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Power Point en inglés sobre el Braile

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  1. 1. BRAILLE
  2. 2. INDEX <ul><li>1. Alternative language System. </li></ul><ul><li>1,1.Concept </li></ul><ul><li>1.2.Aim </li></ul><ul><li>1.3. Types of systems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Braille as alternative language </li></ul><ul><li>2.1. Concept </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. Features </li></ul><ul><li>2.3. Whose do people use it? </li></ul><ul><li>2.4. Alphabet Braille. </li></ul><ul><li>2.5. Braille cell. </li></ul><ul><li>2.6. Writing Braille </li></ul><ul><li>2.7.Unicode rendering </li></ul><ul><li>2.8.Braille transcription </li></ul><ul><li>2.9. Hand tools and computers media </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bibliography. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CONCEPT <ul><li>Educational intervention tool for people with various communication disorders and / or language. </li></ul>
  5. 5. AIM <ul><li>It is The Teaching of a set of non-voice codes, needy or not hardware. </li></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF SYSTEMS <ul><li>1.Systems without external help or support </li></ul><ul><li>1.1. These communication systems support: </li></ul><ul><li>- Dactylology. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cued Speech. </li></ul><ul><li>- Sign Language. </li></ul><ul><li>- Communication bimodal. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Communication support systems: </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.Representative elements: real objects, miniatures, Photos, Realistics Pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. System with pictographic symbols: </li></ul><ul><li>PIC, SPC, combining symbols PICSYSM. </li></ul><ul><li>2.3. Pictographic,ideographic, and arbitrary Systems : REBUS, BLISS. </li></ul><ul><li>2.4. Systems based on the spelling: Letters of the alphabet, dactylology in palm. </li></ul><ul><li>2.5. Systems with codewords: BRAILLE Morse. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CONCEPT <ul><li>Braille can be seen as the world's first binary encoding scheme for representing the </li></ul><ul><li>characters of a writing system . </li></ul><ul><li>The system as originally invented by Braille consists of two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alphabet Braille, is the same. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Braille Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Today different Braille codes (or code pages ) are used to map character sets of different </li></ul><ul><li>languages to the six bit cells. </li></ul>
  9. 9. FEATURES <ul><li>It runs on a micrometer space. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a rigid format. </li></ul><ul><li>It has &quot;cold&quot; forms. </li></ul><ul><li>It is importanf of the directionality. </li></ul><ul><li>It shows a difficult globalization </li></ul><ul><li>It basically reads the index fingers of each hand, being generally of a single finger which reads in specific episodes of reading. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Whose do people use it? <ul><li>blind people or those with low vision. </li></ul>
  11. 11. ALPHABET BRAILLE <ul><li>Braille is not a language but an alphabet. </li></ul><ul><li>Braille can be represented with letters, punctuation, numbers, spelling scientific, mathematical </li></ul><ul><li>symbols, music, etc.. In Braille Spanish, codes of the lowercase letters, most punctuation, </li></ul><ul><li>some special characters and some words are encoded with a cell directly. </li></ul>
  12. 12. BRAILLE CELL <ul><li>Braille generally consists of cells of six raised dots arranged in a grid of two dots horizontally by three dots vertically. The dots are conventionally numbered 1, 2, and 3 from the top of the left column and 4, 5, and 6 from the top of the right column. </li></ul>
  13. 13. WRITING BRAILLE <ul><li>Braille has been extended to an 8-dot code, particularly for use with Braille embossers and refreshable Braille displays. In 8-dot Braille the additional dots are added at the bottom of the cell, giving a matrix 4 dots high by 2 dots wide. The additional dots are given the numbers 7 (for the lower-left dot) and 8 (for the lower-right dot). The first ten letters of the alphabet and the digits 1 through 0 are formed using only the top four dots (1, 2, 4, and 5). Adding dot 3 forms the next ten letters, and adding dot 6 forms the last six letters (except w) and the words and , for , of , the , and with . Omitting dot 3 from the letters U-Z and the five word symbols form nine digraphs (ch, gh, sh, th, wh, ed, er, ou, and ow) and the letter w. </li></ul><ul><li>Letters and numbers : Other symbols: </li></ul>
  14. 14. UNICODE RENDERING <ul><li>The Unicode standard encodes 8-dot Braille glyphs according to their binary appearance, rather than following the alphabetic order of any particular convention. </li></ul><ul><li>Braille Letter ⠁ A 1 ⠃ B 2 ⠉ C 3 ⠙ D 4 ⠑ E 5 ⠋ F 6 ⠛ G 7 ⠓ H 8 ⠊ I 9 ⠚ J 0 ⠅ K ⠇ L ⠍ M ⠝ N ⠕ O ⠏ P ⠟ Q ⠗ R ⠎ S Braille Letter ⠞ T ⠥ U ⠧ V ⠺ W ⠭ X ⠽ Y ⠵ Z ⠠ Capital sign ⠼ Number sign ⠲ Period ⠂ Comma ⠦ Question mark ⠆ Semicolon ⠖ Exclamation point ⠦ Opening quote ⠴ Closing quote ⠶ Bracket ⠤ Hyphen ⠄ Apostrophe </li></ul>
  15. 15. BRAILLE TRANSCRIPTION <ul><li>Braille characters are much larger than their printed equivalents, and the standard 11&quot; by 11.5&quot; (28 cm × 30 cm) page has room for only 25 lines of 43 characters. To reduce space and increase reading speed, virtually all Braille books are transcribed in what is known as Grade 2 Braille, which uses a system contractions of to reduce space and speed the process of reading. Braille transcription is skilled work, and Braille transcribers need to pass certification tests. </li></ul>
  16. 16. HAND TOOLS AND COMPUTER MEDIA <ul><li>HAND TOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>The pattern and the slider . </li></ul><ul><li>Punch. </li></ul><ul><li>Typewriter . </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>In visual impairment, all devices and software, hardware and software specifically designed to make accessible to the blind information technology are called Tiflotecnología.-HELPS MANUALS AND TECNOLOGIC. </li></ul>
  17. 17. IMPORTANCE OF BRAILLE COMPUTERS <ul><li>Braille allows access to information through computers and using technology adapted for the blind or visually impaired, as it is a great help to can use this technology and to can use the internet for many things . </li></ul>
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Tecnology can be an important instrument for wider acceptance and use of the opportunities of Braille, creating appropriate programs for the learning of targeting children and adults, making articles of small format and wide versatility with data output Braille and the urgent achievement of a specific peripheral characters such as screen readers to a really affordable price. Access to communication in its broadest sense is access to knowledge, and that is vital for us to achieve the highest degree of personal autonomy and be treated as equals. And no one doubts that the communication in its fullest sense can only be achieved through the use of literacy system best suited to each individual as in the case of blind and low vision, Braille. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We must take this fully into account the blind, and also the rest of the people around us. Louis Braille.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> HTML/ capitulo12apendicebraille.htm </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Nuevas Tecnologías/Comunicación aumentativa y alternativa.mht </li></ul>