What interface will the router send out a packet if it has destination address of 10.10.10.18?
Simple IP Routing 172.16.1.0 B A 172.16.2.0 172.16.2.2 172.16.1.2 172.16.2.1 172.16.1.1 e0 e0 >ping 172.16.1.2 B 172.16.3.1 172.16.3.2 s0 s0 Host A Host B
Routing/PDU Example: Host A Web browses to the HTTP Server…. 3. The destination port number in a segment header will have a value of __ 1. The destination address of a frame will be the _______________________ 2. The destination IP address of a packet will be the IP address of the________________________________
Static Routes 172.16.3.2 SO 172.16.1.0 B 172.16.3.1 A B Stub Network 172.16.2.0 SO A Routes must be unidirectional
Static Route Example ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.3.2 or ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 s0 172.16.3.2 SO 172.16.1.0 B 172.16.3.1 A B Stub Network 172.16.2.0 SO
Default Routes 172.16.3.2 SO 172.16.1.0 B 172.16.3.1 A B Stub Network 172.16.2.0 SO ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.3.1 ip classless
Routing protocols are used between routers to:
Determine the path of a packet through a network
Maintain routing tables
Routed protocols are:
Assigned to an interface
Once the path is determined by the Routing protocol, determines method of delivery
Routing vs. Routed
Routing Protocols Autonomous System 1 Autonomous System 2 IGPs: RIP, IGRP EGPs: BGP
An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain.
IGPs operate within an autonomous system.
EGPs connect different autonomous systems.
Classful Routing Overview
Classful routing protocols do not include the subnet mask with the route advertisement.
Within the same network, consistency of the subnet masks is assumed.
Summary routes are exchanged between foreign networks.
Examples of classful routing protocols:
RIP Version 1 (RIPv1)
Classless Routing Overview
Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with the route advertisement.
Classless routing protocols support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM).
Summary routes can be manually controlled within the network.
Examples of classless routing protocols:
RIP Version 2 (RIPv2)
Administrative Distance IGRP Administrative Distance=100 Router D Router B Router A Router C RIP Administrative Distance=120 Default Administrative Distance Directly Connected: 0 Static Route: 1 RIP: 120 IGRP: 100 EIGRP: 90 OSPF: 110
Distance Vector C B A D Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table Distance—How far Vector—In which direction Distance vector algorithms do not allow a router to know the exact topology of an internetwork. All routers just broadcast their entire routing table out all active interfaces on periodic time intervals
Hop count metric selects the path, 16 is unreachable
Full route table broadcast every 30 seconds
Load balance maximum of 6 equal cost paths (default = 4)
RIPv2 supports VLSM and Discontiguous networks
RIP Overview 64kbps T1 T1 T1
RIP Routing Configuration Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)# network network-number* *Network is a classful network address. Every device on network uses the same subnet mask 172.16.10.0 192.168.10.0 10.3.5.0 network 172.16.0.0 network 192.168.10.0 router RIP network 172.16.0.0 network 10.0.0.0 router RIP
RIP Version 2
Allows the use of variable length subnet masks (VLSM) by sending subnet mask information with each route update
Distance Vector – same AD, and timers.
Easy configuration, just add the command “version 2” under the router rip configuration
router rip network 10.0.0.0 version 2
Two networks of the same classful networks are separated by a different network address
192.168.10.0/24 10.1.1.0/24 192.168.10.0/24
RIPv1 and IGRP do not advertise subnet masks, and therefore cannot support discontiguous subnets.
OSPF, EIGRP, and RIPv2 can advertise subnet masks, and therefore can support discontiguous subnets.
Maybe you don’t want to send RIP updates out your router interface connected to the Internet. Use the passive-interface command:
Router(config)# router rip
Router(config-router)# passive-interface serial0
This allows a router to receive route updates on an interface, but not send updates via that interface S0 Gateway Internet Updates X
Router#show ip protocols
Router#show ip route
Router#debug ip rip
Router#undebug all (un all)
Open your books and go through all the written labs and the review questions.