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    Chapter14ccna Chapter14ccna Presentation Transcript

    • Instructor & Todd Lammle Sybex CCNA 640-802 Chapter 14: Wide Area Networks
    • Chapter 14 Objectives
      • The CCNA Topics Covered in this chapter include:
      • Introduction to WAN’s
      • HDLC
      • PPP
      • Frame Relay
      • Introduction to VPN’s
    • Defining WAN Terms
      • Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
      • Demarcation (demarc)
      • Local loop
      • Central Office (CO)
      • Toll network
    • WAN Connection Types
    • DTE-DCE-DTE
    • WAN Support
      • Frame Relay
      • ISDN
      • LAPB
      • LAPD
      • HDLC
      • PPP
      • ATM
    • HDLC Protocol
      • Bit-oriented Data Link layer ISO standard protocol
      • Specifies a data encapsulation method
      • No authentication can be used
    • HDLC Frame Format
    • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
      • Purpose:
        • Transport layer-3 packets across a Data Link layer point-to-point link
      • Can be used over asynchronous serial (dial-up) or synchronous serial (ISDN) media
        • Uses Link Control Protocol (LCP)
          • Builds & maintains data-link connections
    • Point-to-Point Protocol Stack
    • PPP Main Components
      • EIA/TIA-232-C
        • Intl. Std. for serial communications
      • HDLC
        • Serial link datagram encapsulation method
      • LCP
        • Used in P-t-P connections:
          • Establishing
          • Maintaining
          • Terminating
      • NCP
        • Method of establishing & configuring Network Layer protocols
        • Allows simultaneous use of multiple Network layer protocols
    • LCP Configuration Options
      • Authentication
        • PAP
        • CHAP
      • Compression
        • Stacker
        • Predictor
      • Error detection
        • Quality
        • Magic Number
      • Multilink
        • Splits the load for PPP over 2+ parallel circuits; a bundle
    • PPP Session Establishment
      • Link-establishment phase
      • Authentication phase
      • Network-layer protocol phase
    • PPP Session Establishment
    • PPP Authentication Methods
      • Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
        • Passwords sent in clear text
        • Remote node returns username & password
      • Challenge Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
        • Done at start-up & periodically
        • Challenge & Reply
          • Remote router sends a one-way hash ~ MD5
    • Configuring PPP
      • Step #1: Configure PPP on Router A & Router B :
          • Router__# config t
          • Router__(config)# int s0
          • Router__(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
          • Router__(config-if)#^ Z
      • Step #2: Define the username & password on each router:
        • RouterA: RouterA(config)# username RouterB password cisco
        • RouterB: RouterB(config)# username RouterA password cisco
        • NOTE: (1) Username maps to the remote router
        • (2) Passwords must match
      • Step #3: Choose Authentication type for each router; CHAP/PAP
        • Router__(Config)# int s0
        • Router__(config-if)# ppp authentication chap
        • Router__(config-if)# ppp authentication pap
        • Router__(config-if)#^Z
    • PPP Example 1
    • PPP Example 2
    • PPP Example 3
    • PPP Example 4
    • Frame Relay
      • Background
        • High-performance WAN encapsulation method
        • OSI Physical & data Link layer
        • Originally designed for use across ISDN
      • Supported Protocols
        • IP, DECnet, AppleTalk, Xerox Network Service (XNS), Novell IPX, Banyan Vines, Transparent Bridging, & ISO
    • Before Frame Relay
    • After Frame Relay
    • Frame Relay
      • Purpose
        • Provide a communications interface between DTE & DCE equipment
        • Connection-oriented Data Link layer communication
          • Via virtual circuits
          • Provides a complete path from the source to destination before sending the first frame
    • Frame Relay Terminology
    • Frame Relay Encapsulation
      • Specified on serial interfaces
      • Encapsulation types:
        • Cisco (default encapsulation type)
        • IETF (used between Cisco & non-Cisco devices)
          • RouterA(config)# int s0
          • RouterA(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay ?
          • ietf Use RFC1490 encapsulation
          • <cr>
    • Data Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs)
      • Frame Relay PVCs are identified by DLCIs
      • IP end devices are mapped to DLCIs
        • Mapped dynamically or mapped by IARP
      • Global Significance:
        • Advertised to all remote sites as the same PVC
      • Local Significance:
        • DLCIs do not need to be unique
      • Configuration
          • RouterA(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci ?
            • <16-1007> Define a DLCI as part of the current
          • subinterface
          • RouterA(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci 16
    • DLCI’s are Locally Significant
    • Local Management Interface (LMI)
      • Background
      • Purpose
      • LMI Messages
        • Keepalives
        • Multicasting
        • Multicast addressing
        • Status of virtual circuits
    • LMI Types
      • Configuration:
          • RouterA(config-if)# frame-relay lmi-type ?
          • cisco
          • ansi
          • q933a
        • Beginning with IOS ver 11.2+ the LMI type is auto-sensed
        • Default type: cisco
      • Virtual circuit status:
        • Active
        • Inactive
        • Deleted
    • Sub-interfaces
      • Definition
        • Multiple virtual circuits on a single serial interface
        • Enables the assignment of different network-layer characteristics to each sub-interface
          • IP routing on one sub-interface
          • IPX routing on another
        • Mitigates difficulties associated with:
          • Partial meshed Frame Relay networks
          • Split Horizon protocols
    • Partial Meshed Networks
    • Creating Sub-interfaces
      • Configuration:
        • #1: Set the encapsulation on the serial interface
        • #2: Define the subinterface
          • RouterA(config)# int s0
          • RouterA(config)# encapsulation frame-relay
          • RouterA(config)# int s0.?
          • <0-4294967295> Serial interface number
          • RouterA(config)# int s0.16 ?
          • multipoint Treat as a multipoint link
          • point-to-point Treat as a point-to-point link
    • Mapping Frame Relay
      • Necessary to IP end devices to communicate
        • Addresses must be mapped to the DLCIs
        • Methods:
          • Frame Relay map command
          • Inverse-arp function
    • Using the map command
        • RouterA(config)# int s0
        • RouterA(config-if)# encap frame
        • RouterA(config-if)# int s0.16 point-to-point
        • RouterA(config-if)# no inverse-arp
        • RouterA(config-if)# ip address 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.0
        • RouterA(config-if)# frame-relay map ip 172.16.30.17 16 ietf broadcast
        • RouterA(config-if)# frame-relay map ip 172.16.30.18 17 broadcast
        • RouterA(config-if)# frame-relay map ip 172.16.30.19 18
    • Using the inverse arp command
        • RouterA(config)# int s0.16 point-to-point
        • RouterA(config-if)# encap frame-relay ietf
        • RouterA(config-if)# ip address 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.0
    • Congestion Control
      • Discard Eligibility (DE)
      • Forward-Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN)
      • Backward-Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN)
    • Committed Information Rate (CIR)
      • Definition: Provision allowing customers to purchase amounts of bandwidth lower than what they might need
        • Cost savings
        • Good for bursty traffic
        • Not good for constant amounts of data transmission
    • Monitoring Frame Relay
          • RouterA> sho frame ?
          • ip show frame relay IP statistics
          • lmi show frame relay lmi statistics
          • map Frame-Relay map table
          • pvc show frame relay pvc statistics
          • route show frame relay route
          • traffic Frame-Relay protocol statistics
          • RouterA# sho int s0
          • RouterB# show frame map
          • Router# debug frame-relay lmi
    • Troubleshooting Frame Relay Why can’t RouterA talk to RouterB?
    • Troubleshooting Frame Relay Why is RIP not sent across the PVC?
    • Introduction to VPN’s
      • VPNs are used daily to give remote users and disjointed networks connectivity over a public medium like the Internet instead of using more expensive permanent means.
    • Types of VPN’s
      • REMOTE ACCESS VPNS
      • Remote access VPNs allow remote users like telecommuters to securely access the corporate network wherever and whenever they need to.
      • SITE-TO-SITE VPNS
      • Site-to-site VPNs, or, intranet VPNs, allow a company to connect its remote sites to the corporate backbone securely over a public medium like the Internet instead of requiring more expensive WAN connections like Frame Relay.
      • EXTRANET VPNS
      • Extranet VPNs allow an organization’s suppliers, partners, and customers to be connected to the corporate network in a limited way for business-to-business (B2B) communications.
    • Written Labs and Review Questions
        • Open your books and go through all the written labs and the review questions.
        • Review the answers in class.