Single Working Parents Concerns: Understanding Your Child 7 million children from ages 5 to 14 years old or time to play, explore, create, learn new skills 18 percent of children in this age group care for outside of textbooks, and release their stored children spend more time unsupervised interested and preferences themselves on a regular basis. While only 8 energy while in class. A balanced program should percent of 8 year olds care for themselves, 14 offer children free time as well as a wide variety of more responsibilities within the household communication to build a relationship percent of 10 year olds, 33 % of 12 year olds, and structured activities that are interactive and help affect their job performance and stress level levels of cognitive and social development within 48 % of 14 year olds care for themselves regularly develop or enhance social skills and leadership, school 32 before and/or after school. self-esteem, prioritizing and responsibility, conflict advancement of technology becomes a barrier resolution abilities, interests and hobbies, and to communication if not used properly between skills, hobbies, accomplishments and dreams During after-school hours, children and teens are academic skills. After school programs should parent and child more likely to become victims of violent crime allow the children to have the opportunities to personality parents work longer hours than at other times. For teens ages 12 to 17, this participate in groups and conduct team work takes peaks at 3 o’clock in the afternoon, the end projects as well as become ambition individually. parents have greater concern about their child’s 32 of the school day. In additional, a proper after school program that is behavioral and social issues* inexpensive and following the upward mobility of After school programs keep children and teens our society and technology could allow the safe and give them the opportunity to build on parents, students, and teachers connect for a *According to Catalyst, approximately 1 out of 20 working Understanding characteristics of establishing a high-level what they have learned during the regular school better relationship and a better future for the child. parents—a significant number—are severely impacted by conversation with your child.35 day, explore new interests, and to develop concerns about their children after school. 34 relationships with caring adults.33 Parental Concern about After School Time Parents of Boys Parents experienceing Low PCAST 36 for Parents of Boys and Girls Parents of Girls organized and control of life and work schedules 1.95 Parental Concern about After School Time (PCAST) 1.91 partners, relatives, or helpers part-time to care 1.90 for children after school 1.84 1.85 work part time and available to be home after- 1.80 1.79 school hours 1.75 have older children who are trustworthy and 1.70 responsible 1.70 happy with after-school arrangements 1.65 Low Unsupervised TIme HighUnsupervised TIme Child’s Unsupervised Time Graph 36 36
  20. 20. CARE connecting all resources of education CASE STUDY: SEE & SPROUT PROJECT The See and Sprout Project is a creative collective, international exchange art workshop launched by Stacie Krejchir originally created for youth in Khao Lak Thailand affected by the 2004 Asian tsunami. Krajchir launched the See and Sprout Project in 2007 with 18 secondhand digital cameras, three donated printers, and 800 sheets of photo paper. The next two weeks Krajchir and two friends worked with the children, ages seven to thirteen, showing how to use the cameras and printing pictures and writing on the photos. Five months later the project exhibited the children’s handiwork at the Grind Art and Print Gallery in L.A., raising nearly $7,000 from sales of the photos.37 The goal of the project is to bring underdeveloped country the opportunity to create visual images about their feelings and perceptions about themselves, their family and their community and to explore ways of translating these feelings to people who live outside their world. The project is dedicated to guide children to shoot photos, write, and connect with new friends with diverse backgrounds and communities. Storytelling and using visual images and words is a powerful medium for youth to navigate memory, uncertainty, inner strength and curiosities. All money raised from the sale of photos goes directly back to the child who shot the photo and giving them an understanding of self-sufficiency. 37 38
  21. 21. CARE connecting all resources of education CASE STUDY: KLICK! KLICK!, Kids Learning in Computer Klubhouses, is an afterschool program for Middle School students. In our school that means students in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Our Klubhouse opens every day at the end of school ,3:10PM and runs until 5:00PM. We are also open on Saturday mornings from 9am until noon. Klubhouse members are involved in tutoring adults in computer usage in the evenings. 38 KLICK! KIDS LEARNING IN COMPUTER KLUBHOUSES 3:00-5:30PM Every Weekday Klick! is a consortium of nine urban and rural Michigan school districts with the support of the College of Education at Michigan State University. Klick! is establishing a virtual network of ten middle school computer clubhouses as community learning centers. These extra-curricular clubhouses will enable at-risk students to engage in authentic learning opportunities through the use of computers and computer-related technology. Middle school students will become a helpful technology resource to all facets of their communities including senior citizens, service organizations, their school community, and others in need of their services. Each school site is staffed with an on-site coordinator and volunteers, and will be equipped with a variety of technology resources. The clubhouses will to provide safe environments that break down the barriers of isolation imposed by poverty, distance, and age. 38 40
  22. 22. CARE connecting all resources of education CASE STUDY: LIVING VALUES Living Values Education (LVE) is a way of con- The call for values is currently echoing 39 ceptualising education that promotes the devel- throughout every land, as educators, parents and Three Core Assumptions Upon which Living Values Educational Program opment of values-based learning communities more and more children are increasingly and places the search for meaning and purpose concerned about and affected by violence, grow- From a tenent in the Preamble of the United Nations’ Carter, “To reaffirm faith at the heart of education. LVE emphasises the ing social problems, the lack of respect for each in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person...” worth and integrity of each person involved in other and the world around them, and the lack the provision of education, in the home, school of social cohesion. World leaders struggle with and community. In fostering quality education, a myriad of problems. Educators are, therefore, LVE supports the overall development of the in- once again being asked to address problems dividual and a culture of positive values in each which have arisen within their societies. As 1. Universal values teach respect and dignity for each and every perosn. Learning to society and throughout the world, believing that UNESCO’s Commission, headed by Jacques education is a purposeful activity designed to Delors, reports in Learning: The Treasure Within, enjoy those values promotes well-being for individuals and the larger society. help humanity flourish. 39 “In confronting the many challenges that the future holds in store, humankind sees in education an indispensable asset in its attempt to attain the ideals of peace, freedom and social justice. The Commission does not see education 2. Each student does care about values and has the capacity to positively creat as a miracle cure or a magic formula and learn when provided with opportunities opening the door to a world in which all ideals will be attained, but as one of the principal means available to foster a deeper and more harmonious form of human development 3. Students thrive in a values-based atmosphere in a positive, safe environment of and thereby to reduce poverty, exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war.” Living Values mutual respect and care--where students are regarded as capable of learning to Education has been produced in response to make socially conscious choices. the call for values. 40 42
  23. 23. CARE MISSION: CARE is a networking program for children to be introduced to design, technology, and communication in modern society by connecting with their peers, teachers, and parents while exercising different educational activities digitally. CARE believes that children, teachers, and parents should embrace the advancement of technology and integrate it into the early system of education for cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural understanding. CARE also supports a better communication between the single working parent and the single child to ensure a closer bond and relationship without having technology as a barrier. connecting all resources of education VISION: CARE will be an beginning of a new curriculum for school education by connecting children and technology and acquring skills that are beneficial in their future. CARE is a networking program invested by Public Schools. It is a tool used to connect children, parents, and teachers by utilizing technology, appreciating design and computer accessibility, and understanding the resources of education to express new ideas, methods of learning, and connecting. CARE is target for seven to fourteen year olds. CARE is only available for students enrolled in the Public Schools that invested in the program. CARE is available to be accessed at any computer with Internet access. 44