Braille generally consists of cells of six raised dots arranged in a grid of two dots horizontally by three dots vertically. The dots are conventionally numbered 1, 2, and 3 from the top of the left column and 4, 5, and 6 from the top of the right column.
Braille has been extended to an 8-dot code, particularly for use with Braille embossers and refreshable Braille displays. In 8-dot Braille the additional dots are added at the bottom of the cell, giving a matrix 4 dots high by 2 dots wide. The additional dots are given the numbers 7 (for the lower-left dot) and 8 (for the lower-right dot). The first ten letters of the alphabet and the digits 1 through 0 are formed using only the top four dots (1, 2, 4, and 5). Adding dot 3 forms the next ten letters, and adding dot 6 forms the last six letters (except w) and the words and , for , of , the , and with . Omitting dot 3 from the letters U-Z and the five word symbols form nine digraphs (ch, gh, sh, th, wh, ed, er, ou, and ow) and the letter w.
The Unicode standard encodes 8-dot Braille glyphs according to their binary appearance, rather than following the alphabetic order of any particular convention.
Braille Letter ⠁ A 1 ⠃ B 2 ⠉ C 3 ⠙ D 4 ⠑ E 5 ⠋ F 6 ⠛ G 7 ⠓ H 8 ⠊ I 9 ⠚ J 0 ⠅ K ⠇ L ⠍ M ⠝ N ⠕ O ⠏ P ⠟ Q ⠗ R ⠎ S Braille Letter ⠞ T ⠥ U ⠧ V ⠺ W ⠭ X ⠽ Y ⠵ Z ⠠ Capital sign ⠼ Number sign ⠲ Period ⠂ Comma ⠦ Question mark ⠆ Semicolon ⠖ Exclamation point ⠦ Opening quote ⠴ Closing quote ⠶ Bracket ⠤ Hyphen ⠄ Apostrophe
Braille characters are much larger than their printed equivalents, and the standard 11" by 11.5" (28 cm × 30 cm) page has room for only 25 lines of 43 characters. To reduce space and increase reading speed, virtually all Braille books are transcribed in what is known as Grade 2 Braille, which uses a system contractions of to reduce space and speed the process of reading. Braille transcription is skilled work, and Braille transcribers need to pass certification tests.
In visual impairment, all devices and software, hardware and software specifically designed to make accessible to the blind information technology are called Tiflotecnología.-HELPS MANUALS AND TECNOLOGIC.
Braille allows access to information through computers and using technology adapted for the blind or visually impaired, as it is a great help to can use this technology and to can use the internet for many things .
Tecnology can be an important instrument for wider acceptance and use of the opportunities of Braille, creating appropriate programs for the learning of targeting children and adults, making articles of small format and wide versatility with data output Braille and the urgent achievement of a specific peripheral characters such as screen readers to a really affordable price. Access to communication in its broadest sense is access to knowledge, and that is vital for us to achieve the highest degree of personal autonomy and be treated as equals. And no one doubts that the communication in its fullest sense can only be achieved through the use of literacy system best suited to each individual as in the case of blind and low vision, Braille.
“ We must take this fully into account the blind, and also the rest of the people around us. Louis Braille.”