Srm geoengineering-to stop global warming with ti02 and aluminum al- oxides- photocatalytic oxidation of n ox, co2. so2, ch4, n2-o, cfcs gases using tio2 - causes dna damage and cancer - a.e.n.t - 2014 - rsh
Srm geoengineering-to stop global warming with ti02 and aluminum al- oxides- photocatalytic oxidation of n ox, co2. so2, ch4, n2-o, cfcs gases using tio2 - causes dna damage and cancer - a.e.n.t - 2014 - rsh
Srm geoengineering-to stop global warming with ti02 and aluminum al- oxides- photocatalytic oxidation of n ox, co2. so2, ch4, n2-o, cfcs gases using tio2 - causes dna damage and cancer - a.e.n.t - 2014 - rsh
RESEARCHED AND COMPILED BY:
ROBERT S. HARDT
NUTRI-EPIGENETIC BIOCHEMICAL ANALYST
“Let your food be thy medicine!”…. Hippocrates
GEOENGINEERING- Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx, CO2. SO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs gases using TiO2 -
Causes DNA Damage and Cancer
Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx, CO2. SO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs gases using TiO2 - Google Search
Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx, CO2. SO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs gases using TiO2:
Regarding the oxidation mechanism of TiO2 photocatalysis, it is based on the activation of a
semiconductor material upon UV-A radiation, eventually producing hydroxyl radicals.
KEYWORDS: photocatalysis; greenhouse gases removal; climate forcers elimination; global warming reduction.
A Patents’ overview of the application of TiO2 photocatalysis for air treatment has recently been done by Paz
DOD, DOE, NAVY, NASA, TiO2, Global Warming mitigation pdf - Google Search
TiO2, Photocatalysis; greenhouse gases removal; climate forcers elimination; Geoengineering, global warming
reduction. - Google Search
Want to know about Chemtrails, HAARP , VLF, UHF and weather modification? Want to prove it to a non-believer?
Here you go!…..
START LOOKING SKYWARD INSTEAD OF AT YOUR I-PHONE OR THE GROUND
The Truth Denied - Chemtrails Studies TiO2
A combination of three cooling techniques is proposed, to give flexibility in deployment and maximize the chances
of success: !"stratospheric aerosols to reflect sunlight !"cloud brightening to reflect more sunlight !"cloud removal
to allow thermal radiation into space. The first technique mimics the action of large volcanoes such as Mt.
Pinatubo, which erupted in 1991 and had a cooling effect of 0.5°C over 2 years due to the sulphate aerosols it
produced in the stratosphere. However, larger particles in the aerosol are liable to reflect thermal radiation from
the planet surface, hence having a warming effect. To avoid this, there is an advantage in using TiO2
particles, as used in white paint. These can be engineered to a constant size and coated to produce required
properties, such as not sticking to one another. Large quantities could be dispersed at high latitudes in the lower
stratosphere, by using stratotankers (Jet Aircraft) , to have an effect lasting a few months during spring, summer
and early autumn. Due to circulating winds, the aerosol will spread around the latitude where it has been injected.
Since the early twentieth century, TiO2 has been widely used in sunscreens, lipsticks, ointments, toothpaste,
paints, and as a pigment. Regarding its commercial availability, suitable optical and electronic qualities, chemical
stability and non-toxicity, TiO2 seems to be the most convenient candidate for photocatalytic conversion of many
mineral and organic compounds and especially for GHGs and other climate forcers. Therefore, this paper focused
mainly on the photocatalytic conversion of GHG on the TiO2-based catalysts .
Since the discovery by Fujishima and Honda in 1972 of the photocatalytic splitting of water on a TiO2 electrode
under ultraviolet (UV) light, enormous research efforts have been devoted to photocatalysis under UV light in the
presence of many semiconductors and semiconductor oxides  such as TiO2, CdS, SnO2, WO3, SiO2, ZrO2,
ZnO, Nb2O3, Fe2O3, SrTiO3,, CeO2, Sb2O4, V2O5... and this topic developed very quickly during the last twenty
In the past years, visible light photocatalysis has gained considerable attention, allowing a better use of sunlight
spectrum (i.e. 40 – 50 % instead of 4-5% for UV). Researches on photocatalytic methods, while still in progress,
have led to many promising applications for environmental purposes. Still many aspects remain to be solved like:
photocatalytic efficiency improvement, increased solar energy utilization, suitable form of catalyst, all in turn
influencing the economic aspects of this technique.
This review article will first describe the potential of photocatalysis against all major long-lived well mixed
greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Then, the potential of photocatalysis against the principal short-lived climate forcers
(SLCFs) will be discussed. A third part will be dedicated to large-scale indoor air photocatalytic treatments and
outdoor applications of photocatalysis to clean off atmospheric environment.
PART 1: The potential of photocatalysis against CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs The well-mixed long-lived greenhouse
gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons
(PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) are collectively referred as the LLGHGs. Radiative forcing (RF) is a
concept used for quantitative comparisons of the strength of different human and natural agents in causing climate
change. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) , the first five major
LLGHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-12 and CFC-11) account for about 96% of the direct radiative forcing since 1750.
In table 1 the main characteristics of LLGHGs are listed in terms of Global Radiative Forcing in W.m-2, Global
Warming Potential GWP100 (time horizon of 100 years), Atmospheric lifetimes in years and relative importance in
Due to the increase in harmful emission gases in the World’s inner cities, it is apparent that there is a need
to remove pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, NOx, and sulphur dioxide, SO2, from the atmosphere. Not
only do these gases pose a threat to health, they are also causing degradation to many inner city buildings (Allen
et al., 2000). Despite attempts to lower these emissions from cars, it appears that a way of removing such
pollutants once in the atmosphere needs to be sought. Inorganic photocatalysts, such as titanium dioxide,
have very recently been exploited and shown to be a relatively cheap and effective way of removing
organic poison compounds and pollutant gases from both air and aqueous environments (Bilmes et al.,
2000; Chen et al., 1997; Hashimoto et al., 2000; Nakamura et al., 2000; Ohtani et al., 1997; Wu et al., 2000). This
paper concentrates on using TiO2 as a photocatalyst for removing NOx gases from the atmosphere.
Titanium dioxide is a semiconductor photocatalyst with a band gap of energy 3.2 eV. The band structure of
TiO2 is discussed more fully elsewhere (Daude et al., 1977). When subjected to ultraviolet photon radiation of
wavelength less than 380 nm, a valence band electron is promoted to the conduction band, creating an
elec-tron-hole pair that can participate in various oxidation- reduction chemical reactions. Here, it is shown
that the harmful NOx gases are oxidized to nitrates by utilizing UV radiation to activate the TiO2. These nitrates
are easily consumed and recycled by plants. It has been shown that the photocatalyticeffect of TiO2 is dependent
on crystal structure, particle size and surface area and that the effectiveness of the process is governed by the
lifetime, or recombination probability, of the electron-hole pair (Bilmes et al., 2000; Hashimoto et al., 2000;
Nakamura et al., 2000).
Metal Oxide Nanoparticles TiO2, ROS, Neurotoxic, Carcinogen
Nanoparticles Used in Common Household Items Cause DNA Damage- Study.
Posted on September 22, 2011 Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, found in everything from cosmetics to
sunscreen to paint to vitamins, caused systemic genetic damage in mice, according to a comprehensive study
conducted by researchers at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.
The TiO2 nanoparticles induced single- and double-strand DNA breaks and also caused chromosomal damage as
well as inflammation, all of which increase the risk for cancer. The UCLA study is the first to show that the
nanoparticles had such an effect, said Robert Schiestl, a professor of pathology, radiation oncology and
environmental health sciences, a Jonsson Cancer Center scientist and the study’s senior author.
Once in the system, the TiO2 nanoparticles accumulate in different organs because the body has no way to
eliminate them. And because they are so small, they can go everywhere in the body, even through cells, and may
interfere with sub-cellular mechanisms.
The study appeared the week of November 16 2009 in the journal Cancer Research.
In the past, these TiO2 nanoparticles have been considered non-toxic in that they do not incite a chemical
reaction. Instead, it is surface interactions that the nanoparticles have within their environment- in this case inside
a mouse — that is causing the genetic damage, Schiestl said.
They wander throughout the body causing oxidative stress, which can lead to cell death.
It is a novel mechanism of toxicity, a physicochemical reaction, these particles cause in comparison to regular
chemical toxins, which are the usual subjects of toxicological research, Schiestl said.
“The novel principle is that titanium by itself is chemically inert. However, when the particles become progressively
smaller, their surface, in turn, becomes progressively bigger and in the interaction of this surface with the
environment oxidative stress is induced,” he said. “This is the first comprehensive study of titanium dioxide
nanoparticle-induced genotoxicity, possibly caused by a secondary mechanism associated with
inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Given the growing use of these nanoparticles, these findings raise
concern about potential health hazards associated with exposure.”
The manufacture of TiO2 nanoparticles is a huge industry, Schiestl said, with production at about two million tons
per year. In addition to paint, cosmetics, sunscreen and vitamins, the nanoparticles can be found in toothpaste,
food colorants, nutritional supplements and hundreds of other personal care products.
“It could be that a certain portion of spontaneous cancers are due to this exposure,” Schiestl said. “And some
people could be more sensitive to nanoparticles exposure than others. “I believe the toxicity of these nanoparticles
has not been studied enough.”
Schiestl said the nanoparticles cannot go through skin, so he recommends using a lotion sunscreen. Spray-on
sunscreens could potentially be inhaled and the nanoparticles can become lodged in the lungs.
The mice were exposed to the TiO2 nanoparticles in their drinking water and began showing genetic damage on
the fifth day. The human equivalent is about 1.6 years of exposure to the nanoparticles in a manufacturing
environment. However, Schiestl said, it’s not clear if regular, everyday exposure in humans increases exponentially
as continued contact with the nanoparticles occurs over time.
“These data suggest that we should be concerned about a potential risk of cancer or genetic disorders especially
for people occupationally exposed to high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, and that it might be
prudent to limit their ingestion through non-essential drug additives, food colors, etc.,” the study states.
Next, Schiestl and his team will study exposure to the nanoparticles in mice that are deficient in DNA repair, to
perhaps help find a way to predict which people might be particularly sensitive to them.
Posted in biotechnology, Journal papers, nanotech, Photocatalysis | Tagged DNA Damage, Household Items,
nanoparticles, TiO2 | Leave a reply
Climate scientists suggest geoengineering approach with engineered nanoparticles
Posted on September 8, 2010 There may be better ways to engineer the planet’s climate to prevent dangerous
global warming than mimicking volcanoes, a University of Calgary climate scientist says in two new studies.
“Releasing engineered nano-sized disks, or sulphuric acid in a condensable vapour above the Earth, are two novel
approaches. These approaches offer advantages over simply putting sulphur dioxide gas into the atmosphere,”
says David Keith, a director in the Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy and a Schulich
School of Engineering professor.
Keith, a global leader in investigating this topic, says that geoengineering, or engineering the climate on a global
scale, is an imperfect science. “It cannot offset the risks that come from increased carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere. If we don’t halt man-made CO2 emissions, no amount of climate engineering can eliminate the
problems – massive emissions reductions are still necessary.” Nevertheless, Keith believes that research on
geoengineering technologies,their effectiveness and environmental impacts needs to be expanded.
“I think the stakes are simply too high at this point to think that ignorance is a good policy.”
Keith suggests two novel geoengineering approaches–’levitating’ engineered nano-particles, and the airborne
release of sulphuric acid–in two newly published studies. One study was authored by Keith alone, and the other
with scientists in Canada, the U.S. and Switzerland.
Scientists investigating geoengineering have so far looked mainly at injecting sulphur dioxide into the upper
atmosphere. This approach imitates the way volcanoes create sulphuric acid aerosols, or sulphates, that will
reflect solar radiation back into space – thereby cooling the planet’s surface. Keith says that sulphates are blunt
instruments for climate engineering. It’s very difficult to achieve the optimum distribution and size of the aerosols in
the atmosphere to reflect the most solar radiation and get the maximum cooling benefit.
One advantage of using sulphates is that scientists have some understanding of their effects in the atmosphere
because of emissions from volcanoes such as Mt. Pinatubo, he adds. “A downside of both these new ideas is they
would do something that nature has never seen before. It’s easier to think of new ideas than to understand their
effectiveness and environmental risks,” says Keith.
In his study–published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a top-ranked international science
journal–Keith describes a new class of engineered nano-particles that might be used to offset global warming
more efficiently, and with fewer negative side effects, than using sulphates. According to Keith, the distribution of
engineered nano-particles above the Earth could be more controlled and less likely to harm the planet’s protective
ozone layer. Sulphates also have unwanted side-effects, ranging from reducing the electricity output from certain
solar power systems, to speeding up the chemical process that breaks down the ozone layer. Engineered nano-
particles could be designed as thin disks and built with electric or magnetic materials that would enable them to be
levitated or oriented in the atmosphere to reflect the most solar radiation. It may also be possible to control the
position of particles above the Earth. In theory, the particles might be engineered to drift toward Earth’s poles, to
reduce solar radiation in polar regions and counter the melting of ice that speeds up polar warming–known as the
ice-albedo feedback. “Such an ability might be relevant in the event that warming triggers rapid deglaciation,”
Keith’s study says. “Engineered nano-particles would first need to be tested in laboratories, with only short-lived
particles initially deployed in the atmosphere so any effects could be easily reversible,” says Keith. Research
would also be needed to determine whether such nano-particles could be effectively distributed, given the complex
interplay of forces in the atmosphere, and how much cooling might be achieved at the planet’s surface. It is also
unknown whether the amount of particles needed–about 1 trillion kilograms per year or 10 million tonnes over 10
years–could be manufactured and deployed at a reasonable cost. However, Keith notes another study, which
looked at the cost of putting natural sulphates into the stratosphere. “You could manipulate the Earth’s climate at
large scale for a cost that’s of the order of $1 billion a year. It sounds like a lot of money, but compared to the costs
of managing other environmental problems or climate change, that is peanuts.” “This is not an argument to do it,
only an indication that risk, not cost, will be the deciding issue,” he adds. In a separate new study published in the
journal Geophysical Research Letters, Keith and international scientists describe another geoengineering
approach that may also offer advantages over injecting sulphur dioxide gas. Releasing sulphuric acid, or another
condensable vapour, from an aircraft would give better control of particle size. The study says this would reflect
more solar radiation back into space, while using fewer particles overall and reducing unwanted heating in the
lower stratosphere. The study included computer modeling that showed that the sulphuric acid would quickly
condense in a plume, forming smaller particles that would last longer in the stratosphere and be more effective in
reflecting solar radiation than the large sulphates formed from sulphur dioxide gas. Keith stresses that whether
geoengineering technology is ever used, it shouldn’t be seen as a reason not to reduce man-made greenhouse
gas emissions now accumulating in the atmosphere. “Seat belts reduce the risk of being injured in accidents. But
having a seat belt doesn’t mean you should drive drunk at 100 miles an hour,” he says Tagged climate,
geoengineering, nanoparticles When nano may not be nano
Posted on September 14, 2009 The same properties of nanoparticles that make them so appealing to
manufacturers may also have negative effects on the environment and human health.
However, little is known which particles may be harmful. Part of the problem is determining exactly what a
A new analysis by an international team of researchers from the Center for the Environmental Implications of
NanoTechnology (CEINT), based at Duke University, argues for a new look at the way nanoparticles are selected
when studying the potential impacts on human health and the environment. They have found that while many
small particles are considered to be “nano,” these materials often do not meet full definition of having special
properties that make them different from conventional materials.
Under the prevailing definition, a particle is deemed nano if its diameter is between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm)
and if it has properties that significantly differ from its naturally occurring, or bulk, counterpart. The special
properties of nanoparticles come from their high surface-area-to-volume ratio. They also have a considerably
higher percentage of atoms on their surface compared to bulk particles, which can make them more reactive.
These man-made materials can be found in a vast array of consumer products, including paints and sunscreens,
as well as in water treatment plants and drug delivery systems.
For most of this decade, discussions of nanoparticles have tended to focus more on their size than their
properties. However, after reviewing the scientific literature, the Duke-led team believes that the old definition is
not specific enough. A definition that focuses on properties is critical, they say, to help scientists determine which
particular nanoparticles are the most likely to represent a threat to the environment or human health.
Generally speaking, it is the very smallest particles (less than 30 nanometers) that should receive the most
attention in studying the environmental and human health impacts of nanomaterials, according to Mark Wiesner, a
Duke professor of civil and environmental engineering and director of the federally funded CEINT.
“There are an infinite number of potential new man-made nanoparticles, so we need to find a way to narrow our
efforts to those that have the greatest likelihood of having the unique properties with unique effects,” Wiesner said.
“A key question to be answered is whether or not a particular nanoparticle has toxic or hazardous properties that
are truly different from identical particles in their bulk form,” Wiesner continued. “This question has not been
answered. To do so, we need to be speaking the same language when assessing any unique properties of these
The results of Wiesner’s analysis were published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The study was
supported by CEINT, which is jointly funded by the National Science Foundation and Environmental Protection
Specifically, the researchers found that nanoparticles approaching the 100 nm end of the size spectrum tend to
have fewer special properties when compared to their bulk counterparts. Furthermore, they found that
nanoparticles smaller than 30 nm tend to exhibit the unique properties that should command increased scrutiny,
“Many nanoparticles smaller than 30 nanometers undergo drastic changes in their crystalline structure that
enhance how the atoms on their surface interact with the environment,” Wiesner said.
For example, because of the increased surface-area-to-volume ratio, nanoparticles can be highly reactive with
other chemicals in the environment and can also disrupt certain activities within cells.
“While there have been reports of nanoparticle toxicity increasing as the size decreases, it is still uncertain
whether this increase in reactivity is harmful to the environment or human safety,” Wiesner said. “To settle this
issue, toxicological studies should contrast particles that exhibit novel size-dependant properties, particularly
concerning their surface reactivity, and those particles that do not exhibit these properties.”
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress and DNA adduct formation but not DNA breakage
in human lung cells Posted on June 22, 2009 Titanium dioxide (TiO2), also known as titanium (IV) oxide or
anatase, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It is also one of the most commercially used form.
To date, no parameter has been set for the average ambient air concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) by any
regulatory agency. Previously conducted studies had established these nanoparticles to be mainly non-cyto- and -
genotoxic, although they had been found to generate free radicals both acellularly (specially through photocatalytic
activity) and intracellularly.
The present study determines the role ofTiO2-NP (anatase, <100 nm) using several parameters such as cyto-
and genotoxicity, DNA-adduct formation and generation of free radicals following its uptake by human lung cells in
vitro. For comparison, iron containing nanoparticles (hematite, Fe2O3, <100 nm) were used.
The results of this study showed that both types of NP were located in the cytosol near the nucleus. No particles
were found inside the nucleus, in mitochondria or ribosomes.
Human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) were more sensitive regarding cyto- and genotoxic effects caused by the NP than
human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). In contrast to hematite NP, TiO2-NP did not induce DNA-breakage
measured by the Comet-assay in both cell types.
Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured acellularly (without any photocatalytic activity) as
well as intracellularly for both types of particles, however, the iron-containing NP needed special reducing
conditions before pronounced radical generation. A high level of DNA adduct formation (8-OHdG) was observed in
IMR-90 cells exposed to TiO2-NP, but not in cells exposed to hematite NP.
Our study demonstrates different modes of action for TiO2- and Fe2O3-NP. Whereas TiO2-NP were able to
generate elevated amounts of free radicals, which induced indirect genotoxicity mainly by DNA-adduct formation,
Fe2O3-NP were clastogenic (induction of DNA-breakage) and required reducing conditions for radical formation.
Author: Kunal BhattacharyaMaria DavorenJens BoertzRoel SchinsEik HoffmannElke Dopp Credits/Source:
Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2009, 6:17
Mar 26, 2013 – It is well known that nano TiO2 is a photocatalyst, non-selectively kills virus and bacteria by
decomposition. ... with the high effective 4-10 nanometer modified titanium oxide.
Monsanto Shares Surge Dupont Deal NEW YORK (TheStreet) -- Monsanto shares were surging Tuesday after the
world's biggest seed company and chemicals giant DuPont agreed to drop their matching antitrust and soybean
technology patent lawsuits, and choose instead to sign licensing agreements .....»»
Monsanto CEO says deal with DuPont "improves confidence" in outlook See the rest of the story here.
Theflyonthewall.com provides the latest financial news as it breaks. Known as a leader in market intelligence, The
Fly's real-time, streaming news feed keeps individual investors, professional money managers, active trader.....»»
Seeds And TiO2 Tiding DuPont Over For Now
Apr 23 2012, 15:07 | about: DD, includes: DOW, HUN, KRO, MMM, MON, OMG, PPG, SHW, SYT, VAL
Disclosure: I am long MON, MMM.
I was surprised to see relatively little coverage of DuPont's (DD) earnings on Seeking Alpha. This is, after all, one
of the largest American companies, a Dow Jones Industrial component, and a major bellwether in multiple
industries. All told, then, a stock worth following. So, once more into the breach ...
A Decent Start To The Year
Although a lot of DuPont's constituent pieces were weak this quarter, the company has a whole did a little bit better
than expected - due in very large part to success in pushing through price increases.
Revenue rose 12%, with price chipping in about two-thirds of that (+8%), the Danisco acquisition adding seven
points of growth, and volume (down 2%) and foreign exchange (down 1%) weighing down results.
Profitability was pretty good as well. Pre-tax operating profits exceeded expectations by a high single-digit
percentage and grew nearly 17%. What's more, this result could have been even better, but for the company's
ongoing spending on productivity initiatives and investments in new businesses.
Ag Leads The Way
DuPont is probably still thought of primarily for its advanced material products like Kevlar and Tyvek, but the reality
is that agriculture is a huge part of this business - fully one-third of sales and proportionately more of the
Ag revenue this quarter rose 16% on a 20% jump in seed sales. Although Monsanto (MON) has recovered from its
foibles of recent years, DuPont is holding its own and keeping a lot of share - suggesting that it's
companies like Syngenta (SYT) and the smaller players in seeds that are really under pressure. That said,
Monsanto is ahead in the lab, and could be more than three years ahead of DuPont with advanced drought
Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
DuPont aerosol applications, patents easy to disperse, Dry TiO2 pigment. highly reflective - Google
DuPont patents easy to disperse, high durability TiO2 pigment
Description: U.S. 8,105,432 B2 E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company has received a patent for a method for
making titanium dioxide particles surface coated with silica and alumina, comprised of the steps in order: A. (1)
heating a slurry of raw titanium dioxide particles to a temperature of from 85 to 100° C, (2) adding citric acid as a
solution in water to the slurry to form a mixture, (3) adjusting the pH of the mixture to 10 or more, (4) adding
sufficient sodium silicate as a water solution to the mixture to deposit silica on the surface of the particles of from 1
to 6% based on the weight of the titanium dioxide particles in the slurry, (5) neutralizing the slurry by addition of a
mineral acid over the course of one hour, thereby forming a slurry of silica coated titanium dioxide particles; B. (1)
adjusting the temperature of the slurry of silica coated titanium dioxide particles to a temperature of from 55 to 90°
C, (2) adding sufficient sodium aluminate as a water solution to the slurry in step B(1) and adjusting the pH of the
mixture formed to from 5 to 9 by addition of a strong mineral acid to deposit alumina as Al2O3 of from 1 to 4% by
weight based on the weight of titanium dioxide particles present in the slurry of step A(1) on the surface of the
silica coated particles, and digesting the resulting mixture for from 15 to 30 minutes to form the titanium dioxide
particles surface coated sequentially with amorphous silica and amorphous alumina; and C. dispersing the surface
coated titanium dioxide into a resin to form a coating formulation.
Spraying the Skies: 1975 U.S. Patent for Powder Contrail Generation
Posted in this story is a very interesting PDF available for download here for a 1975 U.S. Patent issued to Donald
K. Werle, Romas Kasparas, Sidney Katz, assigned through the U.S. Navy, that describes a dispersion method for
a “powder contrail.” As other researchers have also pointed out, the Powder Contrail Generation patent document
could be a useful clue into the true agenda and purpose of the “chemtrail” phenomenon, which is clearly tied to
almost a century of man-made weather manipulation. Already, it is admitted that the government has experimented
with geo-engineering, which is says would help reflect heat and combat phony global warming / climate change.
It also references 5 other patents that deal with aviation fuel dispersants that go back to the 1920s. It further
references the “chaff” application, as to create a radar jamming reflective screen, and other potential applications,
including the use of numerous other powder formulas. • March 1, 1927 Patent #1619183 by Bradner and Olgesby
for the Process of Producing Smoke Clouds from Moving Aircraft • June 30, 1936 Patent# 2045865 by Glen H.
Morey and assigned by Phillips Petroleum for Skywriting Apparatus • April 8, 1952 Patent# 2591988 by Oswin B.
Willcox and assigned to “Pont DU” (a.k.a. DuPont?) for Process for producing improved tio2 titanium pigments
•See Also: April 8, 1969 Patent# 3437502 by Alfred J. Werner and assigned to “Pont DU” for TITANIUM DIOXIDE
PIGMENT COATED WITH SILICA AND ALUMINA • September 29, 1970 Patent# 3531310 by Neil C.
Goodspeed, Russell R. May Jr. and Joseph Ross assigned to PPG Industries for PRODUCTION OF IMPROVED
METAL OXIDE PIGMENT • February 1924 Patent# R15771 by Savage • March 1966 Patent# 1022621 in United
Kingdom ——– Download PDF S3899144: Powder contrail generation Inventors: Werle; Donald K. , Hillside, IL
Kasparas; Romas , Riverside, IL Katz; Sidney , Chicago, IL Applicants: The United States of America as
represented by the Secretary of the Navy, Washington, DC Appplication #: US1974000490610 Date of Issue: Aug.
12, 1975 / July 22, 1974 Abstract: Light scattering pigment powder particles, surface treated to minimize inparticle
cohesive forces, are dispensed from a jet mill deagglomerator as separate single particles to produce a powder
contrail having maximum visibility or radiation scattering ability for a given weight material.
What claim is: 1. Contrail generation apparatus for producing a powder contrail having maximum radiation
scattering ability for a given weight material, comprising: a. an aerodynamic housing; b. a jet tube means passing
through said housing, said tube means having an inlet at a forward end of said housing and an exhaust at a
rearward end thereof; c. a powder storage means in said housing; d. a deagglomeration means also in said
housing; e. means connecting said powder storage means with said deagglomeration means for feeding radiation
scattering powder from said powder storage means to said deagglomeration means; f. the output of said
deagglomeration means dispensing directly into said jet tube means for exhausting deagglomerated powder
particles into the atmosphere to form a contrail; and h. means for controlling the flow of said powder from said
storage means to said deagglomeration means. 2. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said jet tube means is a ram
air jet tube. 3. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein an upstream deflector baffle is provided at the output of said
deagglomeration means into said jet tube means to produce a venturi effect for minimizing back pressure on said
powder feeding means. 4. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said deagglomerator means comprises: a. means for
subjecting powder particles from said powder storage means to a hammering action to aerate and precondition the
powder; and b. a jet mill means to further deagglomerate the powder into separate particles. 5. Apparatus as in
claim 4 wherein pressurized gas means is provided for operating said deagglomeration means. 6. Apparatus as in
claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder particles are titanium dioxide pigment having a median particle
size of about 0.3 microns. 7. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder particles have a
coating of extremely fine hydrophobic colloidal silica thereon to minimize interparticle cohesive forces. 8.
Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein the formulation of said powder consists of 85% by weight of TiO2 pigment of
approximately 0.3 micron media particle size, 10% by weight of colloidal silica of 0.007 micron primary particle
size, and 5% by weight of silica gel having an average particle size of 4.5 microns. 9. The method of producing a
light radiation scattering contrail, comprising: a. surface treating light scattering powder particles to minimize
interparticle cohesive forces; b. deagglomerating said powder particles in two stages prior to dispensing into a jet
tube by subjecting said powder particles to a hammering action in the first stage to aerate and precondition the
powder, and by passing said powder through a jet mill in the second stage to further deagglomerate the powder; c.
dispensing the deagglomerated powder from the jet mill directly into a jet tube for exhausting said powder into the
atmosphere, thus forming a contrail. 10. A method as in claim 9 wherein said light scattering powder particles is
titanium dioxide pigment. 11. A method as in claim 9 wherein said powder particles are treated with a coating of
extremely fine hydrophobic colloidal silica to minimize interparticle cohesive forces. 12. A method as in claim 11
wherein said treated powder particles are further protected with a silica gel powder. DESCRIPTION OF
PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The powder contail generator in pod 10, shown in FIG. 1, is provided with a powder
feed hopper 12 positioned in the center section of the pod and which feeds a powder 13 to a deagglomerator 14
by means of screw conveyors 16 across the bottom of the hopper. The deagglomerator 14 produces two stages of
action. In the first stage of deagglomeration, a shaft 18 having projecting radial rods 19 in compartment 20 is
rotated by an air motor 21, or other suitable drive means. The shaft 18 is rotated at about 10,000 rpm, for example.
As powder 13 descends through the first stage compartment 20 of the deagglomeration chamber, the hammering
action of rotating rods 19 serves to aerate and precondition the powder before the second stage of
deagglomeration takes place in the jet mill section 22. In the jet mill 22, a plurality of radial jets 24 (e.g., six 0.050
inch diamter radial jets) direct nitrogen gas (at e.g., 120 psig) inward to provide energy for further deagglomeration
of the powder. The N2, or other suitable gas, is provided from storage tanks 25 and 26, for example, in the pod.
The jet mill 22 operates in a similar manner to commercial fluid energy mills except that there is no provision for
recirculation of oversize particles. Tests with the deagglomerator show that at a feed rate of approximately 11/2 lb/
min, treated titanium dioxide powder pigment is effectively dispersed as single particles with very few
The nitrogen gas stored in cylinder tanks 25 and 26 is charged to 1800 psig, for example. Two stages of pressure
reduction, for example, by pressure reduction valves 28 and 29, bring the final delivery pressure at the radial jets
24 and to the air motor 21 to approximately 120 psig. A solenoid valve 30 on the 120 psig line is connected in
parallel with the electric motor 32 which operates the powder feeder screws 16 for simultaneous starting and
running of the powder feed, the air motor and the jet mill deagglomerator. Air enters ram air tube 34 at its entrance
35 and the exhaust from the jet mill deagglomerator passes directly into the ram air tube. At the deagglomerator
exhaust 36 into ram air tube 34, an upstream deflector baffle 38 produces a venturi effect which minimizes back
pressure on the powder feed system. The powder is then jetted from the exhaust end 40 of the ram air tube to
produce a contrail. A pressure equalization tube, not shown, can be used to connect the top of the closed hopper
12 to the deagglomeration chamber 14. A butterfly valve could be provided at the powder hopper outlet 39 to
completely isolate and seal off the powder supply when not in use. Powder 13 could then be stored in hopper 12
for several weeks, without danger of picking up excessive moisture, and still be adequately dispensed.
Preparation of the light scatter powder 13 is of a critical importance to production of a powder “contrail” having
maximum visibility for a given weight of material. It is essential that the pigment powder particles be dispensed as
separate single particles rather than as agglomerates of two or more particles. The powder treatment produces the
most easily dispersed powder through the use of surface treatments which minimize interparticle cohesive forces.
Titanium dioxide pigment was selected as the primary light scattering material because of its highly efficient light
scattering ability and commercially available pigment grades. Titanium dioxide pigment (e.g., DuPont R–931) with
a median particle size of about 0.3u has a high bulk density and is not readily aerosolizable as a submicron cloud
without the consumption of a large amount of deagglomeration energy. In order to reduce the energy requirement
for deagglomeration, the TiO2 powder is specially treated with a hydrophobic colloidal silica which coats and
separates the individual TiO2 pigment particles. The extremely fine particulate nature (0.007u primary particle size)
of Cobot S–101 Silanox grade, for example, of colloidal silica minimizes the amount needed to coat and separate
the TiO2 particles, and the hydrophobic surface minimizes the affinity of the powder for absorbtion of moisture
from the atmosphere. Adsorbed moisture in powders causes liquid bridges at interparticle contacts and it then
becomes necessary to overcome the adsorbed- liquid surface tension forces as well as the weaker Van der Waals’
forces before the particles can be separated.
The Silanox treated titanium dioxide pigment is further protected from the deleterious effects of adsorbed moisture
by incorporation of silica gel. The silica gel preferentially adsorbs water vapor that the powder may be exposed to
after drying and before use. The silica gel used is a powder product, such as Syloid 65 from the W. R Grace and
Co., Davison Chemical Division, and has an average particle size about 4.5u and a large capacity for moisture at
A typical powder composition used is shown in Table 1. This formulation was blended intimately with a Patterson-
Kelley Co. twin shell dry LB-model LB–2161 with intensifier. Batches of 1500 g were blended for 15 min. each and
packaged in 5-lb cans. The bulk density of the blended powder is 0.22 g/cc. Since deagglomeration is facilitated
by having the powder bone dry, the powder should be predried before sealing the cans. In view of long periods
(e.g., about 4 months) between powder preparation and use it is found preferable to spread the powder in a thin
layer in an open container and place in a 400*F over two days before planned usage. The powder is removed and
placed in the hopper about 2 hours before use.
Table 1 CONTRAIL POWDER FORMULATION Ingredient % by Weight TiO2 (e.g., DuPont R-931) 85 median
particle size 0.3u Colloidal Silica (e.g., Cabot S-101 Silanox) 10 primary particle size 0.007u Silica gel (e.g., Syloid
65) 5 average particle size 4.5uOther type powder compositions can also be used with the apparatus described
herein. For example, various powder particles which reflect electromagnetic radiation can be dispensed as a chaff
or the like from the contrail generator. Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are
possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended
claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described. BACKGROUND The present
invention relates to method and apparatus for contrail generation and the like. An earlier known method in use for
contrail generation involves oil smoke trails produced by injecting liquid oil directly into the hot jet exhaust of an
aircraft target vehicle. The oil vaporizes and recondenses being the aircraft producing a brilliant white trail. Oil
smoke trail production requires a minimum of equipment; and, the material is low in cost and readily available.
However, oil smoke requires a heat source to vaporize the liquid oil and not all aircraft target vehicles, notably
towed targets, have such a heat source. Also, at altitudes above about 25,000 feet oil smoke visibility degrades
rapidly. SUMMARY The present invention is for a powder generator requiring no heat source to emit a “contrail”
with sufficient visibility to aid in visual acquisition of an aircraft target vehicle and the like. The term “contrail” was
adopted for convenience in identifying the visible powder trail of this invention. Aircraft target vehicles are used to
simulate aerial threats for missile tests and often fly at altitudes between 5,000 and 20,000 feet at speeds of 300
and 400 knots or more. The present invention is also suitable for use in other aircraft vehicles to generate contrails
or reflective screens for any desired purpose.
The powder contail generator is normally carried on an aircraft in a pod containing a ram air tube and powder feed
hopper. Powder particles, surface treated to minimize interparticle cohesive forces are fed from the hopper to a
deagglomerator and then to the ram air tube for dispensing as separate single particles to produce a contrail
having maximum visibility for a given weight material.
Other object, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed
description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawing. Fresh food that
lasts from eFoodsDirect (AD)
CChemtrails: The List of Patents For Stratospheric Aerial Spraying Programs
Here is a long list of other patents related to atmospheric or weather manipulation posted by Neil Foster of the
Sovereign Independent: United States Patent and Trademark Office 1338343 – April 27, 1920 – Process And
Apparatus For The Production of Intense Artificial Clouds, Fogs, or Mists
1619183 1631753 1665267 1892132 1928963 1957075 2097581 2409201 2476171 2480967 2550324 2510867
2582678 2591988 2614083 2633455 2688069 2721495 Particles 2730402 2801322 3990987 2881335 2908442
– March 1, 1927 – Process of Producing Smoke Clouds From Moving Aircraft – June 7, 1927 – Electric Heater –
Referenced in 3990987 – April 10, 1928 – Process of Producing Artificial Fogs – December 27, 1932 – Atomizing
Attachment For Airplane Engine Exhausts – October 3, 1933 – Electrical System And Method
– May 1, 1934 – Airplane Spray Equipment – November 2, 1937 – Electric Stream Generator – Referenced in
3990987 – October 15, 1946 – Smoke Producing Mixture – July 18, 1945 – Smoke Screen Generator –
September 6, 1949 – Aerial Discharge Device – April 24, 1951 – Process For Controlling Weather – October 9,
1951 – Method of Crystal Formation and Precipitation – June 15, 1952 – Material Disseminating Apparatus For
Airplanes – April 8, 1952 – Production of TiO2 Pigments – Referenced in 3899144 – October 14, 1952 – Metal
Chloride Screening Smoke Mixture – March 31, 1953 – Smoke Generator – August 31, 1954 – Steam Generator –
Referenced in 3990987 – October 25, 1955 – Method And Apparatus For Detecting Minute Crystal Forming
Suspended in a Gaseous Atmosphere – January 10, 1956 – Controllable Dispersal Device – July 30, 1957 –
Decomposition Chamber for Monopropellant Fuel – Referenced in
– April 7, 1959 – Generation of Electrical Fields – October 13, 1959 – Method For Dispersing Natural Atmospheric
Fogs And Clouds – May 30, 1962 – Aerial Insecticide Dusting Device – December 13, 1960 – Cloud Seeding
Carbon Dioxide Bullet
THE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF GEOENGINEERING THE PLANET…MINI ICE AGE, DROUGHT A
CREATED GLOBAL WARMING LIE AND CORPORATE CONTROLLED FOOD, WATER AND ALL LIFE
MONSANTO AND OTHER BIOTEC CONGLOMERATES HAVE PATENTED DROUGHT AND CLIMATE
RESISTANT GENETICALLY MODIFIED SEEDS (CASH COWS)
THE TRILLION OF DOLLARS THAT WILL BE MADE OFF OF CARBON TAXES AS A RESULT OF THE
“GLOGAL WARMING LIE”
CARBON DIOXIDE IS NOT A CLIMATE FORCER…ALL PLANTLIFE DEPENDS ON IT…WITHOUT IT WE GET
FOLLOW THE WEATHER DERIVATIVE INVESTORS AND THEIR CLIMATE CONTROLLED CASH FLOW!
AND OF COURSE GLOBAL WEATHER CONTROL AND MANIPULATION AS A METHOD OR WEAPON FOR
POPULATION CULLING AND CONTROL (HOW IS THE GLOBAL WEATHER LATELY)!