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Aids in Ethiopia: Born Without Rights
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Aids in Ethiopia: Born Without Rights

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Arielle Scoblionko

Arielle Scoblionko
Parsons The New School for Design
Design + Management Department
Senior Thesis 1
Fall 2008

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Aids in Ethiopia: Born Without Rights Presentation Transcript

  • 1. aids in ethiopia: BORN WITHOUT RIGHTS
  • 2. introduction navigation project introduction; spring 2008 design development; course overview project topic exploration; brainstorm project brainstorm; initial inspiration people living with hiv/aids; demographics people living with hiv/aids; africa people living with hiv/aids; ethiopia project and problem overview; scientific project introduction; fall 2008 senior thesis; course overview design development review; inspiration project topic exploration; childhood project research; inspiration introduction; problem statement
  • 3. aids in ethiopia; born wihtout rights HIV/AIDS project overview common denominator; socialization understanding the larger context; childhood understanding the larger context; childhood in africa understanding the larger context; motherhood understanding the larger context; motherhood in africa understanding the larger context; breast-feeding understanding the larger context; breast-feeding in africa understanding the larger context; child hiv/aids undersatnding the larger context; child hiv/aids in africa approaching the problem the aids epidemic; empathy opportunities; areas of intervention project plan; time line bibliography all sources sited; bibliography, work in progress
  • 4. project introduction; spring 2008 design development: course overview Ther e are many broadly applicable principles that can be used to enhance the design development process in almost any context. Design Development is a one semester course that addresses these fundamental principles in a conceptual as well as practical manner. The course encourages studying the ways in which design processes unfold from many perspectives which affords opportunities for developing the insight required to recognize critical junctures that offer opportunities for increasing creativity and efficiency.
  • 5. aids in ethiopia; born wihtout rights Design Development(spring 2008): Identifying the Problem
  • 6. project introduction; spring 2008 project topic exploration; brainstorm
  • 7. aids in ethiopia; born wihtout rights
  • 8. project introduction; spring 2008 project brainstrom; initial inspiration
  • 9. aids in ethiopia; born without rights
  • 10. project introduction; spring 2008 people living with hiv/aids; demographics Global HIV infection; 30-36 million living with HIV, 2007 ADULT PREVALENCE (%) 15.0% - 28.0% 5.0% -< 15.0% 1.0% -< 5.0% .5% - < 1.0% .1%-,< 5% <.1% No data available
  • 11. aids in ethiopia; born without rights Young girls, orphaned by HIV/AIDS.
  • 12. product introduction; spring 2008 people living with hiv/aids; ethiopia Global HIV infection; 30-36 million living with HIV, 2007 ADULT PREVALENCE (%) 15.0% - 28.0% 5.0% -< 15.0% 1.0% -< 5.0% .5% - < 1.0% .1%-,< 5% <.1% No data available ethiopia,2007
  • 13. aids in ethiopia; born without rights Ethiopia is a country located on the Horn of Africa with Erotrea to the north, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Djbouti to the northeast, and Somalia to the east. Of Ethiopia’s 77 million people, 3 million are HIV positive, each day birthing 1,000 new infections. 93. “In Ethiopia 1,000,000 children under the age of fourteen have lost at least 1 parent to AIDS. That makes Ethiopia country with the most HIV-positive children.” 93. 29% of pregnant women were HIV positive in 2006. 10. 13. South Africa’s Department of Health estimates that 18.3% of 12.
  • 14. project introduction; spring 2008 project and problem overview; scientific HIV/AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome refers to symptoms and infections resulting from the damage to the immune system HIV is a retrovirus that infects vital organs of the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, which are destroyed. CD4+ T cells are required for the immune sys- tem to function. “When HIV kills CD4+ T cells so that there are fewer than 200 per microliter of blood, cellular immunity is lost.” AIDS positive cell HIV virus infecting a cell
  • 15. aids in ethiopia; born without rights ROUTES MYTHS TRANSMISSION Sexual intercourse with a “As the fetus grows in utero, Sexual contact virgin will cure AIDS cells of the placenta may be- come infected.” Exposure to infected body HIV only infects homosexuals fluids or tissues Free virus or HIV-infected Anal intercourse between men cells from the mother may Contact between sexual can lead to AIDS infection enter the fetal circulatory sys- secretions of one partner with tem. During labor and mucous membranes of HIV is the same thing as AIDS delivery the child is therefore another exposed to a large amount of HIV can only be transmitted infectious maternal blood and Saliva, tears, urine by direct contact of blood be- fluids.” tween an infected and Mother-to-child transmission uninfected person. HIV can be isolated in breast milk. Therefore, the virus can HIV is being spread through be passed to the child during nursing. needles left on theater seats AIDS viruses budding from a white blood From above: AIDS virus entering blood cell's membrane. stream,T4 cell infected with HIV
  • 16. project introduction; spring 2008 project and problem overview; mother to child transmission mother to child transmission “ Infection of HIV from “An estimated 370,000 children an HIV-positive were newly infected with HIV in 2007” 2. mother to her child during pregnancy, labour, delivery or breast feeding.” 2. “MTCT” 3.
  • 17. aids in ethiopia; born without rights 97. 58. 95. 91. 

  • 18. project introduction; fall 2008 senior thesis: course overview Seni or Thesis is a two semester course intended to draw upon and test competencies developed in previous Design and Management courses. By employing and refining evolving skills of research, analysis, explanation, persuasion, and presentation this project demonstrates an intimate understanding in the ermeging field of Design Research. AIDS In Ethiopia; Born without Rights represents four years of study, channeling unique talents to understand, communicate, research and design for unfamiliar people in unfamiliar places.
  • 19. aids in ethiopia; born without rights Senior Thesis (fall 2008): Intervention/Innovation
  • 20. project introduction; fall 2008 design development review; inspiration Sudan - almost 500,000 children refugees caused by violence and civil war. 1. These children are born without rights. They endure the Ghana - 3% of the population from 15-49 are currently consequences infected with the AIDS of their parent’s virus. 1. actions. Uganda - more than 940,000 children are Ethiopia - this country orphaned due to the of 70 million has AIDS pandemic. 1. more than 5 million orphans, their parents lost to famine, disease, Zambia - 47% of the popula- war and AIDS. 1. tion is younger than 15 with only 7% receiving aid of 1. any kind. 1.
  • 21. aids in ethiopia; born without rights In many ways, scientific The rapid spread of HIV research has delineated epidemic. the means by which is a global Mother to child transmission In developing countries, can be prevented. The primary challenge now up to 50% of infant facing the HIV community is how to implement, in a range of settings, the contraction is due to benefits of these breast feeding. discoveries. 82. 45.
  • 22. project introduction; fall 2008 project topic exploration; childhood biology, “In survival is the ultimate criterion of adaptation, achieved not only through spawning and protection of the newborn but also indirectly through the social processes involved in the provision of food, sharing of information, and maintenance of social order - in all animals. A[n understanding] of child[hood] care in any human population must begin with how adaptive functions are socially culturally and organized in the local environment child.” (chid care of the
  • 23. aids in ethiopia; born without rights Perceptions of childhood vary amongst cultures, demographic regions, time periods, religions, and races. Despite childhood people are connected by the common differences, all inability to bypass the early biological stage of life, childhood. Therefore, all children are entitled to the basic human rights that ensure a healthy physical, mental and spiritual development. However, many children are denied these fundamental human rights due to social, cultural and environmental constraints. As a global society bound by our biological commonalities, it is our responsibility future generations and to protect ensure the continuation of human existence.
  • 24. project introduction; fall 2008 aids in ethiopia; project research; inspiration born without rights “ Newsweek magazine announced, in its 1997 special issue on children, that breast feeding may boost a child’s intelligence. But the New York Times warned of the dangers of HIV-infected mothers passing the virus to their infants through their milk (Meier 1997). And Time magazine told the story of a female Army pilot, Emma Cuevas, who asked to be released from the service to breastfeed her baby after her six-week maternity leave was up. She was denied this option, though experts on her behalf claimed a constitutional right to breastfeed...”
  • 25. project overview aids in ethiopia; navigation born without rights
  • 26. project introduction; fall 2008 introduction; problem statement Cur rently fourteen percent of children in Ethiopia are stripped of their human rights due to HIV/AIDS exposure, 33 – 50% of which contract the fatal virus through their mother’s breast milk. Ethiopia faces unique hiv transmission challenges due to the societal significance of breast feeding, which secures a woman’s role and rights within a community. Globally we have battled the HIV/AIDS epidemic through governmental interventions, volunteer services, antiretroviral treatments, education, sexual protection, and scientific and medical advances, all of which are compatible within the first world countries in which they were created. In order to restore human rights to children, there is a desperate need to implement, in a range of settings, the benefits of these discoveries.
  • 27. aids in ethiopia; born without rights
  • 28. HIV/AIDS project overview common denominator; socialization “[Socialization is] the process through which individuals acquire the knowledge , skills, and dispositions that enable them to participate as more or less effective members of groups and the society.”
  • 29. aids in ethiopia; born without rights “A population tends to share an environment, symbol systems for encoding it, and organizations and codes of conduct for adapting to it... Human adaptation...is largely attributable to the operation of specific social organizations... following cuturally presribed scripts...No account of on- tegeny in human adaptation could be adequate without inclusion of population-specific patterns that establish pathways fo behavioral development of children.”
  • 30. HIV/AIDS project overview understanding the larger context; childhood childhood in any human population The nature of begins with how adaptive functions are socially and culturally organized in the local enviornment.
  • 31. aids in ethiopia; born without rights http://www.pbase.com/tarable/image/26627987 (dec 5) http://www.erikamasterson.com/ thesession.htm (dec 5)
  • 32. HIV/AIDS project overview understanding the larger context; childhood in africa “[The model of African childcare] is referred to as the pediatric [model], “because its primary concern is with the survival, health, and physical growth of the infant. The American [model],” is referred to as, “pedagogical, because its primary concern is with the development behavioral and its preparation for educational interactions.”
  • 33. aids in ethiopia; born without rights “Children’s fundamental rights remain a major challenge in Ethiopia. Poverty deprives children in food, clean water, their early years of life to adequate and medicine.” Preliminary results from UNICEF’s 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey indicate that: • one out of every 20 children die in their first month of life die • one out of ten before reaching their first birthday • one out of six die before reaching their fifth birthday
  • 34. HIV/AIDS project overview understanding the larger context; motherhood When functioning as the primary caregiver, mothers of all species and cultures “are motivated by a concern for the health and survival of their infant.”
  • 35. aids in ethiopia; born without rights “Some experts liken the sensual tie between mother and child to the exclusivity of the monogamous marriage bond.” “The cultural variation in beliefs about pregnancy begins with beliefs about the causes of conception, which can express meanings and values central to the identity of a culture.”
  • 36. HIV/AIDS project overview understanding the larger context; motherhood in africa “In virtually all the social and cultural contexts of indigenous necessary for Africa, childbearing is moral virtue, spiritual continuity, and material well-being; the more descendants one has, the better off one is considered to be.” childless man is “A barren woman or [African’s] image of the worst possible fate: an incomplete person who has not attained the foothold necessary for full adulthood and spiritual continuity. In some African socieites, such people are pitied and feared.”
  • 37. aids in ethiopia; born without rights The experience of pregnancy encompasses physiological, psychological, spiritual, and socio-cultural dimensions. Because the future of any given culture depends heavily on women’s procreative abilities, these abilities carry strong social significance. Thus, every culture takes upon itself the regulation and management of women’s pregnancies.
  • 38. HIV/AIDS project overview understanding the the larger concept; breast-feeding “In the United States, maternal respected as “To be breast feed- mother within the ing has long been affluent middle-class... advocated as a key to good requires a commitment mothering, to breast feed- womanly honor, and ing. In the current era, even to women’s citizenship...The breast feeding has become the measure of the mother.” notion of breast feeding as a mother’s obligation to both her child and the larger social body extends from the colonial days, when nursing was a mother’s sacred duty.”
  • 39. aids in ethiopia; born without rights feeding “Breast plays heavily into our notions of “good” and “bad” mothers, which touches on “Mother’s bodies, female sexuality, and the act of one of the dominant embodies anxieities addresing whether emotional issues of the feeding at the breast women’s bodies are “pure” or “dangerous.” The twenty first century: the relationship questions surrounding breast feeding “provides a lens between breast feeding with which to sharpen our focus on the conflics and motherhood.” shaping and dividing women’s lives.”
  • 40. HIV/AIDS project overview understanding the larger context; breast-feeding in africa hiv [breast feeding] story is so powerful “The because it literally and metaphorically tells us which mothers have dangerous bodies.” Breast feeding is an important part worth is measured in terms of “A woman's mother wife,” her role as a of and status of Ethiopian culture, therefore “many Ethiopian women which are reinforced thorugh the act of breast feed-
  • 41. aids in ethiopia; born without rights Ethiopian women are expected to breastfeed for it is a safe, nutritious, and ensures infant-mother bonding, which is an important element of the native culture. refuse In traditional Ethiopian societies women often alternatives because they breast feeding fear stigmatization by the family and the community. If a woman does not breastfeed, it may be assumed that she is HIV positive, exposing her to the physical
  • 42. HIV/AIDS project overview understanding the larger context; child hiv/aids “From the beginning of the HIV pandemic through 2002. four million children under 15 years of age worldwide became infected.” 13% 2.5 million of all new HIV infections children in 2003, children were in under age 15. (under the age of 15) 500,000 children under 15 Approximately worldwide were living with died from AIDS or related causes in that year alone. HIV/AIDS in 2003.
  • 43. aids in ethiopia; born without rights In Ethiopia, children ages 5 to 14 are referred to as ”widows of hope” future is in for the their hands. Most children are infected Children affected by HIV/AIDS with the virus during poverty, suffer from pregnancy, homelessness, delivery or while discrimination, breast feeding. death. About 50% of infants and early who get HIV from their die before their mothers second birthday.
  • 44. HIV/AIDS project overview understanding the larger context; child hiv/aids in africa trauma and “It is hard to overemphasise the hardship that children affected by HIV and AIDS are forced to bear. The epidemic not Sub-Saharan Africa is lose their parents or guardians, only causes children to 90% of home to nearly childhood as well.” all children living with HIV. but sometimes their http://confederateyankee.
  • 45. aids in ethiopia; born without rights mortality In seven African countries, child has increased by 20 to 40% due to HIV/AIDS . If HIV/AIDS continues to thrive, “by 2020 there will half the be about children under five there there would have been in the absense of AIDS.”
  • 46. approaching the problem the aids epidemic; empathy The World Health Organization estimates 800,000 children were infected with HIV in 2001 alone. 57.
  • 47. aids in ethiopia; born without rights HIV positive children, Ukraine HIV positive children, Africa 27.
  • 48. approaching the problem opportunities; areas of intervention 1. orphans 2. transmission 3. human rights 4. [protecting] culture 5. [maintaining] tradition
  • 49. aids in ethiopia; born without rights 6. psychological & emotional needs 7. organizations and counseling 8. child caregiver [cultural survival] 9. discrimination/stigma 10. fear [safety]
  • 50. approaching the problem aids in ethiopia; project plan; time line born without rights Arielle's Senior Thesis Timeline/ Second Semester Wednesday/ Wednesday/ Wednesday/ Wednesday/ week 2 week 3 week 4 week 1 15 22 29 Finalize Semester 1 deliverable Develop expert discussion guide (general) semester 2 volunteering December -- 7 21 28 14 Finalize discussion guide for Dr. Mehret, Interview with Dr. Mehret on 1/15, analyze Develop discussion guides (for areas Finalize discussion guides, begin scheduling prepare for interview, move forward with interview, narrow down to five areas of previously determined), move forward on in possible areas, begin volunteer work January product book intervention product book 11 18 4 25 Begin interviews, continue scheduling, Continue interviews, refine discussion Continue interviews and volunteering, Test new prototypes), identify area of narrow down to three areas of intervention guide, create mood boards (based on create and implement new prototypes, intervention, initial mood board and February predetermined areas of interventions) continue with product book discussion guide modifications 4 spring break/11 18 25 Solution exploration, continue interviews, Continue solution exploration, identify three Continue solution exploration, continue Identify solution refine mood boards and discussion guides , possible solutions interviews, refine mood boards, identify March identify 5 solutions two possible solutions 1 8 15 22 Refine prototypes to reflect themes from Solution refinement, continue working on Solution refinement, continue with mood Continue testing, initial solution outline, interviews and identified solution PB, expert interview (if possible) boards and interviews create prototypes April (April) 29 1 8 15 Thesis Test prototypes, modify solution Interview analysis, final prototypes Thesis delivered on May 13 presentations accordingly April/May
  • 51. project overview aids in ethiopia; navigation born without rights Arielle's Senior Thesis Timeline/ Second Semester week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4 week 5 week 6 week 7 week 8 week 9 week 10 week 11 week 12 week 13 week 14 week 15 week 16 week 17 week 18 (1/21) (1/28) (2/4) (2/11) (2/18) (2/25) (3/4) (3/11) (3/18) (3/25) (4/1) (4/8) (4/15) (4/22) (4/29) (5/1) (5/8) (5/15) Phase 1: Prototype development (intervention exploration) Phase 2: Test/develop prototypes, key areas of intervention Phase 3: Identify area of intervention, prototype refinement Phase 4: Identify spring solution, break begin final prototypes Phase 5: Thesis delivered on May 13th (presentation s on 15th)