By Robert Musson 5T Bibliography: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Opium_WarTHE OPIUM WARS 1839-1842
(THE FIRST OPIUM WAR)•The first war between England and China, known popularly as the Opium War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China caused by conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice. Qing Dynasty Flag British troops in the Battle of Amoy, 1841
• The illegal selling of opium from England(product from India) to China was an important source of wealth as the drug had caused wide spread addiction causing social and economic disruption in the country.
• . Chinese officials wished to control the spread of opium and took many supplies of opium from British traders. The British government, although not officially denying Chinas right to control imports and used its military power to bully the Chinese to submission. China was not prepared for the war and greatly underestimated the enemy.
1ST OPIUM WAR BIBLIOGRAPHY: HTTP://WWW.WARTIMESINDEX.CO.UK/CHINESE-WARS• The British led by Rear Admiral George Elliot with 16 manned warships arrived at Hong Kong in June 1840 to force the Chinese to accept the demands of re-instating opium imports and further trading privileges. No agreement was reached, so Canton was attacked in May 1841, which led to further peace negotiations. Again these were unsuccessful and so war continued in August 1841 with the British forces campaigning northward capturing the ports of Amoy (Xiamen), Ting-hai and Ning-po (Ningbo). By May 1842, after the winter lull in hostilities, the British force had sailed up the Yangtze River seizing the important cities of Shanghai and Wu-shung (Wuxi). Finally, on 29th August 1842, peace was restored with the Chinese signing the Treaty of Nanking.
• In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking granted a sum of money to Britain, the opening of five ports, thereby ending the Canton System(where China could control trade within its own country). The failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War (1856–60). The war is now considered in China as the beginning of modern Chinese history.