ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 1MOBILE PHONES OFFPLEASE
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 2FIBER OPTICSOptical Fiber Theory
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 35.0 Fiber Optic Theory5.1 Optical Fiber Theory5.1.1 - What is Fiber Optics5.1.2 - Construction...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 4FIBER OPTICS5.0 OPTICAL FIBER THEORY- CONSTRUCTION OF FIBER- TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER- DIFFERENT...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 55.1.1 What is "Fibre Optics"?• A fiber optic cable consists of abundle of glass threads, each ...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 6Fibre Advantages• Greater bandwidth than metal cables (10GHz vs 16kHz)• Data can be transmitte...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 7• All light from fibre will harm eyes• Fibre is extremely hard to work with• Fibre is fragile•...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 85.1.2 Fibre Optic ConstructionCoreGlass with a higher index of refraction than claddingIT carr...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 9Fibre ConstructionThere are 3 main components:COATINGCLADDINGCORE
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 10Fibre Optic TypesRe-cap on fundamentals• Light is "guided" down the centre of the fiber calle...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 11Fibre Opticsfundamentals• Total Internal Reflection• Rays of light referred to as modesTransm...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 12• Total Internal Reflection was demonstrated in the 1850• Uses for this at the time were limi...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 13Fiber Optic Data Links• Fiber optic transmission consists of a transmitter on one end of afib...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 14Fiber Optic Data Links
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 15Fibre GBIC ModulesSwitch and module slotscombinationsGBIC ModulesTypically LC (small form fac...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 16Fiber Wavelength• Wavelength is colour of light• The range of light is called the spectrum• H...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 17Fiber Attenuation• Attenuation is loss of light signal• Absorption is light lost throughcladd...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 18Why 850, 1300 and 1550 nm• Fiber optics uses infrared light• Typically at 850, 1300, 1310 and...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 19Fiber Optic TypesMulti ModeSingle Mode5.1.3
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 20MULTIMODE• Multi mode has light travelling in many rays... called modes• It comes in 50micron...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 21OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic TypesOM2/OM3/OM4 OM1 OS1/OS2
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 22OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFibre Optic TypesOM1
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 23OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic TypesOM2
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 24OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFibre Optic TypesOM3
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 25OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic TypesOM4
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 26OPTICAL FIBER THEORYSize Does Matter !CAUTION: You cannot mix andmatch fibers!
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 27OPTICAL FIBER THEORYDispersion & Fiber Optic BandwidthStep index multimode was the firstfiber...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 28OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFibre Optic BandwidthChromatic Dispersion• Is the spread of light as it t...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 29Fibre BandwidthFibre typeBandwidth at 850 nm(MHz-km)OFL (led)Bandwidth at 1300 nm(MHz-km)OFL ...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 30Indicative Link LengthsApplication Multimode Fiber Type62.5/125 μm 50/125 μm850 nm laser-opti...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 31Fiber optic system ability to transmit data depends on the optical power atthe receiverBER or...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 32Fiber Optic Link Power BudgetCable plant Loss CalculationTotal Loss = (0.5 dB X # connectors)...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 33Fiber Optic Link Power BudgetCable plant Loss CalculationTotal Loss = (0.5 dB X # connectors)...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 34OS1 and OS2• OS1 and OS2 are cabled Single Mode optical fibre specifications• Cables with eit...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 35G.652D vs G.655• ITU-T G.652D: fibres with improved attenuation performance• ITUT-T G.655: fi...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 36Singlemode Fiber Standard
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 37Singlemode Fiber Performance
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 38Outside Plant or Premises ?Fiber OpticConstruction Types5.1.5
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 39Fiber Optic InstallationsOutside PlantRequire more hardware (and more investment in the tools...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 40Outside Plant (OSP)• Used mainly by Telephone companies,CATV and Internet ISPs• Typically it ...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 41Fiber Optic InstallationsPremises
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 42Fiber Optic InstallationsPremises
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 43OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic TypesPremises CablingPremises cabling is cabling installed in...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 44OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Bre...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 45OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Bre...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 46OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight BufferedOr Di...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 47OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Bre...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 48OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Bre...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 49• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Arm...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 50• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Arm...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 51• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Arm...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 52Choosing A Cable TypeWhat hazards will it face?• Cables job is to protect the fibers from the...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 53Choosing A Cable TypeOPTICAL FIBER THEORY
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 54FIBER OPTICSINSTALLATION PROCEEDURES5.2
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 55Where is Fiber different to standard coppercable when it comes to installing ?
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 56FIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to ca...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 57• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Fo...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 58• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Fo...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 59• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Fo...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 60• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Fo...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 61• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Fo...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 62• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Fo...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 63• Properly assess cable for pulling first• Do not to attach connector prior to pulling• Preve...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 64• Properly assess cable for pulling first• Do not to attach connector prior to pulling• Preve...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 65• Properly assess cable for pulling first• Do not to attach connector prior to pulling• Preve...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 66• Properly assess cable for pulling first• Do not to attach connector prior to pulling• Preve...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 67Planning the Run• If newly installed, conduitsshould be a minimum size ofbetween 40mm to 50mm...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 68Installing the cable• Rope Size: It is important to use a rope size thatgive minimal stretchi...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 69PULLING PROCEEDURESDirect AttachmentDirect Attachment: Strengthmember is tied directly to the...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 70Indirect AttachmentPulling forces are distributedover the outer cable structure"Kellems Grip“...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 71TENSILE LOADING &BEND RADIUS5.2.3FIBER INSTALLATION
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 72TENSILE LOADINGThere are two different types of tension in fiberoptic cables• Most important ...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 73BEND RADIUSThere are two different types of bendradius• Dynamic bend radiusor “Short Term Ben...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 74Short Term (Installation) Long Term (Installed)Outside Plant Cable 20x Cable Diameter 15x Cab...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 75INSTALLATIONSPECIFICATIONSGeneral Guidelines5.2.4
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 76General GuidelinesTwisting cableDo not twist the cable. Twisting the cablecan stress the fibe...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 77DESIGNING A FIBER NETWORKGeneral Guidelines5.2.5What is “fibre optic network design?”
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 78DESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK1. Consider customer’s requirements2. Select correct active media3. ...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 791.Consider Customer’s RequirementsWhat data rates will be required on the Network ?• Gigabits...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 802.Select Correct Active MediaWhat sort of active media is preferred• Media Converters• Connec...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 813.Select correct fibre type• Consider the range of the link• Short links use multimode, longl...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 824.Select correct cable type• Determine the working environment• Simplex and zip cord• Tight B...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 835. Plan ahead on splicingrequirements.• Calculate no. of splices• Calculate splice points• Se...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 846. Choose correct connectors• Connectors need to fit with activemedia products• Connectors ne...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 857. Carry out loss calculationsTotal Loss =(0.5 dB X # connectors) +(0.2 dB x # splices) +loss...
ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13ANTIGONEconsultingRoberto Fornasierovia Cesare Battisti, 1335040 Villa Estense (PD) – Italiatel....
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Fibre optics-theory

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Basics on fibre optics and cables

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Fibre optics-theory

  1. 1. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 1MOBILE PHONES OFFPLEASE
  2. 2. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 2FIBER OPTICSOptical Fiber Theory
  3. 3. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 35.0 Fiber Optic Theory5.1 Optical Fiber Theory5.1.1 - What is Fiber Optics5.1.2 - Construction of Optical Fiber5.1.3 - Types of Optical Fiber5.1.4 - Fiber Transmission Factors5.1.5 - Different cable constructions5.1.6 - Choosing a cable type5.2 Fiber cable Installation5.2.1 - Installation procedures guidelines andpractices5.2.2 - Pulling Fiber Cables5.2.3 - Bending Radius/Hauling Tension5.2.4 - General Guidelines5.2.4 - Design5.3 Practical5.3.1 - Stripping preparing and splicing fiber
  4. 4. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 4FIBER OPTICS5.0 OPTICAL FIBER THEORY- CONSTRUCTION OF FIBER- TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER- DIFFERENT CABLE CONTRUCTIONS
  5. 5. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 55.1.1 What is "Fibre Optics"?• A fiber optic cable consists of abundle of glass threads, each ofwhich is capable of transmittingmessages modulated onto lightwaves• Not a "new" technology• Concept over a century old• Used commercially for 35 years• A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibres) totransmit data
  6. 6. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 6Fibre Advantages• Greater bandwidth than metal cables (10GHz vs 16kHz)• Data can be transmitted digitally rather than analogically• Less susceptible than metal cables to interference• Immunity to static interferences• Lightnenings• Electric motors• Fluoreshent light• Higher enviroment immunity: weather, temperature, etc.• Thinner and lighter than metal wires• Longer Lasting• Security: tapping is difficult• Economics:• Low transmission loss (dB/km)• Fewer repeters• Less cableRemember: Fiber is non-conductiveHence, change of magnetic field hasNo impact!
  7. 7. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 7• All light from fibre will harm eyes• Fibre is extremely hard to work with• Fibre is fragile• Fibre is expensive• You need expensive and complicated installation andtest equipmentMyths of Fiber Optics
  8. 8. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 85.1.2 Fibre Optic ConstructionCoreGlass with a higher index of refraction than claddingIT carries signalCladdingGlass with a lower index of refraction than the coreBufferProtects the fiber from damage and moisture
  9. 9. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 9Fibre ConstructionThere are 3 main components:COATINGCLADDINGCORE
  10. 10. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 10Fibre Optic TypesRe-cap on fundamentals• Light is "guided" down the centre of the fiber called the "core”• The core is surrounded by a optical material called the "cladding"• The fiber is coated with a protective plastic covering called the"primary buffer coating"
  11. 11. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 11Fibre Opticsfundamentals• Total Internal Reflection• Rays of light referred to as modesTransmitter Receiver
  12. 12. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 12• Total Internal Reflection was demonstrated in the 1850• Uses for this at the time were limited to water features etcFibre Opticsfundamentals
  13. 13. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 13Fiber Optic Data Links• Fiber optic transmission consists of a transmitter on one end of afiber and a receiver on the other end• The transmitter takes an electrical input and converts it to anoptical output from a laser diode or LED• The receiver converts the light back into an electrical signal at theother end
  14. 14. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 14Fiber Optic Data Links
  15. 15. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 15Fibre GBIC ModulesSwitch and module slotscombinationsGBIC ModulesTypically LC (small form factor)
  16. 16. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 16Fiber Wavelength• Wavelength is colour of light• The range of light is called the spectrum• Humans see from 400-700nm• Fiber uses 850, 1300 and 1550 nm
  17. 17. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 17Fiber Attenuation• Attenuation is loss of light signal• Absorption is light lost throughcladding and heat• Scattering is light colliding withatoms• Scattering is largest cause of lossAbsorption & Scattering
  18. 18. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 18Why 850, 1300 and 1550 nm• Fiber optics uses infrared light• Typically at 850, 1300, 1310 and1550 , because attenuation ofthe fiber is much less at thosewavelengths• Between these points losses arehigher (called water bands)• The attenuation of glass opticalfiber is caused by two factors:• Absorption• Scattering
  19. 19. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 19Fiber Optic TypesMulti ModeSingle Mode5.1.3
  20. 20. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 20MULTIMODE• Multi mode has light travelling in many rays... called modes• It comes in 50micron and 62.5micron• Uses both LED’s for transmission and Lasers..• Wavelengths for multimode are between 850 to 1300nm• Will run up to 10gb speeds. Mainly as building backbones• Distance limitations are up at about 600mSINGLEMODE• Singlemode fiber has a much smaller core, only about 9 micron• Light travels in only one ray• Single mode fibres do not exibit dispersion and have longer ranges• This gives them much greater bandwidth than multimode.• Mainly used for used for long fiber runs.• Wavelengths for singlemode are between 1310 to 1550 nm
  21. 21. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 21OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic TypesOM2/OM3/OM4 OM1 OS1/OS2
  22. 22. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 22OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFibre Optic TypesOM1
  23. 23. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 23OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic TypesOM2
  24. 24. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 24OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFibre Optic TypesOM3
  25. 25. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 25OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic TypesOM4
  26. 26. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 26OPTICAL FIBER THEORYSize Does Matter !CAUTION: You cannot mix andmatch fibers!
  27. 27. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 27OPTICAL FIBER THEORYDispersion & Fiber Optic BandwidthStep index multimode was the firstfiber designGraded index multimode fiber usesvariations in the composition of theglass in the core to compensate forthe different path lengths of themodes.Singlemode fiber shrinks the coredown so small that the light can onlytravel in one ray.Multimode & Singlemode fiber are the two most common typesModal Dispersion5.1.4
  28. 28. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 28OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFibre Optic BandwidthChromatic Dispersion• Is the spread of light as it travel down the fibre
  29. 29. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 29Fibre BandwidthFibre typeBandwidth at 850 nm(MHz-km)OFL (led)Bandwidth at 1300 nm(MHz-km)OFL (led)Bandwidth at 850 nm(MHz-km)EMB (Laser)62.5/125(OM1)160 500 ---50/125(OM2)500 500 ---50/125(OM3)1500 500 200050/125(OM4)3500 500 4700PS: 62.5/125 and 50/125 micron fibres both use the same connectorsOFL = overfilled launchEMB = effective modal bandwidth
  30. 30. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 30Indicative Link LengthsApplication Multimode Fiber Type62.5/125 μm 50/125 μm850 nm laser-optimized50/125 μm850 nm laser-optimized
50/125 μmTIA 492AAAA(OM1)TIA 492AAAB(OM2)TIA 492AAAC(OM3)TIA 492AAAC
(OM4)Wavelength nm 850 1300 850 1300 850 1300 850 130010/100 BASE-SX m 300 300 300 300100BASE-FX m 2000 2000 2000 20001000BASE-SX m 275 550 800 88010GBASE-S m 33 82 300 550
  31. 31. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 31Fiber optic system ability to transmit data depends on the optical power atthe receiverBER or Bit Error Rate is a function of power at the receiverBER is the inverse of signal-to-noise ratio,e.g. high BER means bad signal to noise ratioToo much power,and the receiver amplifier saturatesToo little power,and noise becomes a problem as it interferes with the signalThe received power depends on 2 basic factors:1. how much power is launched into the fiber by the transmitter.2. how much power is left by attenuation in the fiber runBit Error Rate
  32. 32. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 32Fiber Optic Link Power BudgetCable plant Loss CalculationTotal Loss = (0.5 dB X # connectors) + (0.2 dB x # splices) + loss length of cable (dB / Km)
  33. 33. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 33Fiber Optic Link Power BudgetCable plant Loss CalculationTotal Loss = (0.5 dB X # connectors) + (0.2 dB x # splices) + loss length of cable (dB / Km)Cable Length 2.0 2.0Fiber Type Multimode SinglemodeWavelength (nm) 850 1300 1300 1550Fiber Atten. dB/km 3 [3.5] 1 [1.5] 0.4 [1/0.5] 0.3 [1/0.5]Total Fiber Loss 6.0 [7.0] 2.0 [3.0]0.5kmConnectors 0.5dB x 5 = 2.5dBSplices 0.2dB x 1 = 0.2dBCable 3.0dB x .5km = 1.5dBTotal Loss = 4.2dB
  34. 34. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 34OS1 and OS2• OS1 and OS2 are cabled Single Mode optical fibre specifications• Cables with either OS1 or OS2 performance are constructed from B1.3optical fibres (also known as ITU specification G.652D) or B6_a fibres (aless bend sensitive singlemode optical fibre which is similar to, andcompatible with, B1.3. Also known as ITU specification G.657)• OS1 or OS2 performance is not related to Single Mode optical fibresaccording to ITU specification G.655 (Non Zero Dispersion Shifted fibre)• The European Standard EN 50173-1:2007 states that both OS1 and OS2cabled optical fibres can only be constructed from B1.3 (or ITU G.652D)and B6.a (or ITU G.657) optical fibre according to EN 60793-2-50• Unfortunately, ISO/IEC have not made this logical leap - even in the latestproposed amendment of ISO/IEC 11801 (which now features both OS1and OS2).
  35. 35. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 35G.652D vs G.655• ITU-T G.652D: fibres with improved attenuation performance• ITUT-T G.655: fibres with low chromatic dispersion• ITUT-T G.656: fibres with medium chromatic dispersionExample = link of 460 kmStandard attenuation for traditional fibre optic (G.652.D)= 0.4 dB/kmAverage splice loss = 0.1 dB every 10KmCable excess length = 5%  483 kmTypical equipment dynamic range = 22 dBPower Margin = 1 dBCable loss: 483 x 0,4 = 193,2 dBSplice loss: 48,3 x 0,1 = 4,83 dBTotal loss = 198 dB 198/21 ≅ 9 huts
  36. 36. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 36Singlemode Fiber Standard
  37. 37. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 37Singlemode Fiber Performance
  38. 38. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 38Outside Plant or Premises ?Fiber OpticConstruction Types5.1.5
  39. 39. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 39Fiber Optic InstallationsOutside PlantRequire more hardware (and more investment in the tools and testequipment)
  40. 40. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 40Outside Plant (OSP)• Used mainly by Telephone companies,CATV and Internet ISPs• Typically it goes relatively long distances up tohundreds of kilometres.• Outside plant installations like this are alwayssingle mode fibre• Optimised cable designs for resisting moistureand rodent damage.
  41. 41. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 41Fiber Optic InstallationsPremises
  42. 42. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 42Fiber Optic InstallationsPremises
  43. 43. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 43OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic TypesPremises CablingPremises cabling is cabling installed in a building or campusIt involves shorter lengths, rarely longer than a few hundred metresCables are usually multimode.No fiber cable should be installed indoors unless it is listed forflame retardancy, Low Smoke and Halogen FreeMost connectors are now SC (“Stab and Click” or “Subscriber Connector))with a few STs (“Stab and Turn” or “Straight Tip”) here and there.Termination is by installing connectors directly on the ends of the fibers,primarily using adhesive technology or occasionally some other variety oftermination method.
  44. 44. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 44OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cable
  45. 45. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 45OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cableThey have a Kevlar (aramid fiber) strengthmember and are jacketed for indoor use.The jacket is usually 3mm (1/8 in.) diameter.Zipcord is simply two of these joined with athin web.Its used mostly for patch cord and backplaneapplications
  46. 46. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 46OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight BufferedOr Distribution Cable• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cable• Usually Small in size• For short dry conduit runs• Riser cable
  47. 47. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 47OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cable• made of several simplexcables bundled together• is a strong, rugged design• suitable for conduit runs• quick termination toconnectors.
  48. 48. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 48OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cable• composed of several fibers inside smallplastic tube,• ideal for outside plant trunking applications• It can be used in conduits, strung overheador buried directly into the ground.• must be carefully handled and protected toprevent damage
  49. 49. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 49• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cable• highest packing density• laid out in rows, typically of 12 fibers• can have up to 864 fibers in one cable• gel-filled for water blocking.OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFibre Optic Cable Construction
  50. 50. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 50• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cable• Cable installed by direct burial• in areas where rodents are aproblem.• usually have metal armouring• cable is conductive, must begrounded.OPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction
  51. 51. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 51• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cable• for outside installation on poles.• can be lashed to a messenger oranother cable• have metal or aramid strengthmembersOPTICAL FIBER THEORYFiber Optic Cable Construction
  52. 52. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 52Choosing A Cable TypeWhat hazards will it face?• Cables job is to protect the fibers from the hazards.• What chemicals will the cables be exposed to?• What Temperatures will the cables be exposed to?• What sort of physical stresses will the cable beexposed to?5.1.6
  53. 53. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 53Choosing A Cable TypeOPTICAL FIBER THEORY
  54. 54. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 54FIBER OPTICSINSTALLATION PROCEEDURES5.2
  55. 55. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 55Where is Fiber different to standard coppercable when it comes to installing ?
  56. 56. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 56FIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Follow proper procedures.• Do not exceed cable minimum bend radius• Do not exceed cable maximum recommended load.• Leave extra cable• Document the installation5.2.1
  57. 57. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 57• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Follow proper procedures.• Do not exceed cable minimum bend radius.• Do not exceed cable maximum recommended load.• Leave extra cable• Document the installationFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  58. 58. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 58• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Follow proper procedures.• Do not exceed cable minimum bend radius.• Do not exceed cable maximum recommended load.• Leave extra cable• Document the installationFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  59. 59. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 59• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Follow proper procedures.• Do not exceed cable minimum bend radius.• Do not exceed cable maximum recommended load.• Leave extra cable• Document the installationFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  60. 60. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 60• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Follow proper procedures.• Do not exceed cable minimum bend radius.• Do not exceed cable maximum recommended load.• Leave extra cable• Document the installationFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  61. 61. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 61• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Follow proper procedures.• Do not exceed cable minimum bend radius.• Do not exceed cable maximum recommended load.• Leave extra cable• Document the installationFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  62. 62. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 62• Conduct a thorough site survey prior to cable placement.• Develop a cable pulling plan.• Follow proper procedures.• Do not exceed cable minimum bend radius.• Do not exceed cable maximum recommended load.• Leave extra cable• Document the installationFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  63. 63. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 63• Properly assess cable for pulling first• Do not to attach connector prior to pulling• Prevent moisture getting in• Keep spacing in duct to below 53%PULLING CABLES5.2.2FIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  64. 64. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 64• Properly assess cable for pulling first• Do not to attach connector prior to pulling• Prevent moisture getting in• Keep spacing in duct to below 53%PULLING CABLESFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  65. 65. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 65• Properly assess cable for pulling first• Do not to attach connector prior to pulling• Prevent moisture getting in• Keep spacing in duct to below 53%PULLING CABLESFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  66. 66. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 66• Properly assess cable for pulling first• Do not to attach connector prior to pulling• Prevent moisture getting in• Keep spacing in duct to below 50%EG: Cable (10mm) / Duct (20mm) = 0.5 or 50%1 cable.. 10mm / 0.5 (50%) = 20mm duct requiredPULLING CABLESFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  67. 67. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 67Planning the Run• If newly installed, conduitsshould be a minimum size ofbetween 40mm to 50mm.• Design the conduit run with asfew bends as possible.• Do not attempt to pull the cablearound a corner
  68. 68. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 68Installing the cable• Rope Size: It is important to use a rope size thatgive minimal stretching during the pull.• Communication between the person feeding andthe person pulling the cable is absolutelyessential.• Do not attempt to pull the cable around a corner• A generous amount of cable pulling lubricant onthe entire run
  69. 69. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 69PULLING PROCEEDURESDirect AttachmentDirect Attachment: Strengthmember is tied directly to thepulling fixture.The cable end must be sealed toprevent intrusion of moisture whilepulling.PULLING CABLESFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  70. 70. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 70Indirect AttachmentPulling forces are distributedover the outer cable structure"Kellems Grip“Kellems Grip -Cable SockPULLING PROCEEDURESPULLING CABLESFIBER INSTALLATIONINSTALLATION GENERAL GUIDELINES
  71. 71. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 71TENSILE LOADING &BEND RADIUS5.2.3FIBER INSTALLATION
  72. 72. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 72TENSILE LOADINGThere are two different types of tension in fiberoptic cables• Most important is maximum load installation• Also known as “pulling tension”, “installation load”, “shortterm tension”, and “dynamic load”• Measured in Newtons• Maximum allowable – Check manufacturers specscan vary from as low as 220 N force to as much as 3500 N,depending on the cable construction.FIBER INSTALLATION
  73. 73. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 73BEND RADIUSThere are two different types of bendradius• Dynamic bend radiusor “Short Term Bend Radius”- tightest recommended bend while installing- larger of the two specified bend radii.• Static bend radiusor “LongTerm Bend Radius”- tightest recommended bend while the cable is under aminimum tensionFIBER INSTALLATION
  74. 74. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 74Short Term (Installation) Long Term (Installed)Outside Plant Cable 20x Cable Diameter 15x Cable DiameterPremise Cable 15x Cable Diameter 10x Cable DiameterBEND RADIUSThere are two different types of bend radius• Dynamic bend radius• Static bend radiusFIBER INSTALLATION
  75. 75. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 75INSTALLATIONSPECIFICATIONSGeneral Guidelines5.2.4
  76. 76. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 76General GuidelinesTwisting cableDo not twist the cable. Twisting the cablecan stress the fibers.Vertical cable runsDrop vertical cables down rather thanpulling them up whenever possible.When laying cable out for a long pull, usea “figure 8“ This prevents TWISTINGUse Of Cable TiesFiber optic cables, like all communicationscables, are sensitive to compressive orcrushing loads.
  77. 77. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 77DESIGNING A FIBER NETWORKGeneral Guidelines5.2.5What is “fibre optic network design?”
  78. 78. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 78DESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK1. Consider customer’s requirements2. Select correct active media3. Select correct fibre type4. Select correct cable type5. Plan ahead on splicing requirements.6. Choose correct connectors7. Carry out loss calculations8. Install the cable plant…..The Process To Follow
  79. 79. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 791.Consider Customer’s RequirementsWhat data rates will be required on the Network ?• Gigabits to the desktop• 10gigabit backbone• Types of switches etc…DESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK
  80. 80. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 802.Select Correct Active MediaWhat sort of active media is preferred• Media Converters• Connector types on modulesDESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK
  81. 81. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 813.Select correct fibre type• Consider the range of the link• Short links use multimode, longlinks use singlemodeDESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK
  82. 82. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 824.Select correct cable type• Determine the working environment• Simplex and zip cord• Tight Buffered• Breakout cables• Loose tube cables• Ribbon Cable• Armored Cable• Aerial cableDESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK
  83. 83. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 835. Plan ahead on splicingrequirements.• Calculate no. of splices• Calculate splice points• Select method of splicingDESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK
  84. 84. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 846. Choose correct connectors• Connectors need to fit with activemedia products• Connectors need to fit with thetermination method decided uponDESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK
  85. 85. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13 857. Carry out loss calculationsTotal Loss =(0.5 dB X # connectors) +(0.2 dB x # splices) +loss length of cable (dB / Km)DESIGNING A FIBER NETWORK
  86. 86. ANTIGONEconsultingapr. ’13ANTIGONEconsultingRoberto Fornasierovia Cesare Battisti, 1335040 Villa Estense (PD) – Italiatel. +39 340 9932458roberto.fornasiero@antigoneconsulting.com
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